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Graduate school admission essay psychology

Phd psychology admission essay

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Graduate school admission essay psychology

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This Land is Your Land: Dogville . Reason and Redemption, Rage and Retribution. I have been trying to think about the film Dogville , but like most people I have been inundated with news reports about the American military’s abuse of admission essay, Iraqi citizens during its occupation of Iraq, and the outrage generated by photographs showing the psychological and wade be overturned essay sexual torture of those prisoners of war, most of whom have not been officially charged with any crime. Dogville , directed by essay, Lars von Trier (born Lars Trier), is a film set in the United States of America by a Danish man who has yet to visit the country, but who has been so thoroughly saturated with the television programs, films, music, business, and politics of the country that he feels compelled to in paradise, address it as a subject in admission, his work. Compare Essay Prom Night? Many American citizens are beginning to consider how their government’s practices relate to phd psychology admission, the ethics it claims to embody, a question—the relation of ethics to practices—that Dogville explores regarding the town in the film. With a smile on introduction writing research my face, utterly satisfied, I left the phd psychology, screening of Lars von Trier’s film Dogville , starring Nicole Kidman and Paul Bettany, about compare contrast essay halloween, a fleeing young woman’s stumbling upon a small town and the help and admission hurt she finds there and the judgment she enacts upon decisions the town. Admission Essay? I’d like to think that the essay, pleasure I felt at the film’s unfolding, a pleasure made up of amusement, surprise, and a sense of rightness, was rooted in an engagement with the film’s social observations, a perception of the essay, importance of the moral issues involved, and simplified essay format an awareness of the political implications: How do we treat strangers? How do we treat those in need? Dogville is set amid a spare stage setting with chalk lines on the floor marking the town’s locations, and there are only rudimentary furnishings. The film is focused on an evocation of the independence, privacy, small-mindedness and suspicion of a town’s residents, and how they are first charmed and liberated by phd psychology admission essay, the thoughtful, and pretty, but needy young woman who makes herself useful through babysitting, gardening, tending a handicapped girl, and spending time with a reclusive blind man. Simplified? The town’s citizens reveal themselves as capable of acceptance, joy, and phd psychology respect for others, but when they learn more about Grace’s relationship to the outside world, they become much more demanding of her, to the point of brutality, degradation, and imprisonment.

The young woman’s choices when new options are brought to her are to be free, forgive, and simply go away, or to exact retribution. Of course, seeing the compare contrast essay night, film, I may have felt simply the admission essay, pleasure of gratified anger, the pleasure of the wounded and writing the resentful, at seeing an accusation clearly made and harsh justice delivered against society. Was my pleasure the pleasure of a civilized man, or the pleasure of a barbarian; or, inevitably, both? Culture may be what we make of our daily habits and basic social relationships, the ways in which we wake, wash, eat, work, play, and sleep; but civilization, which requires knowledge and organization, is more than the handling of necessities and phd psychology simple doings—civilization is the result of choices that are willed into simplified essay format, being. We may or may not need to phd psychology essay, be intelligent and sensitive to compare contrast halloween night, survive, and admission essay we may require the intelligence and sensitivity of others in writing research paper, order to prosper, but we do not need intelligence and sensitivity in the form of phd psychology, a film, a book, a painting, or a sonata—we desire it, we will it. A cup of essay, water might be required for drinking water—that is phd psychology admission, a necessity, and simplified its use a basic part of phd psychology admission essay, human culture; but when that cup is made for comfortable use and embellished with design, made with a concern for beauty, that is the realm of civilization, and format the more intricate the design the phd psychology essay, more complicated the civilization. (The creator’s willed or inspired intricacy assumes there is someone—or others—who can appreciate it.) Culture concerns what we do ; but civilization, the realm of the aesthetic and the intellectual, is like morality, the realm of the good and the just, in that it is concerned with how and why.

Many people live without asking many questions about how and why they do what they do—and Tom Edison, Jr., the compare, writer in Dogville , played by Paul Bettany, tries to essay, raise such questions. The questioner and the social critic, or the moral agent, are all traditional roles for the individual, for the intellectual, and for the writer, as they help others to see themselves better and writing paper make more conscious choices. Such a role is one some of us are inclined to essay, see as heroic—when I was younger, my calling someone intelligent was analogous to calling him holy, and I recall now someone telling me that intelligence is simply a faculty, a tool—it can be used to decisions in paradise, see, demonstrate, or blind, to build or break; and so it is in essay, Dogville , the 1930s American town Lars von Trier shows us, in this film, which might be read as allegory or satire. Dogville is a color film about three hours long with a prologue and nine chapters, narrated by the actor John Hurt in voice that is by turns delighted, informative, mocking, mournful, and wary. The film begins with the compare contrast halloween night, writer Tom and his concerns for the town’s moral rearmament. Tom regularly gives moral lectures to the town, a form of civic criticism. (There is also no current minister or priest, and Tom acts as a self-appointed moral conscience.) We hear a man’s anger at his son for phd psychology, giving their dog a bone with some meat on it. The man, Chuck, played by Stellan Skarsgard, says that the family rarely has meat, and why should the dog? He says that the rights, dog is supposed to be hungry. (Possibly hunger serves to make the dog more alert; or possibly the man is simply embittered.) We are introduced to Tom’s friend Bill, who we are told is admission essay, dumb and knows it. (Apparently, Bill wanted to on human, be an engineer but didn’t have the intellectual confidence for it; later, he’ll engineer a weighted chain for Grace’s entrapment.) Tom regularly defeats Bill at chess. Admission? Liz, played by Chloe Sevigny, is Bill’s sister, and simplified essay format she is a magnet for a lot of the male attention in town, including Tom’s. Essay? Tom thinks that the town’s people have trouble with acceptance, with accepting gifts. Gunfire and Grace . One night, Tom hears gun shots while out walking (out walking, thinking, dreaming).

Tom wants to illustrate ideas, in his life and eventually in his writing work, ideas that can move the soul, and that can inspire change. The idea that the way we see and what we know might be useful to others is writing research, hopeful, sometimes a mark of youth, sometimes of phd psychology admission, old age; (it may also be egotistic, deluded) and compare halloween night often the thinker confuses his own previous ignorance with that of the admission, world. The assumption is that if people know better they will act better—but, often, knowledge does not inform action, at least not thoughtful, generous, right action; and, more broadly, we know so many different kinds of things that anything might be our motivation or goal. The dog barks at Grace, who takes its bone with some meat on it, a theft that is a sign of desperate hunger, and it indicates she has been on essay the run for a while. Tom meets Grace (“a beautiful fugitive,” says the narrator) and hears her story, that she is being chased by phd psychology, men with guns and needs a place to stay but has no money. (A man in a car following Grace gives Tom, who denies having seen Grace, his business card.) Grace says that she stole the bone, and had never stolen anything before; and that she was raised to be arrogant but had to teach herself values. (The values we teach ourselves, that we will into being in our lives, can be profound, and inspiring, but they can also crumble if they aren’t given a complex and essays on human solid foundation in the world.) Tom says that the people of the town, good people, honest people, who have been in need themselves, might help her, and that her problem is also a moral opportunity for the town.

He wants to use Grace as an illustration, a dangerous proposition, arguably an arrogant one—to use a human life as an experiment to prove a point. Grace, then, is a kind of gift to him and the town. When Tom calls a town meeting and presents the idea of helping Grace, someone says, We mind our own business, and, We don’t ask nothing of nobody. (This is phd psychology essay, precisely the contrast essay night, attitude that Tom has been criticizing, a way of being self-sufficient that is also proud, isolated, and admission possibly ungiving.) Standing up to speak on behalf of Tom and Grace is a black woman, apparently the essays rights, town’s only black citizen and a beneficiary of the hypochondriac and retired doctor Tom Edison Sr.’s liberalism; somehow, the essay, black woman seems to speak out of humility, dignity, community, and common sense. The town members may not see themselves as a communal force—registration fees have discouraged them from voting, a prohibition that outweighs any concern with the exercise of democracy, making this meeting, and wade be overturned essay Tom’s other meetings, a genuine and admission essay rare forum. The people of the wade be overturned, town are watchful and do not trust Grace; and essay when Tom and Grace talk, he is critical of the town and she says that she thinks it beautiful. What she finds beautiful may simply be its difference from the compare contrast essay halloween prom night, city she has known; sometimes we see something or someone as appealing not for what they are but for what they are not—and when we learn what they are, we are shocked, and if lucky only shocked and phd psychology not injured. (Seeing Tom and Grace strolling, I thought that I enjoy walking in writing research, New York’s Chelsea, Soho, and Forest Hills in one way, and the East Village and Harlem in another, and that whether a view is enjoyed depends not only on what there is to see but on admission essay who sees. Tom may not see how much he himself is part of the town; it is simplified format, often easier for us to see how others are part of a particular time and place than it is for us to see ourselves placed. Phd Psychology? He may not realize that what he likes in _Dogville_’s citizens he likes because it’s all he’s known, and format that what he dislikes he dislikes because he hasn’t begun yet to fulfill himself.) Tom does realize that the town’s citizens’ own watchfulness regarding Grace indicates that they are trying to find evidence for judgment. Grace and Work . Grace volunteers to do work each day, to essay, be helpful and allow people a chance to essay halloween, get to know her—one hour per household per day.

They do not admit they need help, at essay, first, and Grace seems a superfluous woman. The town’s people are reserved but friendly, and curious. Grace meets Chuck, an apple farmer, and his wife Vera, who have seven kids to whom they’ve given old world names such as Achilles, and Grace helps with their kids. Should Wade? Chuck asks Grace if the town has her fooled yet; and phd psychology admission he says it’s rotten from the inside out, something he’ll later demonstrate in his own response to Grace. Should Roe V Essay? Grace intuits that he used to live in the city but was drawn to—and disappointed by—small town life. I know something about small town life, having grown up with it—I know how quickly time passes there, as it does elsewhere, how time is more taken with trivialities than profundities, how arguments can arise over petty things but rarely serious matters as thoughts rarely move beyond the paths of received opinion, and that everyone seems to know the facts of other people’s lives but that people are very private, and their deeper selves are hardly ever known to others, sometimes not even themselves.

Whereas Trier’s Dogville is in the Rocky Mountains, I grew up in a small southern Louisiana town, with little money (it took me a while to admission essay, learn how important having or not having money is, though the essays rights, lessons were not infrequent, then or now). Every place has its particulars—and there it was cane fields and sugar mills, pepper and corn fields, bayous and fried catfish, gumbo, crawfish in sauce, barbecue, making ice cream with a hand-turned freezer, zydeco music, Creole French language, guns in admission, most houses, chickens and dogs strolling the yard, sedate black Catholic services, faith healers and witchcraft, etc. Essay? I was observant, but an undistinguished student; and I liked reading and phd psychology walking, and also fishing, hunting, cooking, and photography. Essays On Human? I thought of sex not as a potential pleasure, nor a natural urge, but as a subversive power. I remember family drives and children’s games. I remember the decent instructional intentions of admission essay, parents and teachers.

I recall disagreements between and with my parents, and angry fights with my sister and introduction paper cousins with whom I played an epic amount of fun games, but I was always mystified by admission, cruelty, by people who were nasty, especially to strangers, without cause or reason, a cruelty I saw sometimes in town and at essay halloween prom, school. I was hurt by people who wanted me to be something other than myself, by family and phd psychology essay strangers. Analyzing? ( Who do you think you are? What gives you the right to phd psychology admission, say anything? were questions I heard from pink and introduction paper brown children, especially from the brown, in the integrated school I attended. I wonder now how there can be freedom in America—not just rhetoric, but the thinking and action that is freedom—if genuine individuality is not accepted even by children.) It was odd to hear the phd psychology essay, children of analyzing essay, working farmers indicate that their families were supporting the national conservative party as they feared the phd psychology admission, more liberal party would help African-Americans; and that they were angry with African-Americans for supporting a party they thought would recognize African-American issues. Agnostic, with developing radical sympathies, I wanted something from format life that I did not see but imagined. When I left, it was with anger and relief—and I arrived in New York, a city of excitement and sorrow, a city I love for the arts, anonymity, and the enlarged possibility of individual pursuits, though some neighborhoods are like small towns, with people whose minds easily match such confinement. I imagine that one can find everywhere the phd psychology admission essay, possibility of community and the absence of understanding and compassion, as Nicole Kidman’s Grace does in Dogville . Grace and Provocation . Grace becomes so comfortable with Mr.

McKay (Ben Gazzara), a man who reminisces about the lovely sights he’s seen but won’t admit he’s become blind; and simplified essay possibly confident that she can have a progressive effect, she compels him to talk about the sights that are to admission, be seen now. McKay seems discomforted, but admits he cannot see—and she thinks she’s gone too far; and later when he attends Tom’s meeting at which Grace’s status is to compare halloween prom night, be decided, with McKay thereby rejoining the town, Grace thinks McKay will speak against her. She thinks that the town will decide not to admission essay, allow her to stay longer; and as she has found that people have placed food in her bag and other things, indicating she has made friends, it seems that they too expect her to go. Analyzing Media? Friends are bound by phd psychology admission, choice, not by blood or contract but by the attraction of individual personalities (because it was he, because it was I, as Montaigne said); and this makes friendship a relationship in which independence exists with attachment, possibly one of the few ideal human relationships—a respectable pleasure, a comfortable honor; but we can expect too much of it, or too little, and it is an often unspoken oath that can be revoked, a relationship that can be forgotten as if it never existed—and after its end, one feels the tremors of a soundless echo. Grace, pleased by the signs of friendship but doubtful and respectful, tells the assembled, the doctor, Chuck and Vera, and the others, that she will let them decide in private—and will know by essays rights, the ringing of the town bell how many people vote for phd psychology essay, her to research, stay.

She is phd psychology admission essay, surprised by the bell’s ringing that they decide she can stay. Grace and essays Happy Times . In the late spring, early summer, Grace moves into her own place, an abandoned mill that Tom and others have fixed up. Essay? A policeman arrives and puts up in visual media essay, town a missing person poster featuring Grace and essay it says that anyone with information should contact the police. Grace, the town, and July 4th . The town has a celebration in which Grace’s good influence is generally acknowledged. Grace, whose arrival in simplified, town was accidental, and whose goodwill and generosity have proved a benefit to admission essay, all, seems to have made possible a kind of transcendence—in which people perceive and respond in a more giving way than they’re used to, happily, insightfully—but transcendence involves spirit more than matter, and transcendence is not change: things are as they were, but seem different.

Grace is still dependent on the kindness of essay halloween prom, others; and often people who need people prove to be the unluckiest people of all. Tom admits he loves Grace, and Grace says that she is falling in admission, love with him too. A policeman arrives with a “wanted’ poster that claims that Grace has been connected with a bank robbery, and though the robbery is said to have occurred during the time Grace has been in the town, and the town’s people acknowledge this, the claim affects Grace’s social status. By not telling the police what they know, Grace’s whereabouts, the citizens are committing a crime. Be Overturned? Grace’s presence has become, then, more costly, and they want the phd psychology essay, cost made up. With Tom’s agreement, they decide that she should work more hours for less pay. Nietzsche wrote in Human, All Too Human that “Between good and evil actions there is no difference in compare contrast essay halloween, type; at most, a difference in degree. Good actions are sublimated evil actions; evil actions are good actions become coarse and stupid” (75). The work that Grace had been allowed to do for the town’s citizens had been, mostly, pleasant; but her work now becomes frenzied, comically painful, and as Grace is exhausted, she is phd psychology essay, more prone to mistakes, mistakes that are now harshly judged.

Grace drops and breaks something in one home. One day she cuts through a garden path, a path that everyone uses, and she is reprimanded, and made to feel as if she has less right to do what others do—I thought you liked it here, says storekeeper Ma Ginger (played by Lauren Bacall), implying that Grace should be more grateful and more perfect. Gratitude, here, as in daily life, corroborates the authority and the personal sense of the goodness of the benefactor; and (their own) authority and goodness may be what these people doubt and consequently insist on. Analyzing Essay? The town seems to phd psychology, be contriving false tests in the face of Grace’s vulnerability, expecting an inhuman perfection while putting more pressure and analyzing essay stress on her. (It is actually easy to see in this how workers are mistreated in more ordinary circumstances; and at the same time one thinks of impossible situations—Africans serving as slaves in admission essay, America, and decisions essays Jews serving Nazis in concentration camps.) Worse, men—Chuck, the married father, and the blind McKay—begin to make sexual advances toward her; and even Tom admits to yearning for Grace—he, like the other men, sees Grace sexually; and the lack of reticence is a sign of familiarity, of disrespect. Grace and Dogville’s teeth . Chuck, though married, has been attracted to Grace as she has helped him in phd psychology admission essay, the apple orchard and appreciates nature, and she is essays on human rights, a balm against essay his life’s frustrations. Simplified Essay Format? Grace has said that she is not erotically interested in him. Chuck rapes Grace. Grace tries to leave . By summer’s end, Grace has been repeatedly subjected to Chuck’s sexual demands. One of these encounters is observed by the church organist, who had been too timid to practice the organ before Grace arrived and encouraged her.

Rather than discuss what she’s seen with Grace, the organist goes to Chuck’s wife Vera; and an angry Vera and the organist with Liz visit Grace. Grace mentions how she has cared for Vera’s children, and even taught them stoicism, as Vera wanted. (Having tutored during college and at phd psychology admission essay, several points after, I know it’s hard to actually teach anyone anything, if learning means not merely hearing or repeating facts and ideas but integrating them in thinking or living: usually, the best you can do is cultivate an attitude and essay format environment for phd psychology admission essay, learning, and help an individual to identify how and when he learns—so Grace’s imparting to young children an understanding of stoicism—the acceptance of reality as is, including an contrast halloween, impassive regard for pain and pleasure—is impressive.) Vera begins to break the figurines Grace had purchased from Ma Ginger’s store, figurines Grace saw as symbolic of her time in Dogville . If Grace had seen these in the city, she would have rejected them as kitsch, but in Dogville she saw beauty in them, an example of context changing perception. Vera tells Grace that if Grace does not cry—if she is phd psychology admission, stoic—then Vera will stop breaking them, but Grace’s sense of symbolism overwhelms her and she cries and the figures are all broken. It is interesting that Grace suffers a great deal in relation to Chuck and Vera, the man who knows both city and country life and his wife who loves ancient literature and philosophy, and their liberally brought-up children (Vera doesn’t want her children physically disciplined). Other than Tom and his father, Chuck and Vera might be seen as the most civilized or cosmopolitan people in town. One can think of them, and imagine the on human, whole of western philosophy—from the mid-east born Pythagoras, the founder of the phd psychology admission, systematic study of geometry and a believer in the transmigration of souls (consequently a vegetarian, as he thought a human soul could be reborn in an animal), and contrast essay halloween Thales who took the scale of pyramids by essay, measuring their shadows and should roe v be overturned also believed that people were made mostly of water, the essay, first map-maker of the world Anaximander, Socrates, Plato, the Macedonian Aristotle, St. Augustine, Aquinas, Ockham, Machiavelli, Francis Bacon, Descartes (I think, therefore I am), Thomas Hobbes (life is nasty, brutish, and short), John Locke (whose thinking elevated both individual liberty and property ownership), Pascal, Spinoza, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Marx, Bentham, John Stuart Mill, Schopenhauer, and Kierkegaard to writing paper, Nietzsche, Charles Darwin, Freud, Bertrand Russell, and Wittgenstein. However, whatever knowledge Chuck and Vera possess has had a limited effect in producing civility.

In fact, when one of the essay, children insists that Grace spank him, it is possible to see that all that concern with education may have produced repression and the desire for perversion or violence. The ordeals undergone by essays on human rights, the women in Lars von Trier’s films, Grace in Dogville , and Emily Watson’s character in Breaking the Waves (1996) and Bjork’s in Dancer in phd psychology admission, the Dark (2000), have inclined some people to call Trier misogynist. That seems to confuse the on human, women’s treatment in phd psychology essay, the world they inhabit with Trier’s regard for them. In fact, suffering women are a classic subject in both film and literature, especially in internationally circulated Hollywood films — and women have often borne the burden for work, sex, and spiritual transcendence in analyzing media essay, daily life. It seems a sign of respect to phd psychology, depict that burden in film — respect and essay revolutionary possibility.

In addition, films use exceptional women and men — exceptional in beauty, talent, and phd psychology essay status — for reasons similar to essays on human rights, those of dramatists for centuries: gods, royalty, and heroes are ideal versions of humanity, and phd psychology admission essay if the best of us are wrong or wronged this reflects the state of the rest of us. Grace, with Tom’s help, arranges to pay the driver Ben so that Grace can stowaway in simplified essay format, the back of the apple truck and ride out of town. Tom has stolen money from his father with which to pay Ben — and Ben agrees to the plan, but though paid, Ben tells Grace that there is a surcharge — and the surcharge is sex, rape. Essay? (Ben had previously frequented a prostitute — and Grace had told him he shouldn’t be ashamed of wade essay, his sexual needs, which, of course, is not the same as saying she wants to fulfill them.) Ben compounds his cruelty by driving her out of town then bringing her back into phd psychology admission, town. Ben admits that her possible escape using his truck had been discussed at the previous night’s town meeting, meaning he had no real intention of helping her. Tom has blamed the theft of his father’s money on Grace; and later tells her that was to throw suspicion away from in paradise him so he could continue to help her. (If helping Grace must be a secret, this is an admission the town does not mean her well — just as when political parties say they do not want to seem to serve the interest of minorities as the majority may turn against the political parties: this reveals the prejudices, or at best the basic indifference, of the majority and of the parties to phd psychology admission, those most vulnerable.) The engineer Bill, whom Grace helped to should roe v be overturned essay, play chess and encouraged, contrives for Grace a neck collar with a chain connected to a large wheel as an phd psychology admission, anchor to prevent Grace from leaving. Grace is brutalized further . Essays? Grace is phd psychology admission, raped by several of the town’s men. Everything I tried to do went wrong, admits Tom.

There is a town meeting to decide Grace’s fate, amid an autumn snow. Grace is seen as the bringer of trouble. (Is it temptation that Grace has embodied for them?) If forgiveness was possible, they were hiding it well, the film’s narrator says. Grace describes her experience in town, but they do not hear her. Analyzing Visual Media Essay? The town lacks self-criticism. Essay? Tom later tries to make love to Grace, while she is chained; he says that everyone has had her body but him. (Bettany’s Tom climbs atop Kidman’s Grace, with both of them clothed, and he gyrates—and male sexuality has rarely seemed so obviously selfish and repellent.) Grace says that if Tom wants her like that, he can have her—but she thought they shared higher ideals, that they might be free and in love together in the future; and decisions in paradise she wonders if maybe he wants her to admission, give in to sex as he has thought of should roe v be overturned essay, taking her by phd psychology essay, force, like the media essay, others. Tom is phd psychology admission, angry at Grace for seeing his limitations, a case of the critic —_Judge not, that ye be not judged_ — refusing to be criticized (been there, done that). Tom resents the doubt Grace has raised in essays rights, him about himself.

Tom retrieves the phd psychology, card of the man who had followed Grace into town on her first night there, a card he told Grace he burned; and Tom, with the town’s approval, calls that man. Everyone then is friendly to Grace, hypocritically so, knowing that they plan to get rid of her, but not telling her. They have made a decision about her fate, without including her in essay format, the deliberations. For all they know the phd psychology essay, men who were in search of her meant to kill her. Tom, who had heard gun shots with Grace’s arrival, could guess that. The townspeople allow Grace to rest for several days, in essays, their anticipation of the coming visitors. Grace and the visitors . Phd Psychology Admission? The visitor, the man who had been chasing Grace upon her entrance to Dogville , arrives; and he is her father, a gangster (James Caan). Introduction Research Paper? He arrives with men with guns. Grace and her father talk, while the town anticipates what will happen.

The town realizes that the visitor and his men are not pleased that she has been chained, and they are afraid. Forgive us our trespasses, and those who have trespassed against essay us . Grace and her father talk about human nature and animal nature; dogs can be trained, he says, before telling her that she forgives others with excuses that she would never allow herself. The culture of the town, in which Grace first seemed unneeded, like many workers who move to new locations and find themselves unemployed, a culture that ultimately made ill use of Grace, her good manners, and hard work, is one that betrays the expectations of civilization. While there can be no civilization without culture, there can be culture without civilization; and, with a shift in should be overturned essay, moonlight — yes, under a new light — Grace sees the town critically, and says, If there’s any town this world would be better without, this is it. She has issued judgment; she orders the people shot and the town burned, giving instruction that Vera’s kids are shot before her eyes — and that Vera be told that if she can resist crying, be stoic, the killing of the phd psychology admission essay, children will stop. Tom admits to Grace that her illustration (the killing and burning, retribution) is much better than his (the town’s acceptance of compare essay prom, a stranger), and phd psychology admission Grace shoots Tom in the head, and roe v tells her father, There are some things you have to do for yourself. Grace had been running from the power and violence of her father’s life, but Dogville proved no escape from the use of power and imposition of violence. Phd Psychology? She has given up the ideal world in her head, and joined the human estate; and reconciled with her father she sits at his right hand. Her father says, Let’s get out of here—I think you’ve learned too much already. I laughed. (Paul Bettany had been quoted by Dennis Lim in the March 17-23, 2004 Village Voice as saying, “Stellan Skarsgard, who’s merciless with Lars, would tell him, ‘You think all your films are comedies, and nobody ever fucking laughs.’ ”)

Commenting about the massacre, film critic Andrew Sarris, who described Dogville as different and even original, wrote in the April 12, 2004 New York Observer , “Mr. Trier has seen enough genre movies to know how satisfying this kind of nihilistically poetic justice can be to an audience…I loved it.” Dogville ends with the chalk mark drawing of essay, a dog becoming real and barking. (Jan Stuart in a late March 2004 issue of Newsday wrote that the film is “one of those visionary achievements that stirs moviegoers into a fury and goes on to define a decade.”) A film reviewer, Jeffrey Overstreet, for phd psychology essay,, which obviously has an introduction writing research paper, overt interest in phd psychology, the treatment of analyzing, moral issues, on March 26, 2004 wrote, “Like Jesus’ parable of the phd psychology admission essay, Good Samaritan, Dogville tells a simplistic fable of man who takes care of a stranger while others abuse and take advantage of on human rights, her. Alongside its Biblical references, there are echoes of Greek tragedy, Mark Twain, Nathaniel Hawthorne, and Flannery O’Connor.

With its 1930s Colorado mountain town setting and the pleasant voice of its narrator (John Hurt in a brilliant unseen performance), the film’s most obvious allusions are to Thornton Wilder’s celebrated play Our Town .” Who is the Good Samaritan in Dogville ? Tom, who shows himself untrustworthy? Such a comparison seems a misreading. Other reviewers drew connections to Our Town as well, which seems obvious, as does citing Sherwood Anderson’s Winesburg, Ohio , which occurred to me; but I thought that a closer scriptural reference might have been a story I only vaguely recall in admission essay, which men surround a house, that of Lot, and call for the male guests, actually angels, to on human, come out—they seem to want to humiliate them, a humiliation which might include rape and phd psychology admission essay end in murder. Essays? An atheist, I haven’t read in more than twenty years the collection of short magical realist stories millions of people treat as a sacred text (though I remain fond of the story about the dreamer-prophet Daniel’s being unharmed in the lion’s den), and phd psychology there may be other scriptural references I am missing in Dogville . Trier himself has been reported as citing as inspirations Kurt Weill and Bertolt Brecht’s Mahoganny, and also a televised British theater play of Dickens’ Nicholas Nickleby that was given a minimalist treatment. Introduction Writing? The Rise and Fall of the City of Mahoganny , an opera set in the American west, is an allegorical satire featuring a city founded by fugitives and devoted to greed and hedonism. What may make Trier’s Dogville more provocative is admission, that, as in the social world we know, the people in should wade be overturned essay, the film do evil but do not call it that. At the essay, film drama’s end, the clean white film credits roll in in paradise essays, front of photographs of admission essay, Americans—the poor, the marginal, and the ugly—to the decisions, sound of David Bowie’s uptempo “Young Americans” (which contains the line “Do you remember the bills you have to pay or even yesterday?”), a terrific end, a controversial reminder of facts that many Americans do not want seen as representative of who they are, facts so often ignored they may be forgotten.

Some critics have objected to the credit roll as anti-American. Others have thought the credit roll brilliant. I think that the photographs say that this film—abstract in phd psychology admission, setting and in some of its themes—has a foundation in the world, that it is a symbolic story with a spiritual dimension, philosophical in decisions in paradise, many ways, but that its urgencies belong to a world of blood, conflict, hope, need, and power, and that the laughter the film inspires in the moments when it exposes self-delusion, lust, and self-serving brutality is, inevitably, a pleasure tinged with the recognition of a bitter truth. Admission Essay? The allegorical and satirical exploration of _Dogville_’s invented characters, and their virtues and vices, are more than an should roe v be overturned essay, experiment in essay, art. In Dogville , one can see America; one can imagine also cultures all over the world—as one is seeing human nature. Freud wrote in 1929 about the introduction, difficulty of reconciling ethics with human behavior in Civilization and Its Discontents , published in phd psychology admission essay, 1930: “The element of truth behind all this, which people are so ready to disavow, is wade be overturned, that men are not gentle creatures who want to admission, be loved, and who at decisions in paradise essays, the most can defend themselves if they are attacked; they are, on the contrary, creatures among whose instinctual endowments is to be reckoned a powerful share of phd psychology essay, aggressiveness. Writing Research? As a result, their neighbor is for them not only a potential helper or sexual object, but also someone who tempts them to satisfy their aggressiveness on him, to exploit his capacity for work without compensation, to use him sexually without his consent, to seize his possessions, to humiliate him, to cause him pain, to torture and to kill him. Homo homini lupus . [Man is wolf to man.] Who, in the face of all his experience of life and of history, will have the courage to phd psychology admission essay, dispute this assertion?” (68-69) Lars von Trier has said that he thinks that Dogville is also relevant to Denmark’s treatment of immigrants. Essays On Human Rights? (Something rotten in Denmark?) Lars von Trier, born in 1956 in Copenhagen as Lars Trier, said early in his career that he thought the best films are driven by passion, and that Danes seemed to be afraid of fascination, afraid of miracles, and phd psychology essay that Denmark’s films were often so refined that they were dull. (Trier has named Danish filmmaker Carl Dreyer, the director of The Passion of Joan of Arc and Day of Wrath , and Andrei Tarkovsky, Ingmar Bergman, Werner Herzog, Orson Welles, and Jim Jarmusch as some of the filmmakers he has admired.) One of the more remarkable occurrences in Danish life in the last several years has been the country’s response to introduction writing paper, immigration, a conflict in the lives of people who seem to essay, avoid it. “In the 70s, the Danes wouldn’t do the rights, dirty jobs, so we imported some people, and admission when we didn’t need them, we wanted to contrast essay night, get rid of admission essay, them,” Trier told Brendan Bernhard, for simplified format, an excellent article, “Lars Attacks!,” published in the March 26-April 1, 2004 LA Weekly . Denmark, a European country north of Germany and bordering the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, has a head of state, Queen Margrethe II, and a head of phd psychology essay, government, now Anders Fogh Rasmussen, with a national parliament; and the country is made up of fourteen counties, each with its own parliament that performs the functions of government.

The government’s motto is currently “growth, welfare, renewal.” Denmark has a population a little over five million people, with about half the population in contrast prom night, the labor force, and with some ethnic diversity—Scandinavian, Inuit, Faroese, German, Turkish, Iranian, Somali—and very little religious diversity (most people are Evangelical Lutherans, and about two percent are Muslim—and Trier, who was reared in a Communist household, grew up thinking of himself as being of Jewish descent but he later converted to Catholicism). When I checked the CIA World Factbook on May 6, 2004 for its entry on Denmark, available on phd psychology the internet, this is introduction writing research paper, what I read as part of the phd psychology admission, economic overview: “This thoroughly modern market economy features high-tech agriculture, up-to-date small-scale and corporate industry, extensive government welfare measures, comfortable living standards, a stable currency, and decisions high dependence on foreign trade. Denmark is a net exporter of food and phd psychology energy and enjoys a comfortable balance of payments surplus. Government objectives include streamlining the bureaucracy and further privatization of state assets.” In the mid-1990s, Denmark’s population had been defined as Scandinavian, Eskimo (Inuit), Faroese (of the Faroe Islands), and German; there has been obviously an increase of others since then, some of analyzing visual essay, whom are brown and essay black and Muslim. Several years ago, an August 2002 press summary reflected on what a 2001 Danish election meant for Denmark’s immigration policy: “Ever since Nov. 20, when a center-right coalition defeated the reigning Social Democrats, and the anti-immigration Danish People’s Party ( DPP ) took 12 percent of the vote, curbing the writing, influx of asylum seekers and immigrants, who are joining their families, has been high on the legislative agenda.” New restrictive immigration legislation was subsequently passed in May 2002 in Denmark.

The article went on to say, “In Copenhagen, headlines spoke of phd psychology admission essay, ‘a historic agreement’ between the parties. Among the provisions were reduced welfare benefits for immigrants during their first seven years, a longer waiting period for simplified, permanent residency (seven years instead of three), restriction of ‘family reunions’ and foreign spouses unless both parties are at essay, least 24 years old, and roe v essay a higher threshold for Danish citizenship, including a nine-year waiting period and a Danish language and history exam, about which Politikencommented on (May 8): ‘There is a certain irony to the fact that so great a knowledge of Danish society will be demanded of naturalized Danes, more than what the public schools achieve in nine to 10 years of schooling.’ ” Currently, many immigrants arrive in essay, America to seek a better life and, if they do so, without official papers, they become part of an exploited labor class—hard-working and inadequately paid. This land is your land, this land is my land, from California, to the New York Island, from the Redwood Forest, to the Gulf Stream waters, this land was made for you and me . Welfare programs and the benefits offered to both immigrant and compare halloween native-born citizens have been reformed so that participants with divergent levels of skill and education work for their benefits (workfare, not welfare); and this means that they are assigned to phd psychology essay, jobs in city agencies similarly held by full-time regular workers but instead of getting livable wages, they get benefits (very small grants for food, rent, and living expenses), an income that is less than a minimum wage salary, forming, like imprisoned men and women, the simplified essay format, cheapest of labor forces, in a time and place in which wealth is the phd psychology admission essay, measure of worth. In the squares of the city, in the shadow of the steeple, near the relief office, I see my people, and some are grumblin’ and introduction writing research some are wonderin’ if this land’s still made for you and me. Life in America for certain people, as well as American influence abroad, has been much worse than anything shown in the closing credits of Dogville . It should not be necessary to remind American citizens or filmgoers of the phd psychology, theft of Native American land and the genocide of many of decisions in paradise, these peoples. Phd Psychology? But reminders become necessary when we do not know the stories behind names such as Cherokee, Kiowa, Mohawk, Narragansett, Ogala, Pequot, Sauk, Seminole, Shawnee, and Sioux, and that Native Americans contributed culture, food, ideas of government, spirituality, and rights even labor to world culture; or that it’s estimated that there were between twelve and phd psychology fourteen million Native Americans when the Europeans came and that there are now only two-and-a-half million.

Native Americans seem to be people of legend rather than flesh. Although there were Indian mounds near where I grew up, and one of my mother’s uncles was married to night, a Native American, I’m not sure that I ever heard a Native American speak at length until I heard the admission, refreshingly sarcastic comments of a radio host on New York’s WBAI Radio, and I don’t think I met a Native American man until I worked for essays, an environmental organization (he was a visitor). African-Americans have a more vivid presence than Native Americans, but it’s not clear that most Americans have come to terms with the admission essay, enslaving of Africans, the cultural and decisions economic contribution consequently made to the country, and the still-lingering problems troubling African descendants who are natural citizens. The African-American voice and vision most people hear and see is likely to phd psychology essay, be loud, ignorant, alienated, and essay format derelict. There are still people unfamiliar with names such as W.E.B. Dubois, Alain Locke, Ralph Ellison, and Percival Everett, and who do not realize how subtle and pervasive African-American influence can be.

Ralph Ellison, in an essay published in phd psychology admission essay, Time magazine and later reprinted in his book Going to the Territory , wrote that “had there been no blacks, certain creative tensions arising from the cross-purposes of compare essay halloween night, whites and essay blacks would also not have existed. Not only would there have been no Faulkner; there would have been no Stephen Crane, who found certain basic themes of his writing in essays on human rights, the Civil War. Thus, also, there would have been no Hemingway, who took Crane as a source and guide. Without the essay, presence of Negro American style, our jokes, our tall tales, even our sports would be lacking in the sudden turns, the shocks, the swift changes of pace (all jazz-shaped) that serve to remind us that the world is simplified format, ever unexplored, and that while a complete mastery of admission, life is mere illusion, the real secret of the game is to on human, make life swing. It is essay, its ability to on human rights, articulate this tragic-comic attitude toward life that explains much of the mysterious power and attractiveness of that quality of admission, Negro American style known as ‘soul.’ An expression of American diversity within unity, of blackness with whiteness, soul announces the presence of a creative struggle against the realities of existence” (109-110). Often Americans forget the best and publicize the worst regarding Native Americans and African-Americans; and as in introduction research, Dogville , the more [g]race was made use of, the less value [g]race seemed to have. Economic and social prejudice also plagued the immigration of Chinese and Japanese, as well as the Irish, Italians, and phd psychology essay Jews, who are seen by most as valuable citizens now—and yet, Americans act surprised and shocked when accused of injustice here or abroad. The United States has been involved in more than one-hundred interventions in other countries, including military invasions, the support of oppressive governments, and the appropriation of foreign resources.

Ward Churchill, a professor of American Indian Studies and himself a Keetoowah Cherokee, has published a book, On the prom night, Justice of Roosting Chickens , which gives a year by year summary of the essay, bad faith and contrast prom brutality of American government, especially regarding international relations and the United Nations. As excuses for war with the oil-rich country of Iraq, a place of ancient (5,000 year-old) civilization—Mesopotamia, which invented the phd psychology admission essay, first writing, and compare contrast prom night Sumer, which invented the wheel, and phd psychology admission gave the world The Epic of Gilgamesh , about a Sumerian king—the American government claimed that the Iraqi president supported the terrorists associated with the destruction of World Trade Center in New York, and that Iraq had weapons of mass destruction, though no objective evidence has been found for either claim. The British newspaper The Independent reported on May 23, 2004 that thus far about 11,500 Iraqi civilians have been killed since the war began. Writing Paper? Newspapers and other news media have reported that some of the American personnel who imprisoned and tortured Iraqis in captivity had been employed by the U.S. prison system, which has locked up a disproportionate number of black and Hispanic men. Essay? Norman Solomon wrote in an article that appeared May 6, 2004 on the web sites of both and that “the same government that runs this prison system also conducts foreign policy that during the past four decades has resulted in bombing and invading the Dominican Republic, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Grenada, Panama, Afghanistan and Iraq. More circumscribed Pentagon missions landed in writing research, Somalia and Haiti.

In 1999, a major U.S.-led bombing campaign caused enormous suffering among civilians in Yugoslavia. Sudden missile strikes hit Libya and phd psychology Sudan. And U.S.-funded military forces on compare contrast halloween several continents—from Nicaragua, El Salvador and Guatemala to Angola to Indonesia—took many lives.” He went on to say: “Generally, with the exception of Serbs, the victims of Pentagon firepower have been people of color who’ve looked different than theUSA’s white majority and power structure. In the United States, racial biases have helped to grease the war machinery.” Some observers have also said that the use of phd psychology admission, homosexual acts as humiliation for Iraqi Muslim men is essay halloween, rooted in American homophobia and religious insensitivity (it may also indicate a sexual curiosity American society discourages). “Power, then, which can have no morality in itself, is yet dependent on human energy, on the wills and desires of human beings. When power translates itself into tyranny, it means that the principles on which that power depended, and whichwere its justification, are bankrupt,” wrote James Baldwin in No Name in the Street (407). The recent abuse of strangers — Iraqi citizens who have not been charged with any crimes — is simply the phd psychology admission essay, latest barbaric act of this presumably civilized nation: men and women threatened, stripped naked, sexually molested, beaten, dogs set upon them, killed.

People ask how this abuse could have happened, and simplified the answer is easily , if one knows history. If one knows philosophy, one might remember that Nietzsche once wrote that commanders do not see the execution of their orders, and those obeying orders did not make those orders and do not feel responsible, so neither has a sense of phd psychology, personally being involved in cruelty, and this is simplified essay, how certain outrages can occur; and, regarding to phd psychology, whom injury is compare contrast essay prom night, done, in his late notebooks Nietzsche wrote that societies caricature those it sees as its opponents, such as lawbreakers: as the cliche goes, it’s easy to hurt those we do not see as human. ( I committed the crime of being hungry and poor , goes a traditional prison chain gang work song.) The Iraqis though were simply different, in culture, religion, and skin color. The question is why is it so easy for phd psychology, Americans to rights, forget their own history? (Are the education system, the news media, and the social affirmation of phd psychology essay, private life over public affairs to blame?) Why are Americans surprised by such violent occurrences, such injustices, when they perpetually recur? I wish I were more interested in politics; then, I might understand. Once I was interested in politics — I read political theories and decisions memoirs, signed petitions, and marched in demonstrations, participated in organizations that talked about phd psychology essay, politics, such as the Cultural Politics Discussion Group, or that tried to act on political goals, such as Democratic Socialists of America and should roe v wade be overturned the NAACP . (I thought of politics not simply as the struggle over resources and values but as work that transformed self and society.) I had less pleasant encounters with other individuals and groups that tried to teach me real politics , which seemed to mean abdicating both imagination and independent thought in the name of organizational unity. Frequently the well-educated and well-situated cannot recognize the potential of someone young and not yet established ( who do you think you are? ). Frequently the badly educated do not trust the speech and actions of people trying to help them—not used to being the focus of anyone’s intense attention, not used to phd psychology admission essay, being giving full information, but used to weaving bits and pieces into whole cloth, and instinctive rather than intellectual and suspicious rather than engaged, they doubt the helper ( what gives you the right to say anything? ). Rather than give the homage of allegiance, my tribute was a rude impatience. Now, I mostly think of politics as stupidity and simplified essay suffering. Dogville and phd psychology its depiction of essay format, stupidity and suffering reminds me less of Louisiana or New York than it reminds me of admission essay, states of mind; it recalls for me not place, but people. What occurs in Dogville , and most art, is not as shocking as any ordinary day in most countries around the world.

Dogville , a film, a form of art, an compare contrast essay halloween night, experience in itself, is as much about essay, thought and feeling as politics; it dramatizes thought, and roe v wade be overturned essay thought has its own reality. “We need to free ourselves of the sacralization of the social as the only instance of the real and stop regarding that essential element in phd psychology admission essay, human life and human relations—I mean thought—as so much wind. Thought does exist, both beyond and before systems and edifices of discourse. It is something that is often hidden but always drives everyday behaviors. There is analyzing visual media essay, always a little thought occurring even in the most stupid institutions; there is always thought even in silent habits,” said Michel Foucault in The Essential Foucault (172). Phd Psychology Admission? Foucault also said the purpose of a critique is not the identification of errors but rather the identification of the assumptions and circumstances on decisions which standards and judgments rest. Film and literature build their structures with language and imagery, and phd psychology admission essay they are less about facts and events than the introduction paper, evocation of relationships, which create meaning. Dogville has reminded me of hope and need and how sometimes I, aesthete and moralist (and barbarian), have hated the world as I have too often found it, rich and poor, male and female, black and white, straight and queer, all the rigid social categories and the people too lazy and lost for liberty who try to embody those labels as they are commonly conceived. Phd Psychology? I used to think it possible to broaden and deepen those categories from within, but it’s possible that they should simply be abolished; or ignored. I used to want to introduction paper, be an exceptional human being, but with time’s passage I saw that to phd psychology admission, be simply and thoroughly a human being is itself a great goal, and rights that this achievement is not assured.

I savor now the moments in admission, the town of Dogville when [G]race is accepted, respected, and celebrated. Halloween? In times of confusion, doubt, and pain, I borrow the wisdom, even the phd psychology admission essay, sanity, of artists and thinkers—with unforced gratitude; and sometimes it’s the introduction paper, only illumination I have; although, more often, I go out of want rather than need to the works of artists and thinkers as their works arouse, please, and satisfy my mind and spirit. Oscar Wilde, who was reported to have said that art is the only serious thing in the world (and who wrote that the phd psychology admission essay, world can forgive everything but genius), also thought that criticism was what made us cosmopolitan — and even more, he thought it might make us humane. (Are these thoughts new or are they as old as Socrates and Plato; and are they any different from what Dogville_’s Tom wanted?) “Criticism will annihilate race-prejudices by insisting upon the unity of the human mind in the variety of its forms,” wrote Wilde in the intellectual dialog “The Critic as Artist” (870). The human mind _does have a variety of forms, a wondrous, terrifying variety. Insightful and inventive, Oscar Wilde was a martyr not only to his own foolishness but to the ignorance of his time, an ignorance embodied in introduction research, law itself, and tomorrow’s sunlight will no doubt help to reveal the martyrs of our own time, among which we are likely to count Iraqi citizens. Baldwin, James. Collected Essays . Edited by Toni Morrison. New York: Library of America/Literary Classics of the phd psychology, United States.

1998. Churchill, Ward. Essay Prom Night? On the Justice of Roosting Chickens: Reflections on the Consequences of U.S. Imperial Arrogance and admission essay Criminality . Oakland: AK Press. 2003. Ellison, Ralph. Going to the Territory . New York: Random House. 1986. Foucault, Michel. The Essential Foucault . 1994. Decisions In Paradise Essays? Edited by Paul Rabinow and Nikolas Rose.

New York: The New Press. 2003. Nietzsche, Friedrich. Human, All Too Human . Translated by Marion Faber, with Stephen Lehmann. 1878. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. 1986. Freud, Sigmund. Civilization and Its Discontents . Admission? Translated and edited by James Strachey. 1930.

New York: W.W. Norton Company. Research Paper? 1989. Wilde, Oscar. Collected Works of Oscar Wilde . Hertfordshire: Wordsworth Editions. 1997. Guthrie, Woody. Admission? “This Land Is Your Land.” ©1956 (renewed 1984), 1958 (renewed 1986) and 1970 TRO -Ludlow Music, Inc. ( BMI ). Daniel Garrett, a child of the American south, Louisiana, where he grew up reading, taking photographs, and enjoying fishing and roe v be overturned a good summer barbecue. Daniel moved to phd psychology admission, New York and essays rights became a graduate of the New School for Social Research, was an intern at Africa Report , poetry editor for the male feminist magazine Changing Men , founded and phd psychology essay acted as principal organizer of the Cultural Politics Discussion Group at ABC No Rio and Poets House, wrote about decisions in paradise, painter Henry Tanner for Art Antiques , and phd psychology admission essay organized the first interdepartmental environmental justice meeting at Audubon.

Long interested in human complexity, intelligence, experiment, and cultural diversity, Garrett has researched various cultures, and he wrote about contrast essay halloween, fiction and poetry for World Literature Today and international film for Offscreen , and has done music reviews that constitute a history of popular music for phd psychology admission essay, The Compulsive Reader . His work has appeared as well in The African , All About Jazz , American Book Review , Black Film Review , Cinetext , Contact II , Film International , The Humanist , Hyphen , Illuminations , Muse Apprentice Guild , Option, Pop Matters , Quarterly Black Review of essay, Books , Rain Taxi , Red River Review , Review of Contemporary Fiction , and Wax Poetics . He returned to the south, where he worked on philosophical fiction, the novel A Stranger on Earth . Fulltime Cinema: An Interview With Johnnie To. Fahrenheit 9/11: Offscreen Roundtable. Donato Totaro, Peter Rist, David Douglas. La Regle du jeu (The Rules of the Game) Music, comedy and class: The Immigrant and Gold Diggers of 1933.

Self as Individual Consciousness, And Embodiment of Nation. Rodney Evans’s Brother to Brother; or, “James Baldwin is Dead” 1997 2017 Offscreen, ISSN 1712-9559.

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How to Formulate a PhD Admission Essay | Assignment Help

13 helpful email templates you can use while job searching. Phd Psychology Essay! The one thing we are all likely using in the job hunt is decisions, email. Yet between cover letters, resumes, interviews, and phd psychology, networking, it#8217;s easy to media, underestimate how this tool can help us find great opportunities. Below are a few sample emails to keep handy during your job search. Before jumping in, keep these tips in mind: Good emails are specific, short, and often mention some common ground so the reader is compelled to help out. Admission Essay! The email is in paradise, often the last step in a larger process of doing research, reflecting on phd psychology admission what you want, and planning your overall job search plan. The articles that accompany the examples often give more advice and information on how to decisions in paradise, reach out and plan more effectively before and after you send the email.

Sometimes the subject line can be more challenging to write than the email itself! While a few of the samples below have subject lines included, Business Insider offers tips for subject lines for general emailing and for phd psychology admission essay job applications. These are just examples; tweak according to position, needs, your personality, and your relationship to the sender. Format! If you need help figuring out your next steps: Ask your friends for insights on your strengths and weaknesses. Here#8217;s what to say, from pop*forms: I am working on improving myself, personally and at work, and phd psychology, you are someone whose opinion I truly value. If you are willing, I would be so appreciative if you would answer some or all of the questions below to help me gain some insight into my strengths and the things I do best. I really appreciate it, and would be happy to do the same for you if you’d like! What do you think is my greatest strength How would you describe my style What do you think I should let go of When do you feel that I am at my best. If you want to essays, tell your network that you#8217;re looking for new opportunities: Be clear about what you are looking for and your expertise.

Here#8217;s what to say from Jenny Blake: As I dive into the job search across the essay country , I’d love it if you could keep your eyes open for people I could connect with and/or positions that might be a fit for me. Below is a bit about my background and compare prom, what I’m looking for, and you can view my full resume on LinkedIn . These are a few of my ideal scenarios, but if anything related comes to you please keep me in admission essay mind! If you want to tell specific people that you#8217;re looking for new opportunities: If you have specific people in mind whom you think could be especially helpful in your search, send tailored emails. Here#8217;s what to say from the in paradise Daily Muse: I hope all is well! I saw the photos of the conference you held last month on Facebook—it looked like a fantastic event. I’m reaching out because I’m currently seeking a new position. As you know, I have been Smith PR for almost three years, but I’m ready for essay a new challenge in the tech PR world. I know that you used to visual media, do work for Ogilvy, which is on my short list of dream companies. Do you still have any contacts there, and if so, is there someone that might be willing to do an informational interview with me? Any introductions you could make would be greatly appreciated.

Read the rest of the email and the advice on the Daily Muse. They also have a great example of a thank you email to send to people who have offered you advice or information about opportunities. If you#8217;re about to phd psychology essay, submit a job application: Always follow directions and submit your application accordingly. If you are sending all of your materials as an analyzing visual media essay, attachment, mention what#8217;s included, position you are applying for, and contact information. Here#8217;s an example from the University of Minnesota: I am a first year law student at the University of Minnesota Law School applying for a summer clerkship with your firm. I have attached the resume, cover letter and essay, transcript that you requested to this email. If you have questions or need more information, you may reach me through the phone number or email below. I look forward to essays on human rights, hearing from you, If you want to inquire about the status of phd psychology essay your application: Wait about two weeks before sending a follow up email and demonstrate your interest, not asking for introduction research a response, says hiring expert Alison Green.

Here#8217;s what she recommends you say: I recently applied for essay your __ position, and I just wanted to reiterate my strong interest. I think it might be a great match, and I#8217;d love to contrast prom night, talk with you about it when you#8217;re ready to begin scheduling interviews. If you want to admission, say #8220;Thank You#8221; after a job interview: The key here is to reference something that came up specifically in the interview. Here#8217;s an example from Berkeley Law School: Thank you for taking the media time to meet with me this past Tuesday. After speaking with you and learning more about the structure of Blank, Blank#8217;s summer program, I am even more enthusiastic about the essay possibility of working at Blank, Blank next summer. I particularly enjoyed hearing about your work in representing several Latin American companies in trade-related matters. Read the simplified essay rest of the email and essay, advice from Berkeley Law School.

Also, Career Services at West Virginia University provides examples of what to say if you want to add more information (say, a sample of your work) or address a question that came up in decisions in paradise the interview. If you want to follow up after a job interview: If you haven#8217;t heard from an employer and the interviewer has given you a timeline, Alison Green recommends this email: Hi Jane, you’d mentioned that you were hoping to be ready to move forward on the Communications Manager position by the end of the month, so I wanted to check in with you. I’m very interested in the role, even more so after our last conversation, and admission essay, would love to know what your timeline looks like moving forward. LinkedIn is a great place to discover new connections that can help you advance your career. Forbes outlines helpful tips on searching for essay mutual contacts and crafting a compelling request for an introduction. We met briefly at the Delta Leadership conference last fall, during the round-table discussion. To refresh your memory, I am changing careers, from being an accountant to being a fashion merchandiser. You were kind enough to phd psychology admission essay, give me advice on compare essay halloween night companies that might appreciate my background.

Since we last spoke, I’ve decided it would be helpful to get online clothing company experience. Acme Shoes is one of the companies I admire in the online world and I noticed that you have a first-degree connection to Ellen Jones, a marketing director there. If you want to phd psychology, introduce yourself to rights, someone new: Sometimes you don#8217;t have a mutual contact on LinkedIn and just need send a cold email. Here#8217;s a template from Alyson Weiss of phd psychology admission essay Career Moves, a division of JVS. I hope you are doing well. Compare Night! We are both in the Boston Networking Club, so I was hoping it would be okay if I reached out to you. Phd Psychology Admission Essay! [Name of HR person] posted a description for a Community Engagement Recruitment opening at your company today on introduction writing research the YNPN list serv that I am really interested in essay learning more about. If you want to simplified essay, request an informational interview: Just Jobs has several templates (for various circumstances) that include the characteristics of a good informational interview request: short, specific, and phd psychology admission, mentions some common ground and background info. Decisions In Paradise Essays! I’m a [your profession]who has worked with [name of warm contact]and I’m currently making time to develop my skills and focus on what’s really important in [profession]when it comes to hiring a [professional]for a project. I’ve had a look through your website and essay, especially enjoyed the [whatever]. I’d love the opportunity to spend 20 mins with you to decisions, discuss your decision making process with regards to phd psychology, [professionals]and what your expectations are when working with them.

If you want to wade be overturned essay, thank a new contact or to someone who has helped you: And you should! However, in addition to showing gratitude, you can continue to keep in touch by being helpful and showing how their advice has helped you. Here#8217;s a sample of one out of three emails you should send, from Ramit Sethi of admission I Will Teach You to Be Rich: Just wanted to thank you again for meeting with me earlier. I’m definitely going to get in introduction writing touch with Susan like you recommended. I’ll keep you in the loop, and of course, please let me know if there’s anything I can do to repay the admission essay favor! If you want someone to recommend you on LinkedIn: It never hurts to have people sing your praises in analyzing visual media public! Ask someone to write a recommendation for you on LinkedIn.

Here#8217;s what Indie Business Network recommends: I hope this message finds you well. It was great seeing you at the networking event last week! As we discussed, one of the things I am doing is creating new ways for my prospective customers to quickly see how I can serve them. Since you were so pleased with the consultation we had a while back about your business, I am hoping that you would be so kind as to write a LinkedIn recommendation about my business expertise that I can share with others. Phd Psychology Admission! If you need someone to essays rights, be a reference: References are often the least thought about aspect of a job hunt, but you should choose your references carefully. Once you have identified someone to vouch for you, here#8217;s what Snag A Job recommends you say: I am sending you this email in hopes you will be a reference for me during my job search.

Throughout my time working with you, I was able to grow professionally and feel like this experience has really helped me become an ideal employee. I know you would be able to attest to my reliability and phd psychology, willingness to learn. This list is essays on human, not exhaustive, but hopefully it will help you break through any writer#8217;s block you have and phd psychology essay, send great emails. For other tips on how to write emails check out the following resource: Advance your career by writing better emails. Any other email templates or formats work for compare contrast you? Share them below! Former Editor and Creator of Idealist Careers, a publication of Follow me on Twitter @ajlovesya. Phd Psychology Admission Essay! It is compare prom night, indeed an amazing effort for a large cohort of phd psychology admission job seekers across the contrast essay halloween world. I must appreciate the entire team of Idealist for phd psychology admission essay this contribution. Should Roe V Wade! well done and keep it up. Like what you're reading?

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Create your free Business Plan now. Make an investment-worthy business plan easily with our free template. Select a Industry Fill in the Form. Complete your Business Plan. Print and Download For Free. Business Plans: Writing Guides, Downloadable Templates, and phd psychology admission, Samples. Updated February 15, 2017 by Legal Templates. 1. Free Business Plan Template Download.

Are you an format entrepreneur looking to download a free business plan? If so, you have come to the right place. Phd Psychology? Legal Templates is happy to provide you with a hassle-free document downloads. Click the essay format, buttons below to download (1) a blank document, and (2) a document that is filled in for you to reference. Related Business Documents: Click to View. What’s included in the blank template:

In the first download, you will find documents with all of the chapters, section titles, and section subtitles that you will need to admission, successfully complete your plan. Our first plan contains the 8 chapters of a basic business plan including: Chapter 1: Executive Summary: The executive summary provides investors with a general layout of your company. This chapter is essays, essentially your hook to convince potential financiers that your model is essay, worthy of their investment. Chapter 2: Company and Financing: In this chapter, the goal is to outline the legal and operational structure of your company, financing requirements, the history behind the company, mission statement and the management team. Simplified Essay Format? If you are forming a corporation, be sure to phd psychology, include your Articles of Incorporation here. Decisions? Chapter 3: Products and Services: This section describes what products and/or services your business will sell (now and in the future), and how you will build, assemble and deliver them. It also offers a comparison of your company and your direct and phd psychology admission essay, indirect competitors. Chapter 4: Customers and Market Analysis: The customers and market analysis page indicates your target customer segments, what needs you are filling for should wade be overturned essay them , and phd psychology, the latest trends among these consumers in terms of growth and behavior. Chapter 5: Marketing and roe v wade be overturned essay, Sales: The marketing and phd psychology admission, sales chapter allows you to describe how you will sell your product/service.

Particularly what are your company’s strategies for positioning, pricing, promotion and essays on human, distribution. Essay? Chapter 6: Strategy and essays, Implementation: This chapter will give you an opportunity to set the admission, key milestones that help establish a timeline of progress towards your goals. Writing? Additionally, it includes subsections like SWOT analysis, competitive edge, and strategic alliances. Chapters 7 + 8: Financial Plan, Sales Forecast, Financial Statements: In the final two chapters, entrepreneurs must define and calculate the financial variables that will go into the creation/expansion of your idea, including its expenses, your anticipated sales forecast, personnel plan, cash flow assumptions, and more. If you are purchasing an existing company, you should also include the phd psychology admission, business purchase agreement in your plan.

What’s included in essays the template with sample text: In the second download, we give you a completed ice cream shop plan to reference. Each section gives an example of what you should write. Our guide also includes example graphs and charts, so that you are aware of the types of financial calculations, plans, and forecasts that a plan should offer to attract investment. For guidance on phd psychology admission, what you should include in your plan, and why, please reference our How to Write a Business Plan set of articles below. Downloading this small business plan comes at no cost, so feel free to essays, start your download and get started. However, you should be aware that there are some pros and cons to using free business templates, rather than using professional software or an experienced writer. Writing a business plan is a prerequisite to your company’s success. A solid plan is necessary to phd psychology admission essay, help found your company and ensure that your goals remain on track over time. Your plan can and will change as you encounter the introduction writing, unpredictable variables that come with starting your own company.

If you have an admission existing company, crafting a solid plan is equally important if you’re hoping to simplified, attract investment and phd psychology essay, expand your company beyond the limits you’ve already reached. Your business strategy should account for the next 3-5 years in advance, and cover every aspect of your industry, including the critical relation between marketing and sales to your company’s finances. Your plan should include the following sections before you submit it to in paradise, investors. Click each accordion to admission, read a how-to guide for each chapter: “How to decisions in paradise, Write a Business Plan” Table of Contents: How to Write the Executive Summary. The executive summary contains all of the essential information about what makes your business strong and worthy of investment . It covers the major highlights of the rest of your plan’s chapters. The goal is to briefly tell your reader what your company will do, where you want to take it, and why your business idea will be successful. If you are seeking financing, the executive summary is your first opportunity to grab a potential investor’s interest. The executive summary will be the first chapter of your business plan, though it’s actually the last section that you should write . First, you’ll need to do heavy research to ensure that your plan is sound before you can write the executive summary. This section will be different depending on if you are an established business or a new startup. A startup company’s executive summary will need to phd psychology, be interesting and convincing to capture the attention of investors.

Your company will lack the historical data and trends that existing companies are able to provide, but there are strategies to mitigate these factors. First, you’ll need to essay, briefly explain who you are, the phd psychology admission, background of your management team, and your reasoning behind starting a business in your chosen niche. Secondly, you’ll need to demonstrate that you’ve done quality research that supports how you’ve conceptualized your business. Investors know that talk is cheap – do you have the data and analysis to back up your claims? Even in simplified essay a standard plan, the executive summary for an existing business has no set template, although there are several suggested guidelines that you can find around the web. We suggest the following basic template – feel free to add or subtract sections according to your own needs: Summary Management Team Products and Services Customers Marketing and Sales Financial Forecast Financing Requirements (optional) Describe the admission, purpose of the plan (e.g.; to media essay, raise a specific amount of debt financing to expand a store location) as well an overview of the company (name, location, company type, products sold, founder(s) and founding date). Describe the key milestones or objectives that you want to achieve with this business (these are the tangible results in which you use to prove success of the venture). This statement should be concise and to admission, the point. Summarize the members of the management team, including highlights of their expertise and experience . Describe how each member contributes to analyzing media essay, the success of the organization.

Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and Services section. Products and Services. Describe the products and services you are providing and who the phd psychology, competitors are within the industry . Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Products and essays on human rights, Services section. Describe whom your customer groups are and admission, whom your key customers are , as well as how you will market to them. Keep this section brief, as you will go into more detail in the Market section. Describe briefly how you will market your product or service. Summarize the major points in the Marketing and Sales chapter, which may include market positioning, pricing, promotion, and distribution. Summarize the most important points from the Financial Plan section here.

This should include your sales forecasts and essays, projected expenses as well as the logic behind the projections. If you are a new company, describe when you expect to turn a profit . If you are an admission existing company, highlight past financial performance. 7. Financing Requirements (Optional) Summarize the amount of compare contrast halloween night equity and/or debt financing that you are seeking, when you need it, the use of the funds, and when you expect to reach your next milestone event and/or start paying back the loan. Keep this at essay an overview level , as you will go into more detail later on in other chapters. Note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process first . In particular, complete the financial planning process before attacking this section. Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. With these sections fleshed out, you’ve finished your executive summary. How to Write the Company and Financing Chapter.

The company and finance section of your plan is important, because introducing the management team is critical for both start-ups and established companies alike. Investors will use this information to gauge the future likelihood of visual media success. Company and Financing Sections. Company Overview Management Team Required Funds (optional) Exit Strategy (optional) Mission Statement (optional) Company History (optional) Location and Facilities (optional) There are many variations and phd psychology admission essay, approaches on how to lay out the contrast, various components of a business plan. Our approach for the company overview section is to provide the phd psychology admission, reader with the company’s legal information, address and a brief description of the company’s history. Since there are follow up sections in this chapter that over go the essay format, company’s location and history in more detail, you will want to keep this short (2-3 sentences). A BRIEF PRIMER ON COMPANY TYPES. The optimal company type is best determined by a credible Attorney.

The primer below is meant only to phd psychology admission essay, explain the broad differences between the most common company types. A sole proprietorship, according to introduction writing research, the IRS: “A sole proprietor is someone who owns an unincorporated business by him or herself.” While the most simple to essay, set up and the most common, there is a significant drawback: you will be personally liable for any obligations. So for example, if you sell someone a cupcake and they sue you because they found a hair in it, and roe v wade be overturned essay, you lose in court, the creditors can legally go after your personal possessions – such as the phd psychology admission essay, roof over your head. A partnership, according to the IRS: “A partnership is the simplified essay format, relationship existing between two or more persons who join to phd psychology admission, carry on a trade or business. Contrast Essay Night? Each person contributes money, property, labor or skill, and expects to share in the profits and losses of the essay, company.”

A partnership has certain advantages compared to a LLC, such as not needing to file formation documents when setting up a partnership, and not needing to file dissolution documents if dissolving the partnership. However, similar to sole proprietorships, partners in a partnership have unlimited liability for the company’s debts and liabilities. Limited Liability Partnerships (LLPs) LLPs are different from essays traditional partnerships in that there are two classes of phd psychology partners: (1) General partners that have full management and control but also full personal liability and (2) Limited partners that have no personal liability beyond their investment in the partnership interest. Limited partners are often times “silent partners” that wish to invest in the venture but limit their exposure to simplified essay, liability. A corporation is a separate legal entity owned by shareholders. A corporation is essay, commonplace for businesses that anticipate seeking venture capital financing. The downside to a corporation is the problem of “double taxation” since the corporation’s profits is taxed at the corporate level, and essays, then any dividends distributed to shareholders are then taxed again at admission the personal level. You can elect a special tax status with the IRS to simplified format, have your corporation not be taxed at the corporate level (instead, it would be taxed as a pass-through entity).

Some of the drawbacks include not being able to admission essay, have more than 100 shareholders , and not being able to have non-US citizens/residents. A popular choice among many small businesses , a LLC limits the member’s personal liability and compare essay halloween prom night, only taxes profits at the individual level (acts as a pass-through entity). Describe the type of company you plan to open, along with the registered name you plan to use. Explain your rationale – for example, if you are starting a company where you plan on seeking venture capital financing, then you will want to start a C-Corporation as majority of VCs will insist on this legal structure. If you have a home office/no dedicated business address. Include your current office setup and your future office plans once your company expands, if applicable.

For start-ups, and especially those seeking financing, the admission essay, Management Team section is prom, especially critical. With the admission essay, lack of history, there is little investors can go by to gauge the future success of a venture. The question lenders and investors will ask: Why should we trust your team with our money? You must demonstrate your team’s ability to execute on introduction writing, the stated goals. To accomplish this, you should highlight: Background of each member of the management team (education, relevant work experience, etc.) Roles and responsibilities within the company. Tip: Don’t include details about members of the Management Team that are not relevant to the reader. Everything presented should reinforce why your team is the right team to execute on the company’s vision. If you have an established business the information you want to present is the same. Phd Psychology? Keep in mind, however, that you also want to demonstrate that your team has the capability to manage growth of the company.

As a company grows from start-up to established business, the compare prom night, management team must also change. They must be able to manage employees, institute standardized systems, and ensure the business’s ability to scale operations while keeping profitability stable. If you already have a Board of Directors and/or Advisory Board, list these individuals and a brief description. In a publically trading company the Board of Directors is elected by the shareholders and is the admission, highest authority in the management of the company. For our purposes (context of a private company that is most likely a startup or small but growing business), a Board of Directors is comprised of investor(s), founder(s), CEO and introduction writing research paper, independent board member(s) who have substantial business and industry experience. A Board of Director’s typical responsibility is to set broad policies for the company, determine compensation for company management, and approve annual budgets. An advisory board is a group of business leaders that can help guide your company and provides it with assistance when needed. Choose individuals with knowledge in your industry and are willing to play a role in phd psychology admission your company . While some advisors are compensated, it comes down to essay format, a case-by-case basis, frequently depending on essay, how much time the writing research, member is committed to your company. Tips on admission essay, building your Advisory Board: Choose a well-respected and well-known individual as the first member of your Advisory Board.

This will help you to recruit other members of the should wade essay, Board. Choose individuals that have strengths and relationships your business will need. As your business evolves, so will the members of your Advisory Board. Feel free to shake up the admission, line up over introduction writing research paper time. In this section you will tell the reader how much money you need to raise, what you are going to phd psychology admission, use it for, and how you got to the requested amount. Important note: This is a complex question that you cannot answer until you complete your plan, so it is highly recommended you work your way through the entire writing process and in particular, complete the financial planning process.

Only then will you be able to identify the amount of money you will need to raise. There are two primary financing options: equity and debt. The primary difference between equity and debt financing is that debt financing is essentially a loan that is backed by your assets or via a personal guarantee. If your company is already in existence and has trading history, then you may also secure a loan off of essays on human rights your receivables. In contrast, equity financing is essentially you exchanging a stake in essay your company for a specific sum of essays money from an investor . Therefore, the amount you are able to essay, raise from investors comes down to how much they value your company. There are three fundamental questions every savvy investor will ask you: Cool idea, how do you make money with it?

How much money do you need, and why and when? What do you think your company is worth? If you are seeking financing (regardless of its equity or debt), that most likely means that your financial model shows your company taking a loss in the initial stages, followed by break-even and subsequent profitability. The money you are seeking to raise will simply allow you to have enough cash to essay, cover the phd psychology essay, initial period where you will be taking a loss so that you can eventually make a profit. This is a simplification; you may be raising money to introduction writing paper, further grow your company, which may already be profitable. Or you might use the financing to get your product to the next stage in phd psychology admission its product development lifecycle (i.e.; milestone event). But the general concept is the same; the investment you are seeking bolsters your company’s cash position , allowing it to grow revenue and/or profitability. Cool idea, how do you make money with it? / How much money do you need, and why and when? The financial statements provide the answer to the first two questions (which is why we recommend you complete your plan first).

To answer how much money you need, analyze the cash flow statement to rights, determine the cumulative cash flow. Phd Psychology Essay? The lowest point on this curve will tell you what your maximum financing needs are , and at what point in time. What do you think your company is worth? The third question is much harder to introduction writing research, answer, especially for a new company. At the end of the essay, day it really comes down to what an investor thinks your company is worth (which is more art than science).

However, there are three popular methods of valuing a company that can help you come up with a valuation to facilitate the negotiation. Cost approach (asset based approach) The cost approach seeks to determine a company’s value by analyzing the market value of its assets. In other words, in this approach the company is worth the sum of all its assets if they were to be liquidated . This approach may be appropriate for some industries such as real estate where the asset value may actually be worth more than the simplified, going concern value (present value of future cash flows generated by the asset). However, for many companies the value of its branding and phd psychology admission essay, reputation, along with its ability to generate profits, will exceed the essay, value of its assets. The market approach seeks to determine a company’s value by phd psychology essay, analyzing recent sales of similar assets, with the essays, theory that valuations of similar companies can serve as a good proxy. This is phd psychology admission, a common approach in the real estate industry. The income approach seeks to writing research, determine a company’s value by using its expected profit over time and then placing a value on that future stream of income in today’s terms . Since there is inherent uncertainty with a future stream of income, there are numerous ways to discount that expected income to account for risk.

Now you have all the pieces to complete the equation. Admission Essay? You have the amount of money you need by analyzing visual media essay, looking at cumulative cash flow. You also have an idea of how much money your company will be worth. Equation to determine how much equity you should offer: Equity to offer = Company Valuation / Money needed. If raising debt, you are not exchanging equity for cash. Instead, you should focus on the loan’s interest rate and phd psychology admission essay, payment schedule. Make sure you will be turning a profit that is both large enough and soon enough to ensure there is no delinquency on servicing the loan. For equity financing, answer the contrast night, following:

Investment amount needed When you need it How much time it will buy you / When you expect to phd psychology essay, turn a profit or get to the next milestone event % of equity offered and at decisions essays what company valuation (you may wish to admission essay, keep exact figures vague in order to further negotiate) Exit strategy. For debt financing, answer the following: Loan amount needed When you need it When you will be able to writing research paper, pay back the loan The amount and frequency of loan payments. In addition to the information above, you should also summarize how you plan to phd psychology admission essay, use the funds. The level of detail should be at a high level ; if the investor or lender wants to see expenses in more detail that will be available in the Appendix within the Profit/Loss statement. Construction of new kitchen: Kitchen remodeling, March 1, 2014, $25,000 Kitchen hardware, April 1, 2014, $50,000 Total Loan Amount: $75,000. If based on your financial model you anticipate relatively small yet variable expenses month to month, a line of credit may be a good choice. With a line of credit you draw upon it when you require the funds and pay interest immediately on decisions in paradise essays, the money as it is borrowed. It works very similarly to a credit card in that you typically have a pre-set limit to how much you can borrow, the major exception that since you may be able to secure the line of credit with assets, you may be able to get better terms. In the phd psychology, Quick Start Guide we briefly went over the different strategies available and simplified format, how thinking about your company’s eventual exit will help shape your business model.

It’s recommended you review the Quick Start guide and practice that exercise. Depending on your company, there are various exit strategies available, including: Selling your business Passing it down through the family Taking the phd psychology admission, company public (IPO) Liquidation. If you are seeking equity financing, then your investors will pay close attention to this section. Angel investors and media, VCs demand a large return on their investment since they are taking a large risk by investing into admission, your company. Therefore, you need to include detailed information on how you intend to sell the company or take it public. Demonstrating a large market opportunity. If investors are going to take a big risk, they demand a big return. You need to introduction writing research, demonstrate your business has the admission, potential to either take substantial market share from an incumbent competitor, or create a new market. Investors like to essays on human rights, be in hot, growing industries such as biotechnology, mobile e-commerce and phd psychology admission, healthcare.

These are all industries that have huge upside growth potential and ones that investors are more inclined to invest in. Solving a larger company’s problem. If your exit strategy is to sell your company to a larger company, then identify how your company’s product solves that larger company’s stated problems and/or goals. For example, Apple’s mapping software is visual essay, playing catch-up to Google Maps. If your company can help Apple improve its software, your company would become an attractive acquisition target. The mission statement reflects the core purpose and vision of the company. Phd Psychology? It’s a statement your employees and customers can get behind. Some tips on writing a well-crafted mission statement: Keep it short. 1-2 sentences max. Don’t use “fluff” words.

Make the statement mean something. A mission statement, if done well, should encapsulate both what the company does (what it sells) as well as the wade be overturned, culture/vision/purpose. Examples of phd psychology admission Fortune 500 firms that really get it right: A. BRISTOL-MYERS SQUIBB COMPANY (PHARMACEUTICALS) Mission Statement: “To discover, develop and deliver innovative medicines that help patients prevail over serious diseases.” Why it’s great: The keywords “discover, develop and deliver” demonstrate the company’s capability to in delivering an research paper end-to-end solution. By using the words “innovate” and “prevail over serious diseases” it serves as a rallying call for their thousands of employees that what they are doing is phd psychology, (1) cutting edge and (2) has a higher purpose then themselves. Mission statement: “ We will be the easiest pharmacy retailer for customers to use.” Why it’s great: In one short sentence, the company has managed to (1) describe what it sells (2) how it will win in the marketplace.

It is visual essay, a pharmacy retailer and it will solely focus on making itself easier for the customer to admission, use (that could mean so many things, such as innovating online to fulfill prescriptions to improved customer service within their stores). Example of poorly written mission statements. A. FORTUNE 500 FOOD AND BEVERAGE COMPANY. Mission statement: “ The Company’s primary objective is to maximize long-term stockholder value, while adhering to essay, the laws of the jurisdictions in which it operates and at all times observing the highest ethical standards.” Why it’s horrible: It does not serve as a rallying call for employees, suppliers, or partners. Its objectives are obvious (what company does not want to essay, maximize value) and borderline absurd (are there companies that do not want to essays on human rights, adhere to local and federal laws)?

Lastly, it does not mention what the admission essay, company actually does. B. Simplified Essay? FORTUNE 500 VEHICLE PARTS SUPPLIER. Mission Statement: “ We are committed to attracting, developing, and keeping a diverse work force that reflects the nature of our global business.” Why its horrible: While a diverse workforce is certainly not a bad thing, only stating that as the company’s mission statement is phd psychology admission, ineffective, lacks direction or focus, and completely misses the point of having a mission statement. This is predominately for businesses that have previous trading history, but can also be used by new companies that want to highlight relevant history on how the company came to existence, work completed to date, milestones achieved, etc. Some information you may want to include: Start date First location First product/service Significant milestones/events. Reminder: keep in mind that there is no set rule as to the level of halloween prom detail you want to include. This is phd psychology essay, dictated by the relevancy of the information to the reader and how this information helps strengthen your plan’s ability to build credibility for your company.

Every company is made of milestones. Milestones for a business are achievements that demonstrate the business is on the right track. They are best when quantifiable and roe v wade, measureable. Phd Psychology Essay? For example, achieving a working prototype of essays rights your product, or getting to phd psychology admission, break-even, are both huge milestones that showcase your ability to simplified essay, execute and reduces subsequent risk of your company. Key concept: The more uncertainty that you can take off from the table, the better valuation you can get for phd psychology your business. For businesses that have a retail or manufacturing component, this is an important section of should roe v wade be overturned your plan. Information you may want to include: Size (e.g.; in sq. ft.) Location/Address Other notable facts, such as equipment at the facility.

Location is important for a large number of retail businesses, whether you are a restaurant or purveyor of consumer products. If possible, provide statistics about the admission essay, retail location you have chosen or are planning to choose. Describe the lease terms you are able to secure, and if there are any laws that protect the lessee from unreasonable price increases. You can read a detailed article about what to essay, look for in a lease agreement here. Provide detailed information on the manufacturing facilities. Phd Psychology? For example, your operation may require a reliable source of electricity and water. Describe how the facility provides the decisions in paradise, business with these resources.

If the facility is pre-existing equipment or structures that can be leveraged, make mention of that. Location can be an important aspect of phd psychology essay your business even if you are not in retail or manufacturing. For example, you might want to analyzing visual, open your software company in Silicon Valley as that provides a competitive advantage from an employee recruitment and fundraising perspective. If you operate out of a home office. Describe your future expansion plans, including expected date of expansion. Upon completing these sections, you will then be finished with the company and phd psychology essay, financing section of introduction writing research your business plan. Writing the Products and Services Chapter. The products and services chapter of your business plan should be written clearly and descriptively, to help give investors a comprehensive understanding of the bread and butter of your business. Your products and admission essay, services section should include the essays, following sections. Products and Services Chapter Sections. Products and Services Competitors Sourcing and Fulfillment (optional) Technology (optional) Intellectual Property (optional) Future Products and Services (optional)

Your products and services are the lifeblood of your business – it’s what your customers need, and if you get this right, everything else will follow . Commonly referred to as “product lift”, which essentially means getting the secret sauce working. It means that customers want to buy your product/service, and you are filling a need that was previously not satisfied. Thinking in terms of benefits vs. features. What is the consumer really buying? For example, a person buying a Rolex watch is admission, not only compare essay halloween, buying a device to tell time, but the prestige and phd psychology admission, status that comes with a luxury product.

Think about on human, what end benefit your product/service delivers. Of course, the essay, functional aspects of your product/service are also important. Depending on what you are going to sell, think through the be overturned, features it will provide, packaging, design, branding, quality, and other aspects that help position and/or differentiate it from competing products/services. You may have heard the business adage that acquiring a new customer is indefinitely more expensive then keeping an existing customer. One of the reasons this is true is the potential to sell additional add-ons, upgrades and substitute products/services to admission, existing customers . Roe V Essay? Think about how you can drive incremental revenue. Whether it’s via subscriptions, repeat business, or annual contracts, you may be providing products/services that generate a recurring revenue stream. This is essay, a good thing, because (1) your revenue can be more predictable and stable (2) you are maximizing earning potential . Think how you can generate recurring revenue, which is expressed with a metric called Lifetime Value per customer. You will complete the price you want to compare contrast essay prom, set your products/services in the Financial Plan chapter, and phd psychology essay, we also have a section for you to describe your pricing strategy; however it is advisable to start thinking about how you want to roe v wade be overturned, price your products/services. Competitive analysis is an extremely useful tool and one that should be revisited often as the competitive landscape changes over time. It starts with competitive analysis. Background (location, history, ownership) Financials (revenue, profitability) Products (product line, services, patents, licenses) Marketing (channels used and budget, pricing, alliances/affiliates) Personnel (headcount, notable executives, compensation, job openings) Market share Strengths, Weaknesses.

Tips on phd psychology admission, how to perform competitive analysis. The Internet makes this much easier then in days past. Some ideas: Google search using keywords that your customers would use to should roe v be overturned essay, find you Look up industry association websites Look up directories such as Yahoo or Crunchbase Use to find your competitor’s job openings Competitor’s websites Find your competitor’s management team members on phd psychology essay, LinkedIn. Not only do you have to worry about compare essay halloween prom, current competitors you can see, but you have to be vigilant and be on the lookout for admission new entrants.

For example, a company that already sells to your customer base may see your industry as a logical next step. You should consider the likelihood of new entrants high if: The industry sees high margins (its super profitable) There is unmet demand (more customers then suppliers) There are no major barriers to entry (does not take much to on human rights, start competing) There is future growth potential (such as mobile apps) Much of this is phd psychology, common sense – if you see a market opportunity that no one is competing in yet, don’t expect that you will be alone for long. Sourcing is simply the process of procuring goods and services from suppliers that are required for your company to make its products or deliver its service. Analyzing Visual Essay? Some things to consider when choosing and managing your suppliers: Cost: This is an obvious one – the phd psychology essay, lower the visual media essay, price, the higher your profit margins will be. Payment terms: The longer you have to pay your suppliers, the more working capital you have on hand.

Reliability: You must consider how reliable your suppliers are and what would happen to your ability to operate if they cannot deliver. Scalability: As your business expands, will your suppliers be able to meet your needs? Fulfillment is phd psychology essay, simply the process of how your company delivers its products/services, from should be overturned point of phd psychology essay sale to delivery. There are several popular fulfillment options: Engineer to order: the product is designed and be overturned essay, built to customer specifications (e.g.; large construction projects) Build to order: the product’s design is standardized but manufacture of final product is phd psychology admission, based off of customer specifications (e.g.; aircraft and yachts) Assemble to contrast essay prom, order: the product is assembled to the customer’s specifications using pre-fabricated components (e.g.; Chipotles burritos, Dell computers) Make to stock: the product is manufactured in quantity based on expected sales of the product (e.g.; retailers) If you are going to be selling physical products and expect to phd psychology admission essay, hold inventory, then you should pay very close attention to how you forecast the amount of inventory you need to meet your projected sales. Too little inventory and you may not be able to meet demand. Too much inventory and you tie up all of your cash on excess inventory. Some key points:

Have accurate sales forecasts. Use historical sales data if you have it, and make sure you account for seasonality. Have accurate inventory tracking. Use bar code scanning or equivalent to ensure there are no data entry errors. Paper? Utilize inventory management software. Phd Psychology Admission? QuickBooks, Sage, and a plethora of essays other vendors provide a cloud-based solution for you to manage and maximize your inventory levels. Technology in today’s business environment is admission essay, becoming more and more important and serves as a source of competitive advantage. Take Wal-Mart or FedEx as two examples of companies that provide services (low-cost products and simplified essay format, shipping), but utilize technology as a critical means of delivering those services.

Wal-Mart uses a sophisticated supply chain management IT system to ensure its low prices. FedEx uses technology to optimize delivery routes and phd psychology admission essay, times, which enables it to media essay, ship to practically every corner of the globe, seamlessly and with very low error rates. Think about how technology plays a part in your business and if it is critical to your business operations. If technology is critical to your business operations, then you must think about your disaster preparedness and contingency planning . Depending on phd psychology admission essay, your business, you may want to create back-up copies of data and software, routine security checks, and securing physical assets. In Paradise Essays? What would happen if you lost access to essay, the technology? Think about alternatives that you could utilize. For example, if you license a piece of contrast essay prom night software and later down the road decide that the cost is too high, is essay, there a competitor who can license you an simplified format alternative? If you have exclusive rights to a technology, either through a patent or through an exclusive license agreement, this is a great competitive advantage and one that you will want to describe in detail. There are two types of essay intellectual property that may be applicable to a business: industrial property (such as patents and trademarks), and essays on human, copyright (such as novels and movies).

If you have intellectual property that you want to protect, it is advisable that you seek the professional advice of a good Patent/IP Attorney , since this is a great way to provide a barrier to entry for your business. Intellectual property type 1: Industry property. These include inventions (patents), trademarks and industrial designs (trade secrets, trade dress). If you have any proprietary process or technology then it is recommended that you apply for a patent to protect your invention. You should apply for a trademark for your company name and logo as well. Intellectual property type 2: copyright. These include literary and artistic works such as novels, poems and plays, films, musical works, artistic works such as drawings, paintings, photographs and sculptures, and architectural designs. In 2011, counterfeit copyrighted and trademarked goods were a $600 billion dollar industry worldwide. Enforcing your intellectual property may be feasible from a legal point of view, but many times is not practical in essay practice.

For example, Microsoft cannot possibly prosecute every single instance where its popular operating systems are copied and downloaded. IP and your employees and contractors. It is just as important to secure your intellectual property in relation to your employees and contractors. Everyone should be required to sign an invention assignment agreement, which basically states that the company owns all works produced while contracted by the company. In addition, you may consider handing out serialized notebooks for employees to use , so that if there is ever a conflict as to simplified essay, whom owns a piece of intellectual property, there is phd psychology essay, a physical record. If you have future products and services planned, it is a good idea to describe the product roadmap and strategy behind it . A key concept is that of product lifecycle, which describes the stages of the life of prom night a product.

During this phase, your product will incur heavy promotional costs as you get the word out. You may discount the price of the phd psychology admission, product to encourage new customers. During this phase, you may focus on in paradise, expanding your product to new segments in the marketplace, and expand the phd psychology admission essay, product line (for example, with new colors or other variations). During this phase, you are enjoying the compare essay prom night, fruits of your labor. You may add new features to your product to stay competitive and to phd psychology essay, further differentiate your product from on human competitors. Marketing spend for your product starts to dissipate as sales of phd psychology essay your product are in contrast essay steady decline. After including all of this information, you’ll have completed the products and services chapter. Writing the Customers and Market Analysis Chapter. The customers and phd psychology essay, market analysis chapter will give you an opportunity to describe what your customer segments are, what needs you are filling for on human them, and how these groups of essay customers are trending in terms of growth and on human rights, behavior.

This chapter also includes any regulatory restrictions specific to your industry. Customers and Market Analysis Sections. Market Overview Market Needs Market Trends (optional) Market Growth (optional) Industry Analysis (optional) Key Customers (optional) In the market overview section you are going to calculate the total market (referred to phd psychology, as Total Addressable Market) for your products, and then the segment of contrast halloween night that market your business can capture. Total addressable market can be thought of in phd psychology admission essay several distinct levels.

At the highest level is an estimate of the roe v essay, total market given 100% saturation. Another way of looking at this is what would be the total market if one company had 100% market share. Once you have the phd psychology, total addressable market, then you can estimate what percentage of this you can realistically capture. Decisions In Paradise Essays? This, of course, is much harder to predict with accuracy. So the important thing to remember is to utilize strong sources for your assumptions. For example, lets say you plan to open a high-end steakhouse in downtown Miami. To calculate your total addressable market, you might count how many high-end restaurants are in the downtown area and research the average annual sales for each restaurant. Then multiply the two to get the total sales for all high-end restaurants. Essay? This would be your total addressable market.

Using the media essay, example above, we can then drill down to the next level and phd psychology admission, determine what percentage of the essay format, market you can realistically capture. You might assume that you will take an equal share of the market, thereby decreasing all other competitor’s shares in the market. Or you might offer cheaper prices, which you assume would take a larger percent of the market. Whatever your assumption, make sure it is well documented and logical. To obtain jaw-dropping product-lift you must solve a difficult and painful problem for phd psychology admission essay the customer. And if there are competitors, you must solve the problem better than them, and enough so that customers are willing to switch to your company. Describe what problem your product is solving. If you are targeting multiple customer segments, make sure you go into detail on how your product serves each customer segment. Describe how your solution better solves customer’s pain points then your competitors. We as consumers are inherently lazy. We do not want to go through the time and cost of compare contrast essay switching from one company’s product/services unless it is compelling enough, which is dependent on the switching cost.

For example, there is virtually no cost to switch from Coke to Pepsi. On the other hand, there is high switching cost associated with migrating from a Mac to a PC. To overcome this problem, describe how your product either is able to phd psychology essay, overcome customer’s inherent adversity towards switching products, or if your product is able to reach new customers and bypass switching costs altogether (in other words, instead of simplified taking customers away from your competitors, you are creating a new market for your products). Understanding market trends at the macro level is critical for phd psychology admission various aspects of your business. A growing or shrinking market is described in more detail in the market growth section. On Human Rights? Below are some of the other factors that will affect market trends: The overall economy has a disproportionate effect on some businesses.

For example, dog-walking services usually see a decline in sales as households reduce spending on non-essential purchases. Government regulations and policies can completely alter an industry, so it is imperative that you are up to date on upcoming changes. Phd Psychology Essay? For example, the Jobs Act of 2012 allowed for the first time non-accredited investors to participate in essays rights private placement of securities. This in turn has created a new market for crowd-funding websites to emerge to connect startups with all types of investors. You may be in phd psychology admission an industry where political conditions have an impact on the bottom line.

For example, if you count the Dept. of Defense as one of your clients, then the across-the-board budget cuts (i.e.; Sequestration in the Budget Control Act of 2011) would surely have a negative effect on your business. If you build your business on top of a technology platform that will soon be replaced with a more cost affordable, powerful, and easier to use technology, then that will surely put you in wade essay a less advantageous position. Knowing technology trends is valuable in ensuring you are gaining a competitive advantage through the use of admission technology. Your customers may change their sensitivity to price depending on a variety of factors, including competition, macroeconomic conditions, and changing consumer tastes. Keeping an eye on this trend will ensure you optimize your pricing strategy. Market growth, mathematically, is simply measuring the change in market size from one time period to the next (usually in essays on human rights years). So if the market in the first year was $100 million and $150 million the second year, then the market can be said to have grown by 50%. You will find that measuring market growth using historical market size data is much easier then forecasting market growth. Admission Essay? Utilize publically available data sources, trade publications, market research firms, and government agencies to find much of this research. Being able to introduction writing paper, demonstrate a market is essay, growing is obviously important – for analyzing visual example, the market for Blackberry accessories is clearly a declining market.

Most investors and lenders will not want to see a new business chase after dwindling customers. On the admission, other hand, the compare halloween night, market for Apple and Samsung phone accessories have seen great growth and will continue to grow as those companies continue to phd psychology essay, add new customers. Your industry is defined as the group of companies that are related to introduction, you in terms of admission essay what you sell/how you derive your revenue. For example, Ford and Nissan are both in the automotive industry. Ford and essays on human, Nissan’s market (i.e.; customers) would be the essay, end consumers who buy their cars. You will want to describe your industry name/classification (SIC/NAICS Code), which can be found on the Dept. of Labor website. Understanding your industry’s dynamics is writing, imperative to knowing it’s profit potential and phd psychology, attractiveness.

A popular framework for should essay conducting industry analysis is Porter’s five forces analysis, which analyzes an industry’s competitiveness (and therefore attractiveness). By performing this analysis you will have a clear picture of your competitors and how your company fits within the competitive landscape. If your industry has low barriers to phd psychology, entry and research paper, low switching costs, then expect increased competition, as there is little standing in essay the way for new entrants to decisions, enter the market and phd psychology admission essay, compete. If your industry is supplied by very few suppliers with little alternative but to source from essays rights those suppliers, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If your industry only has a small number of buyers, or there are many alternative products to choose from, then expect downward pressure on your margins. If there are many substitute products in your industry and admission essay, the switching costs between them are low, then expect substantial competition. An industry is simplified format, very competitive if there are many competitors about the same size, there is little differentiation between competitor’s products, and it is mature with little growth (so the phd psychology admission essay, only way to grow is to take a competitor’s market share). Although your product may cater to many different sets of customers, you want to focus on a select group that will be the most likely to purchase your product/service and account for the lion’s share of essay format your company’s revenue. For many businesses, you will soon realize that a large portion of your revenue comes from a small percentage of your customers.

For example, Starbucks may realize their key customers are white-collar business types that purchase a cup of coffee every day, versus the student type that comes in admission essay once a month. When you can name your key customers. If you are in a business where volumes are low and prices are high, then you should be able to name your key customers individually. In this case, you should describe in detail your relationship with each of simplified them separately. If you’ve filled out this chapter, congratulations. Doing market research and customer analysis is a complicated and time consuming task. Time to admission essay, move on simplified, to the next chapter! Writing the Marketing and phd psychology essay, Sales Chapter. The marketing and sales chapter gives you an opportunity to contrast essay halloween prom night, describe how you will manage your sales force and what sales activities they will conduct in order to close sales. Overview Positioning Pricing Promotion Distribution. In this section, summarize your marketing plan, being sure to include:

Positioning: Are you going to be the lowest cost provider or provide a differentiated product? Pricing: How will you price your products/services? Promotion: How will your market your products/services? Distribution: Where will your product/services be available? Tip: It will be easier to write this section after you complete the subsequent sections as the overview section summarizes key findings from the other section. Keep this section at the summary-level, as you will go into further detail in phd psychology admission essay the subsequent sections. Describe how you position your company within the competitive landscape. Essay Format? Will you compete on phd psychology admission essay, price, or will you differentiate your offering and stand out from your peers? For example, Wal-Mart positions itself as the low-cost provider in an industry, while Apple designs premium products to reach the luxury end of the market.

Provide your product/service at the cheapest price point in the marketplace. There are three primary ways to achieve this: Economies of Scale: For example, being able to turn more tables in a restaurant or produce more widgets in simplified format a factory. The more you are able to produce from admission essay your asset, the cheaper it becomes. Decisions In Paradise? It will also be harder for your competitors to enter the market since you have fixed assets and experience that requires a large investment. Low operating costs: Keeping costs down across all aspects of the phd psychology essay, business, including: Standardization: Limited customization Outsourcing: Outsourcing labor to low cost production centers Thrift: Limiting advertising and RD spend Optimized supply-chain: By lowering inventory and paper, negotiating with suppliers, companies can substantially improve their profitability and cash flow. Making your product/service unique by targeting a specific segment of the market is a compelling strategy, especially if: Your customers are not price sensitive The market is competitive Your are targeting a specific niche You can provide a product/service that is not easily copied. You can also achieve differentiation through branding and phd psychology admission, marketing – for example, Starbucks sells premium coffee at a premium price point, primarily through the strength of their branding and simplified essay, not through the phd psychology, taste of their coffee. Determining the optimal price for your products/services will require you to think through several factors:

If you are going shooting for the low cost provider strategy, then you will want to price yourself accordingly. Decisions In Paradise? Likewise, if you are going for the luxury end of the market, then a higher price is phd psychology essay, often times a proxy for quality. How price sensitive are your customers? If your customers are making their purchase decision primarily based on essays on human rights, price, then you will want to phd psychology admission, be sensitive to this. The price you set must be high enough to essays on human, over your costs so you can turn a profit.

There are, of course, exceptions. For example, you might want to admission essay, achieve economies of scale by maximizing units sold, or you might be maximizing revenue to achieve dominant market share. There may be regulatory/legal constraints on how much you can charge. For example, payday loan vendors are restricted in how much they can charge their customers. Looking at what your competitors charge can give you a understanding of what current customers are accustomed to paying and will likely be willing to pay for rights your products/services. There are price points that consumers are psychologically more accustomed to, such as amounts ending in phd psychology admission .99 or .95.

In this section, you move from compare prom describing your marketing plan onto admission essay, how you will convey your marketing message to your intended audience. What marketing channels will you utilize to reach your target customers? Depending on your business, traditional media may be an simplified essay important component of phd psychology your complete marketing toolbox. These would include television, radio, billboards, flyers, etc. In today’s environment few companies can afford not to have a strong online presence. There are a myriad of options available. Each marketing channel must be carefully measured for effectiveness, as online marketing can quickly add up and consume a small business’s entire marketing budget. A website is a key component of your digital marketing efforts as it will be the destination in which your online leads will first visit. Some online marketing options include: Search engines (i.e.; Google, Bing) Directories (Yelp, Angies List) Daily deals (Groupon) Email marketing Social media (Facebook, Twitter) Word of mouth marketing is by introduction research, far the most profitable and powerful marketing channel available to any business.

New customers that are referred to your business are more likely to purchase and more likely to continue referring your company. There are ways to boost word of phd psychology admission mouth marketing, especially with the advent of social media. For example, asking a satisfied customer to like your business on Yelp and Facebook will potentially reach hundreds of their contacts, all with one click. Integrating social media into your word of mouth marketing strategy is invaluable for format every business. Blogging/Becoming a subject matter expert. Having a leading voice in your industry will help your business gain credibility from customers, suppliers, partners and admission, competitors. You can start by participating on public forums and blogs related to in paradise essays, your business and adapting the adage “give more to get more”. How will your products be available? On one end of the phd psychology essay, spectrum is direct marketing, whereby you sell directly to your customers.

Or if you manufacture your products, you might sell through distributors, who in essays on human rights turn sell to retailers, who in turn sell to phd psychology admission essay, consumers. Halloween Prom? Three common models: Product is phd psychology admission, stocked in mass-market distribution channels. Examples include soft drinks, magazines, etc. Product is specialized and writing research paper, sold through specialized channels. Examples include nautical computers and tooling/machinery. Product is only sold through an exclusive channel. Admission? Examples include luxury products such as high-end motorcycles or designer handbags. The Internet presents an unparalleled opportunity to reach customers directly, as well as working with online channel partners to reach and sell to customers. Writing the Strategy and Implementation Chapter. The strategy and implementation chapter will give you an opportunity to visual, define the essay, key milestones that mark meaningful progress towards your goals.

It also includes sections that further elaborate on your competitors. Strategy and Implementation Sections. Milestones SWOT Analysis (optional) Competitive Edge (optional) Strategic Alliances (optional) Milestones are the key events that demonstrate progress is essays rights, being made , such as completing the company’s first prototype or breaking even. These provide a tangible way to measure the phd psychology admission, success of the business venture.

Milestones are so incredibly important to a business yet are one of those things that can be easily overlooked. Why are milestones so important? Because they are a way to measure meaningful progress of a company that in effect, makes that company less risky (and therefore more valuable). A new company has an extremely high-risk profile – but as it meets tangible milestones, such as completing a prototype or breaking even, the company’s risk decreases. It becomes more apparent that the writing research, venture will succeed.

Investors and essay, lenders will be looking at what milestones your company has reached in order to create a fair valuation. Milestones might include: Assembling company team First working prototype Filing/receiving patent or other IP Securing physical location for store First paying customer Breaking even Turning a profit* *If you can demonstrate not only turning a profit, but also sustaining that profit, then that is a huge milestone. SWOT Analysis is a useful technique for introduction understanding your company’s strengths and weaknesses , while identifying both the opportunities open to your business and the threats it faces. Strengths and Weaknesses refer to internal factors in your company, such as: Employees and staff Physical assets such as equipment and phd psychology, facilities Financial assets. Opportunities and Threats refer to external factors facing your company, such as: Market trends Regulatory and legal Macroeconomic conditions Competitors. Competitive edge can be bucketed into four primary areas: cost, differentiation, innovation and writing research paper, operational effectiveness. Are you providing a product/service at a lower cost then your competitors?

This is admission, a straightforward competitive edge that is very difficult to analyzing media essay, deliver. Providing the lowest cost may require operating on razor thin profit margins or heavy investment in fixed costs in order to achieve economies of scale. Are you providing a product/service that your competitors are not offering or cannot offer? This is phd psychology, a common strategy whereby you provide differentiated value in order to better serve customers and/or reach a portion of the market that may be under-served. Are you leapfrogging your competition and providing a notably superior or new product/service?

Popularized by contrast essay prom, the book “Blue Ocean Strategy”, creating new demand in an uncontested market space is a powerful business strategy. Do you provide superior time to market or customer service? For example, your customers may be willing to pay a higher price for better customer service . Admission? Nordstrom’s is an analyzing visual essay example of a company that uses superior customer service as a competitive advantage. Forging strategic alliances is a commonplace occurrence in business. There are a wide variety of alliances you might encounter, with various parties in which you do business.

Even if you do not have any alliances, there may be an opportunity for a partnership in the future and that should be included in this section. You might have a supplier who has a disproportionate amount of influence and power of your business. Striking a partnership in this case may decrease those risk factors and provide a competitive advantage over your competitors. You might have a large portion of your revenue coming from several key customers. Inking an exclusive agreement to lock in revenue would, for instance, give you predictable cash flow. It is phd psychology, not uncommon to partner with competitors under certain circumstances – for example, to set standards for the industry or to help further adoption of a technology. Decisions In Paradise? For example, Sony and phd psychology essay, Panasonic partnered together to increase the adoption of Blu-ray DVDs. Aligning your brand with another company is frequently used, especially if both brands are targeting the same demographic. For example, Samsung is the official sponsor of the Olympic games and will provide free mobile phones to all Olympic athletes. Upon completing these sections, your strategy and implementation chapter will be finished. Writing the Financial Plan, Statements, and Sales Forecast Chapters.

Writing the financial plan, financial statements, and sales forecast will be the most difficult part of your entire plan. Decisions? It requires making a large number of intelligent assumptions about the size of the admission, market you can realistically target, and essays on human, the costs associated with making your product or rendering your services. These sections are the phd psychology admission, red meat of your plan — these are the chapters that any seasoned angel investor or venture capitalist will dig into to make sure they know they’re making a solid financial investment. Chapter 7: Financial Plan and Sales Forecast Sections. Sales Forecast Personnel Plan Budget Cash Flow Assumptions Loans and Investments Starting Balances Historical Financials Key Metrics for Success. Define the price in which you will sell your products and services, the cost it will take to produce or sell the product/service, and the number of compare contrast essay prom units you will sell. Be conservative when making your estimates on phd psychology admission essay, the number of decisions in paradise units you will sell, ensuring you have a reasonable methodology when making your forecast. It is admission, highly recommended that you first complete the following sections as they lay the foundation for defining the sales forecast.

Products/Services section: Defines what you will sell and at what price point; also seeks to define the production cost Target Market section: Defines the size of your target market and decisions in paradise essays, what quantities you can sell. Tip: Your sales forecast should sync with your Sales and Marketing plan. Admission? For example, if you plan on hiring several sales people nine months from the start of your business, you should forecast an increase in sales thereafter. This is the price you will sell your products/services. Fixed price: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling Price changes over time: The price of your product/service may increase/decrease in simplified essay price over time for several reasons: Keep up with inflation Keep up with increased cost of raw materials or components Seasonal product – discount to offload excess inventory Promote new product – discount upfront to encourage sales, then increase later. This is the direct cost of producing your product/service (at the unit level). Admission Essay? Otherwise known as cost of goods sold (COGS). Fixed costs: Suitable for most sales forecast modeling % of sales: A good way to analyzing media essay, forecast costs; as sales increase you can set the cost as a % of sales on a sliding scale. Costs vary each month: The cost of your product/service may increase/decrease in phd psychology admission price over time for simplified several reasons: Economy of scale: the more units you produce, the cheaper it becomes to produce them Bargaining power: the more units you buy from your supplies, the cheaper they become Seasonality: cost of raw materials may fluctuate based on time of year. This is the expected number of units you will sell.

My units are constant: Not particularly suitable as most businesses will expect to have some growth over time. Phd Psychology? Units sold changes over time: The quantity sold of your product/service may increase over roe v wade time for several reasons: Growing market share Finding new markets. Sales tax requirements vary by country and by admission essay, products/services sold. Essay? In the United States, there is no sales tax at the federal level; however, many states levy selective sales tax on particular goods or services. Phd Psychology? Check with your state department of analyzing media taxation if you are required to collect sales tax. If yes, you collect the sales tax from your customers and essay, then remit the tax to the state each year.

If the individual assumptions used for each component of the sales forecast is accurate, so will the overall sales forecast. You should be able to introduction paper, explain where each number comes from, citing studies/research that validates your assumptions. The costs of hiring personnel are often the largest expense of phd psychology admission any business. In this section, you will enter forecasted employees and contractors you plan to hire. The number of personnel you plan to decisions, hire and at what time is more of an art then a science. Too much staff too soon and you’ll burn through your working capital. Phd Psychology Admission? Too few staff and introduction, you’ll run the risk of alienating your customers and partners when you can’t deliver. A good way to think about your personnel plan is to think about the milestones you want your business to phd psychology admission, accomplish and what personnel are required to get your business there. You can always revise your estimates, so start off with your best estimate and come back to this section later. Tweak as needed so that your business model demonstrates profitability within your target time frame. The type of company you are building and the financing required also makes a big difference in your staffing plan.

For example, if you are seeking venture capital that mean you are going to want to hire and scale quickly in order to roe v wade be overturned essay, generate large revenues. Conversely, if you are seeking debt financing, you want to operate as lean as possible and maximize profitability so you can service your loans. Fixed amount: Suitable for most situations. Phd Psychology Admission? Changes over time: You might want to define a compensation plan for sales personnel that have an annual bonus component, for example. Employee: If choosing employee you will have to consider certain employee taxes and other considerations. Contractor: If selecting contractor, ensure that you are classifying said contractor correctly. In the writing, United States, for example, you are legally required to provide employee-type benefits in certain situations even if you classify the personnel as a contractor. If hiring employees, you will be responsible for additional costs such as (but not limited to) payroll taxes, worker’s compensation and health insurance, paid time off, training and travel expenses, vacation and sick leave, pension contributions and admission, other benefits. This is referred to the burden rate, which provides a truer picture of total labor costs than payroll costs alone. Burden rate only visual media essay, affects employees and not contractors. Phd Psychology Essay? If unsure what to enter, 15% is a fair estimate.

Explain the assumptions and essays, methodology used to define the personnel your business plans to retain, including how you came up with your compensation figures and burden rate. For example, you might explain that as you plan to essay, hire several sales people to coincide with the essay halloween, release of a new product. Enter expenses you plan on incurring for your business. A good way to make sure you capture majority of your business’s expenses is to think through costs associated with each functional area of your business, such as product development, marketing and admission, operations. Categorize expense into groups, such legal and administrative, rent and leases, and telecommunications. Do not include fixed asset expenses (assets whereby you derive value from for more than 12 months) such as a company van or computers. You will enter these in the next step. Advertising Expense Amortization Expense Auto Expense Bad Debt Expense Bank Charges Cash Over and Short Commission Expense Depreciation Expense Employee Benefit Program Freight Expense Gifts Expense Insurance – General Interest Expense Professional Fees License Expense Maintenance Expense Meals and Entertainment Office Expense Payroll Taxes Printing Postage Rent Repairs Expense Salaries Expense Supplies Expense Taxes – FIT Expense Utilities Expense Gain/Loss on Sale of Assets. Enter long-term asset expenses here. Long-term assets are comprised of two types: tangible and intangible assets. Fixed assets are tangible assets that provide value for more than 12 months, such as a company van or computers.

Fixed assets are depreciated over its useful lifetime. This is an accounting method that allows the business to should roe v wade be overturned essay, allocate the costs of the phd psychology essay, asset over its life by gradually reducing its value. Common fixed assets: Land and Buildings Motor vehicles Furniture Office equipment Fixtures and fittings Plant and machinery. Intangible assets are long-term assets that are not physical in nature. Intangible assets are amortized over wade its useful life. These might include: Intellectual property (items such as patents, trademarks, copyrights, business methodologies) Goodwill Brand recognition. Enter other short-term assets here, which most likely will be any prepaid expense that lasts for less than 12 months.

Besides prepaid expenses, other current assets also include short-term investments and phd psychology admission, securities that are likely to turned into analyzing, cash within a year. A prepaid expense can be described as such: A 12-month office lease is signed with the admission, total lease amount of essays $12,000 being paid upfront. Admission? Classifying this as a regular expense would not be accurate because then the PL Statement and Cash Flow Statement would both show the compare contrast halloween, $12,000 as a one-time upfront payment on the month it which it was made. This type of expense is better described as a prepaid expense, since the use of the office is spread out over a 12-month period of time and can be considered an asset on the Balance Sheet that is expensed over time. By classifying this as a prepaid expense (or an essay amortized short term asset) then the PL Statement would show the $12,000 prepaid expense spread across 12 months at analyzing media $1,000 each month, while the Cash Flow Statement would reflect the $12,000 payment on phd psychology, month in which it was made. Under Assets, the Balance Sheet would then show the amount of Prepaid Lease that is remaining at in paradise essays the end of the essay, accounting period. Enter an halloween prom night estimate for essay income taxes you expect to pay, which should be a summation of federal, state and local income tax. Do not include other taxes such as property tax (should be entered as a separate expense) or employee-related taxes (this is covered in decisions in paradise the Personnel Section as the Burden Rate). As this is only an estimate, 100% accuracy is not required (if unsure what to phd psychology admission essay, enter here, use 20%). Dividends and distributions (for corporations and LLCs/partnerships, respectively) are payments to decisions, the company’s shareholders/owners, taken from the company’s profit.

Dividends are typically paid out at phd psychology the end of the fiscal year, while distributions can be given out at halloween prom the discretion of the owners. You may want to set this to zero initially and see how the financials of your business model work out; then you can work backwards and determine how much of retained profit you want to phd psychology admission, distribute to paper, owners/shareholders. Here you can explain any regular costs that are associated with running your business. What are the monthly or ongoing costs that you must pay to keep the business up and running? For example, this could be paying monthly utilities and rent expenses for phd psychology admission your office space, insurance, or any marketing or advertising costs. For a start-up, remember that there are always up-front costs or one-time costs associated with getting things started, so be aware of any of these expenses and include them in your budget. Accounts receivable is roe v be overturned essay, defined as sales that the company has made but has yet to collect the money from the purchaser. Most companies operate by allowing some portion of their sales to be on credit. Phd Psychology Admission Essay? These types of sales are usually made to frequent or special customers who are invoiced periodically, and allow them to avoid the writing research, hassle of physically making payments as each transaction occurs.

You want your accounts receivable to phd psychology admission essay, be as low as possible to essay, increase your cash flow. Defining what percentage of your sales will be on credit. You want this percentage to be as low as possible, while keeping in mind that for some businesses it is preferential to admission, provide some credit to your best customers. Defining how long it will take to collect payment. Of the customers that you provide credit to, you need to define when they are to pay you back. The faster, the better your cash flow will look like. It is typical to provide net-30, which is 30 days. Accounts payable is in paradise essays, defined as short-term debt owed to phd psychology admission, suppliers and banks.

It is to your advantage to analyzing essay, negotiate longer payment terms with your suppliers, as it will improve your cash flow. Phd Psychology Essay? When looking at accounts receivable (what is owed to you) and accounts payable (what you owe), the essay format, key thing to remember is that you want to essay, be paid as soon as possible, and you want to pay others as late as possible (cash on decisions, hand is king). Defining what percentage of your purchases will be on credit. You want this percentage to admission essay, be as high as possible, as that will improve your cash flow. However, ensure you are able to introduction paper, pay your vendors on the purchases made on credit.

Defining how long it will take to collect incoming payments. How many days will it take, on average, to phd psychology admission essay, collect incoming payments? Select the research, typical number of days between when you make a credit sale and when the payment arrives. Keep in mind that shortening this period can vastly improve your cash flow. If your business will sell physical products and you plan on phd psychology, keeping inventory on format, hand, then you need to admission, define how many months of format inventory you wish to keep on hand.

The more months of inventory you hold on hand, the more cash is phd psychology essay, tied up in in paradise inventory. This will affect your cash flow. How much inventory should you carry? The ideal amount varies from industry to admission, industry, and wade be overturned, business to business. A good place to find more information is trade associations for your industry. In order to improve your company’s inventory management, you will need to start by collecting good records on your inventory. Using inventory turnover rate as an essay indicator. Inventory Turnover Rate = Costs of Goods Sold (COGS) / average cost of inventory on roe v be overturned, hand. A low inventory turnover rate means that you may have too much inventory on hand. Understanding and managing cash flow is phd psychology essay, very important to analyzing visual media essay, any business. The time period for credit sales and payments may depend on your suppliers or your industry.

Paying and getting paid later rather than earlier can entirely change your cash flow projections. You can utilize this section to admission essay, explain any assumptions about cash flow, including details on the time period in analyzing media which you will make and receive payments. How did you come to these assumptions and how will it affect your business? When taking out a loan, you borrow an amount of money (principal) from a lender, and are obligated to pay back at a later time (usually in installments). Phd Psychology? You will typically pay interest on essays on human rights, the loan. If you are seeking a loan then enter the amount, as you want to phd psychology, forecast the financials assuming you have secured the essay, loan. Personal vs Commercial Loans. For many small businesses, taking out phd psychology admission, a personal loan to finance growth is commonplace. These might include credit cards, home equity line of credit (HELOC), and installment loans.

If you have an on human existing small business, commercial loans can be obtained, which are based on a variety of phd psychology admission essay factors. Secured vs Unsecured Loans. A secured loan is a loan in compare essay halloween which you pledge some asset (equipment, property, etc.) as collateral. Unsecured loans (credit cards, personal loans) are not secured against a borrower’s assets. Interest rates will be higher for unsecured loans versus secured loans, for admission essay obvious reasons. If you have a pre-existing loan, then you can specify those details in the Starting Balances section. A line of credit is similar to a loan with the difference being that interest is not charged on the part of the line of credit that is unused, and the borrower can draw on the line of credit at any time that he or she needs to.

If you are seeking a line of credit then enter the amount, as you want to forecast the financials assuming you have secured the line of credit. The line of credit may be classified as a demand loan, which means that any outstanding balance will have to be paid immediately at the financial institution’s request. Investments include injections of cash into media essay, the business from you, other shareholders or owners, or investors. This typically refers to equity investments where investors contribute cash to the business in exchange for equity (ownership). In this section, you can describe how your business will be funded. If you are a startup, it is likely that the money you make from sales will not cover all your business expenses so you may need additional sources of funding, such as taking out a loan, receiving investors’ capital, credit lines, or other ways of borrowing money. What type of phd psychology admission essay funding will you acquire? At what point in your plan are you expecting these funds? For existing businesses only. The starting balances will be used to adjust the balance sheet to take into account your company’s financial history.

Important: all starting balances should be entered as they are at the start of your plan. Enter starting balances for assets: Cash Accounts Receivable Inventory Other current assets Long term assets Accumulated depreciation. Enter starting balances for writing research paper liabilities: Enter starting balance for Capital and Earnings: Enter your Recent Sales: One month before start date Two months before start date Three months before start date Four months before start date Five months before start date Six months before start date. If you are an existing business, you can enter past financial data here. This is optional and will be used to calculate historical financial ratios in the Financial Statements section.

For each year of your company history , include: $ Sales $ Gross profit $ Income from operations $ Net profit $ Current assets $ Current liabilities $ Inventory $ Total assets $ Total liabilities $ Total owner equity. Every business model has several key metrics that management can use to see if the business is healthy. Essay? For example, a restaurant might use the number of analyzing essay tables it can turn per night and the average revenue per essay dinner. Should Roe V Wade Essay? Think about essay, what levers make the most impact to your business. You will want to continuously track and monitor these metrics to ensure your business model is writing, working. Chapter 8: Financial Statements Sections. Profit and Loss Statements Balance Sheet Cash Flow Statement Financial Ratios. The Profit Loss (i.e.; income statement) shows your revenue, expenses, and phd psychology admission essay, profit. It is the most common of the three reports as it provides a view into simplified essay, the company’s projected “bottom line”.

The statement here is a read-only display, calculated automatically from the admission essay, information you entered in introduction writing research paper the Sales Forecast, Budget, and Personnel Plan sections. If you wish to edit or change any information, you may do so by going back to those sections. Phd Psychology? The statement here will update automatically. The balance sheet gives a snapshot of your company’s financial position at compare halloween prom night a given point in time, usually the last day of a fiscal period. It is called a balance sheet because assets (what you own) will always equal the admission, sum of roe v be overturned your liabilities (what you owe) and stockholder’s equity (your investments from stockholders plus money that your business earned that is put back into running your business). The balance sheet here is a read-only display. Admission? If you wish to analyzing media essay, change the balance sheet, you can do so by going back to the builder in the Financial Plan section. If you are an existing business, you have the option of adding starting balances under the Financial Plan section.

The cash flow statement displays the cash inflows and outflows from your operating, investing and financing activities. Rather than providing an overview like the phd psychology, balance sheet, the cash flow statement will measure the essay format, change in cash during a period. Phd Psychology Admission? In other words, how much money did you start and end up with? The statement here is a read-only display. Essay? You can go back to edit the sections in the Financial Plan section in order to change the accounts affected in the cash flow statement. The Financial Ratios section gives a general overview of the health of your business. The report here is phd psychology admission, a read-only display.

If you wish to change any of the information, you may do so by editing the relevant financial information you’ve entered previously. The ratios here will update automatically. The Liquidity Analysis shows how solvent your company is, or how easily convertible to contrast night, cash is the company in case. This is admission, important in determining the ability of the business to meet its obligations, or paying off what it owes in debt. The Profitability Analysis shows the overall performance of the company in its ability to make a profit.

The ratios show how much of sales revenue is actual profit after taking costs and expenses into introduction writing paper, account. The Debt Ratio shows how much of the business’s assets are financed by debt and how much of the business’s assets are financed by stockholders’ equity. Phd Psychology? The Investment Measures show ROI (Return on Investment) which is the percentage of the return (net profit) of the business divided by the cost of the investment. Essay Halloween Night? The most common method of calculating ROI is to divide net profit by total assets. Finishing these chapters represents a massive achievement in completing your business plan.

It is by far the admission essay, most difficult chapter, as it requires doing somewhat complicated math to essay halloween night, generate accurate financial statements. In all likelihood, you will need to hire an admission expert or accountant to help you create an roe v be overturned essay accurate and phd psychology admission essay, detailed plan that adheres to contrast essay, realistic outcomes. To finish it off, you’ll need to admission, write an appendix and a glossary of terms. Should Roe V Wade Be Overturned Essay? Your appendix will be a more detailed version of the admission, financial statements detailed in halloween prom this chapter, and your glossary of terms will simply define the terms of your business that an investor may not understand. Upon including those chapters, your plan will be complete. Feeling inspired to start a business, but don’t know how to write a plan? We have a sample database of phd psychology essay plans that you can look through to simplified essay format, learn the different chapters and sections necessary to attract equity investments and loans. Although our examples are specific to admission essay, each industry, keep in mind that every plan will be unique depending on your location, your customer base, and your own vision, so these will only serve as a starting point for you and night, your dream. Click the images to view our full business examples.

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Legal Templates LLC is visual essay, not a lawyer, or a law firm and does not engage in the practice of law. Legal Templates cannot and does not provide legal advice or legal representation. Admission? All information, software and services provided on the site are for visual media informational purposes and self-help only and are not intended to essay, be a substitute for roe v wade a lawyer or professional legal advice. Use of this site is subject to our Terms of Use. Preview Document - Business Plan Template.

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