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Essay purdue owl

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Purdue OWL: Exploratory Papers - the Purdue University Online

book report ruberic As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages. Book Report Graphic Organizers. Writing a Book Report (plus a Rubric) Book Report Graphic Organizers Printouts. First, read the book. As you're reading, take notes on key information, such as the names of the main characters, personality quirks of these characters, the setting, key plot twists, important events, and any other things that seem important and essay purdue owl that you think you might want to include in your book report. The Structure of Your Report : Start your report with an introductory paragraph that states the book's title, the author, and the type of book it is (mystery, fairy tale, science fiction, western, etc.). Then write at least four to sats papers tasks five paragraphs that clearly describe the book. Each paragraph should cover one topic (for example, you should have at least one paragraph that describes the main character). End the report with a closing paragraph that summarizes what you learned from the book and if you liked or disliked the book (and why).

Check that your grammar, spelling, and punctuation are correct. Make sure to use complete sentences and essay write neatly! Define any technical terms that you use. Proofread your report for sats writing errors before you hand it in -- do not hand in a rough draft. Topics to Include in Your Report : When you write your report, try to cover as many of the essay following topics as you can: Setting : Describe the sats papers setting or settings of the book. Note where the action takes place and when. Have you ever been to a place like that?

Did you like it or not? Would you like to be in purdue owl a place and time like that described in the book? Main Character : Write about the main character, including what they are like, what they look like, what they like to auf naxos do, and so on. Does the character change, learn, or grow in the story? If so, describe how and why this happens.

Would you like to be friends with this character? Other Characters : List the other characters in the books and give some characteristics for each. Which characters did you like/dislike? : State why you liked/disliked certain characters. Did any of the essay owl characters do things that you think are wrong, noble, risky, etc? What happened at the beginning of the story? : How does the story start? Usually this is where the characters are introduced to us and the problem is stated. What happened in discursive the middle of the story? : This is usually where we find out a lot about the characters and the story becomes more exciting. What happened at the end of the story? : This is usually where the main problem in the book is resolved.

What was the problem in essay owl the story and how was it solved? : What was the big problem in the story, how was it solved, who solved it. and stronger essay why? What did you learn from this story? : The best books leave the reader with a lot to essay owl think about and learn. Group Sales! Theme/Main Idea : What was the main idea or theme of the essay purdue owl book? Some stories have a moral (like Aesop's fables), while others try to teach a life lesson. Do you like this story? : Tell if you liked or disliked this story and why you did or didn't like it. Papers Tasks! Citing Your References : When you write your bibliography, list all of purdue owl your references. Formats for each type of publication follows (there are different formats for tasks different media): Book: Author(s). Title of owl book . Edition. Location of publisher: Name of Publisher, year of publication. Web Site: Author(s) if appropriate.

Title of Site or web page . URL of literature and composition poetry site, date of publication (the earliest copyright year listed). Author(s) are listed last name first, first name or initials (as cited in the publication). Another format for Internet sources is as follows: Last name, First name of author. Title of Page. Name of the publisher (EnchantedLearning.com in our case). Date the page was created (at Enchanted Learning, this is the earliest date on the copyright notice located at the bottom of each page), Date of revision (at Enchanted Learning, we do not keep track of page revisions). Some teachers also request that you include the date of access; this is the essay purdue owl date (or dates) that you went to the web page (or pages). The Following is a Rubric For Assessing each Part of Your Book Report : Book Reports and papers tasks Movie Reviews: Movie Review: Write a simple movie review, describing the owl characters, the story, and what you like the most and vs nurture discursive the least about the movie.

A one-page printable worksheet. Write ten things about a book you've read (plus one thing you would like to essay purdue change). A one-page printable worksheet. Write ten things about a movie (plus one thing you would like to change). Book Impressions: Triple Draw and literature and composition Write. Draw three of the major characters, scenes, or ideas from a book you have read, and write about each picture.

Or go to essay a pdf of the worksheet. Story Characters: Draw and Write 3 Things. Draw three of your favorite characters in books or stories and write about each of them.. Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. TV Characters: Draw and Write 3 Things.

Draw three of your favorite characters in in the movies or on TV and coordinator cover letter write about essay owl each of them.. Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. Stronger Essay! Books: Draw and Write 3 Things. Draw a scene or character from three of your favorite books and write about each of them. Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. Movies: Draw and Write 3 Things. Draw a scene or character from three of purdue your favorite movies and write about each of child thesis them. Or go to a pdf of the worksheet. Report Graphic Organizers for Book Reports and Movie Reviews: This story map prompts the student to summarize the beginning, middle, and end of a story. This story map prompts the student to summarize the beginning, middle, and end of a story, with two extra cells for each (to list extra details).

This story map prompts the student to purdue owl summarize the place, time, characters, problem, and solution of a story. This story map prompts the student to summarize the sats writing title, place, time, characters, problem, solution and moral of a story. This story map chart prompts the student to summarize describe the essay settting, the characters, the problem, two major events, and the solution. This story map chart prompts the student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the problem, three major events, and the solution. This story map diagram prompts the student to summarize describe the settting, the ap english literature characters, the purdue problem, two major events, and the solution. This story map diagram prompts the student to summarize describe the settting, the characters, the problem, three major events, and the solution. Strindberg Essay! This graphic organizer prompts the student to write about the characters, setting, and purdue events of a story. This graphic organizer prompts the nature vs nurture discursive student to purdue owl review a book, summarizing the book and writing their opinion about the text. This graphic organizer prompts the student to review a book, summarizing the book and ap english and composition essays writing their opinion about the essay purdue owl text. Make a book report wheel using this 2-page print-out; it consists of a base page together with a wheel that spins around.

The student fills out the child statements parts of the book report, including: Genre, Year Published, Setting, Main Character(s), Plot - Beginning, Middle, End, Problem or Conflict, and Message or Moral of Story. When you spin the wheel, the purdue owl the parts of the nature essay book report appear, one at a time. The student then answers the owl questions, Did you like this book? Would you recommend this book to a friend? Explain why. Make a reading log wheel for 8 books using this 2-page print-out; it consists of a base page together with a wheel that spins around.

After putting the wheel together, the student follows the instructions on the front wheel and fills out the reading log for each given genre (type of book), including: Biography, History, Science, Animals, Science Fiction/Fantasy, Fables/Myths, Any Fiction, Any Non-Fiction. For each of the 8 books, the student writes: Title, Author, Number of Pages, Your Rating of the Book, Date Completed. The student then answers the questions, Which book was your favorite book (and why)? Would you recommend this book to a friend? and auf naxos dessay Which book was your least favorite book (and why)? Print 4 different bookmarks. Each bookmark is a graphic organizer on which the student can write information about the book that is being read. Print 3 different bookmarks.

Each long bookmark is essay owl, a graphic organizer on which the nature discursive essay student can write information about the book that is being read. This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in which they can illustrate the major events in purdue a story in chronological order - 6 cells. Sats Papers Writing Tasks! This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in which they can illustrate the major events in a story in chronological order - 9 cells. Essay! This storyboard matrix gives the student cells in which they can illustrate the major events in a story in chronological order - 12 cells. Thesis! Story clock with three divisions. Story clock with four divisions. Story clock with five divisions. Story clock with six divisions. Purdue! A story star is a type of sales coordinator cover star diagram that can be used to describe the key points of a story or event, noting the 5 W's of the essay purdue owl story: who, when, where, what, and why.

5 labeled petals around a main oval. A chart with 2 columns and 5 rows, labeled: Who, When, Where, What, and Why. 5 labeled options around a central oval. 5 labeled circles around a main oval. Book Impressions: Triple Draw and vs nurture Write. Draw three of the major characters, scenes, or ideas from a book you have read, and write about each picture. Purdue! Or go to a pdf of the worksheet.

Books: Draw and Write 3 Things. Draw a scene or character from three of your favorite books and write about each of them. Or go to obesity thesis statements a pdf of the worksheet. Diagrams for writing paragraphs with a topic sentence, support details, and a conclusion sentence. Use this form to write a book report, noting the book's name, author, main characters, setting, and plot summary.

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Purdue OWL: Exploratory Papers - the Purdue University Online

On Democracy Robert Dahl Essays and purdue owl, Research Papers. Robert Dahl’s “On Democracy ” Early in Dahl’s book he answers the question “what is democracy ?” by enumerating a . list of five criteria that must be met in order for a government to be recognized as fully democratic. These criteria involve all citizens having equal and satisfactory opportunities to participate in the steering of auf naxos dessay policy. To realize all of these criteria would mean that it has achieved ‘ideal’ democracy , but Dahl concedes that it is not practical to expect a perfect democracy given. Democracy , Direct democracy , Freedom of speech 952 Words | 3 Pages. Democracy has become the most widespread political form of government during the past decade, after the essay purdue, fall of all its alternatives. During . the second part of the 20th century, the strindberg stronger essay, 3 main enemies of democracy , namely communism, fascism and Nazism, lost most of essay owl their power and influence. However, democracy is still only to be found in less than half of this world's countries. China with a fifth of the total population had never experienced a democratic government and Russia still doesn't have a.

Ancient Rome , Democracy , Government 1040 Words | 3 Pages. 12: What Underlying Conditions Favour Democracy ? Page 145-165 We face two questions: How can we account for the establishment of democratic . institutions in literature and composition essays, so many countries in so many parts of the essay owl, world, and how can we explain its failure? A full answer is impossible; two interrelated sets of factors are undoubtedly of crucial importance. FAILURE OF THE ALTERNATIVES During the strindberg essay, 20th century, the main alternatives lost out in competition with democracy . Essay Purdue! The monarchy, open oligarchy, hereditary. Democracy , Democratization , Direct democracy 1162 Words | 4 Pages. 0-300-09218-0, among others) is a book by political scientist Robert A. Dahl that discusses seven undemocratic elements of the sats writing tasks, . United States Constitution. The book defines democratic as alignment with the principle of one person, one vote, also known as majority rule. The author praises the Framers of the essay, Constitution as men of exceptional talent and virtue (p. 7) who made admirable progress in essay, the creation of their republican government. But Dahl also points out that innovation and change in democratic.

American Civil War , Democracy , President of the United States 1217 Words | 5 Pages. Running Head: IDEAL DEMOCRACY The Ideal Democracy Victoria Jones Political Science 101 Professor O’Meara March 11, 2012 . Essay Purdue! Outline A.) Introduction – Democracy Definition by Latin roots and suffixes a. Background- Articles about the common topic of Democracy and nature, its different definitions. I. Dahl - Dahl’s view in political system. b. Thesis – Through observation from Dahl’s point of view, I will explain the meaning of the ideal democracy while considering how. Autocracy , Democracy , Government 1347 Words | 5 Pages. ?QUESTION 1; 1. Do you think elections can be a good measure of democracy ? Discuss this statement in relation to essay purdue, elections recently held in . Discursive Essay! African countries you are familiar with.

INTRODUCTION The year 2011 experienced serious levels of political activities in Africa such as political upheavals, middle-east uprisings and elections in many countries. Most Islamic nations rose against their long-ruling leaders, hence saw the ousted of Egyptian Hosni Mubarak and the killing of Muamar. Democracy , Election , Freedom of assembly 1554 Words | 6 Pages. the world are democracies . Knowing what is a democracy is really important, especially for essay, those who live in a . democracy . It allows you to understand what is the rule that the government plays in the society and know what are your rights and duties under a democratic administration. This essay will seek to obesity thesis, define Democracy , the meaning of the word, the system and the history, and describe two of the most famous democracies : Direct democracy and Representative democracy . Democracy is a form of. Deliberative democracy , Democracy , Direct democracy 1617 Words | 5 Pages. Exportable Democracy: The Failed American Mission. Exportable Democracy : The Failed American Mission William Vazquez POL 115: Introduction to International Politics D02 . Dr. Essay Purdue Owl! Chris Rosato April 25, 2013 Over the past several years, the United States has adopted a neoconservative stance in trying to export democracy worldwide. To be clear, neoconservatives wish to combine the papers, spreading of democracy with the use of force.

This practice has become somewhat of an American tradition in recent years. In trying to essay purdue, export democracy , the. Autocracy , Democracy , Form of government 999 Words | 3 Pages. Democracy Democracy has become a dominant form of the government, that using in many countries. Democracy is a . government form, which is the citizen should have a decision to vote their leader directly for their own country or elect the leader for the other problems.

Democracy can develop it, if the sats tasks, majority and the minority party or the association willing works together. Which is everybody can talk and have an purdue, opinion, than will put the papers, all idea together and take a better decision for owl, the. Barack Obama , Democracy , Equals sign 1071 Words | 3 Pages. What exactly is meant by the term “ democracy ”? According to the rich and long history of nature vs nurture democracy itself, it is doubtful that . there is an appropriate and essay owl, comprehensive definition of child obesity statements democracy exists. However, by studying the purdue owl, formation of democracy , there is group sales letter a common agreement that the term “ democracy ” consists of the following characteristics: “regular free and owl, fair elections, universal suffrage, and accountability of the state's administrative organs to obesity thesis statements, the elected representatives, and essay purdue owl, effective. Democracy , Election , Elections 1572 Words | 5 Pages. What is Democracy ? . 1.government by the people; a form of literature and composition government in which thesupreme power is vested in the people and exercised directly bythem or by their elected agents under a free electoral system. Essay Purdue Owl! 2.a state having such a form of strindberg stronger government.

3.a state of society characterized by formal equality of rights andprivileges. 4.political or social equality; democratic spirit. 5.the common people of essay a community as distinguished from obesity statements, anyprivileged class; the common people with respect to owl, theirpolitical power. Autocracy , Communist state , Democracy 1936 Words | 7 Pages. Democracy Essay 1 . Democracy is a means for the people to child statements, choose their leaders and to essay purdue owl, hold their leaders accountable for their policies and their conduct in obesity statements, office. Essay! The key role of citizens in a democracy is to participate in public life.

Democracy is literature poetry essays also a system of essay purdue rule by laws, not by discursive individuals. Democracy is not a government. It is a way of essay thinking and a responsibility. Citizenship , Democracy , French Revolution 836 Words | 3 Pages. In a democracy the poor will have more power than the rich, because ther are more of ap english and composition poetry them, and will of the majority is supreme” Aristotle . Democracy is a system of government by the whole population or all the eligible members of a state, typically through elected representatives. Abraham Lincoln described democracy as: “The government of the people, by the people and for the people”. It means that in democratic form of government common man plays the pivotal role. Essay Owl! The aristocracy, the group coordinator cover, land lords. Ancient Greece , Autocracy , Democracy 880 Words | 3 Pages. Etymologically, democracy comes from two Greek words, demos and cratein. Demos means society while cratein means authority.

There are many . terminological definitions of democracy , one of essay it is definition is by Henry B. Writing! Mayo stating that democracy is a political system showing the public policy determined by representatives audited effectively by the society by having periodic elections based on principles of political similarities in purdue, a situation where there is freedom to choose. This means that. Communist state , Democracy , Elections 1451 Words | 5 Pages. Democracy : The Best of the literature, Worst Democracy is without a doubt a fairly successful system of governance. Although dozens of . systems have been tried over the ages, the world has been continuously edging towards increasingly democratic models, at least in baby steps when not in great leaps and bounds. And yet Winston Churchill - both the product and professional beneficiary of a modestly democratic system - suggested that he considered it to essay purdue, be paradoxically the worst form of government except all. Communism , Communist state , Democracy 1409 Words | 4 Pages. Linz and sats papers, Stepan Consolidated Democracy Study Guide and essay owl, Notes. Towards Consolidated Democracies Linz and stronger essay, Stepan * Three conditions before speaking about democratic consolidation * First…no . state=no democracy * Second…. democracy cannot be thought of as consolidated until a democratic transition has been brought to essay, completion * Necessary but by no means sufficient condition for the completion of a democratic transition is the holding of free and contested elections (on the nature vs nurture essay, basis of broadly inclusive voter eligibility) that meet. Civil society , Democracy , Democratization 906 Words | 4 Pages. What Valid Criticisms Can Be Made of Liberal Democracy?

made of liberal democracy ?” Class: F4 Student: Tzu-Han Lin What valid criticisms can be made of liberal democracy ? . Liberal democracy is seen as the most common political form of essay government which has been implemented in the contemporary world. According to the finding of nature vs nurture discursive essay Freedom in the World 2011 Survey released by purdue the US-based Freedom House (http://www.freedomhouse.org/), there are 76 percentages of total countries in the world which is liberal or partly liberal democracy . Moreover, the. Democracy , Elections , Human rights 1625 Words | 5 Pages. Prospects for the Future of Liberal Democracy in Libya. possibilities for statements, the nation in relation to the promotion of liberal democracy . Currently under a transitional government, Libya stands the . chance to embrace change and adopt what may be considered by some as positive western ideals.

According to a Freedom house report “another country that endured decades of brutal misrule, Libya, now has the potential for essay purdue, significant gains thanks to ariadne, the overthrow of al-Qadhafi.” (Puddington, 2012) Democracy has at no other time in history been knocking at the doors of. Democracy , Fascism , Government 2227 Words | 6 Pages. DEMOCRACY IN PAKISTAN OUTLINES 1. Introduction 2. Essay Purdue Owl! What is democracy ? 3. Nature of democracy . 4. Beginning of . democracy 5. Democracy since creation 6. Obesity Statements! Causes of failure of democracy 7. Impacts of democracy 8. Measures for the survival of democracy 9. Conclusion “The essence of democracy is essay owl its assurance that people should so respect himself and should be so respected in his own personality that he should have opportunity equal to that of obesity thesis statements every other human being to show what he was meant. Communism , Democracy , Feudalism 1562 Words | 5 Pages. chance to become known long after life and even during. Roald Dahl was given this chance then took it and essay purdue, created something much larger, . greater, and legendary as one could have possibly managed. He changed the nature essay, entire aspect of writing, giving it his own feelings, perspective, and even heart within each swift stroke of his pen.

He was capable of transforming a lousy sheet of owl paper into something much more tremendous and stronger essay, life changing. Dahl incorporated so much more than just fictional ideas within his. Afterlife , Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , Death 1096 Words | 3 Pages. American Democracy: Within the United States of America. of us believe that the essay purdue, democracy we have in place is infallible, that nothing short of God could destroy it. And although some of us have . complaints with what the government is doing, most of us believe that our voices are heard loud and clear, if only we would be caring enough to group sales, say anything. Yet I believe there are pros and cons to essay, our democracy , that although there is obesity thesis representation, powers that we cannot control keep it from being what some would call total democracy . And to its credit, it. Democracy , Election , First Amendment to the United States Constitution 1865 Words | 5 Pages. ?What is Democracy ? Though there is no exact definition of a democracy , it does “refer to a regime whereby political power is . widely spread,” (68 Gerner, Ferdinand, and Lawson) and involves equality when it comes to politics. In a democracy , the people run the government.

This system is thought to have four key elements: a system in which the government is chosen or replaced through free and fair elections, active participation of the people in politics and civic life, protection of the human. Autocracy , Democracy , Government 1310 Words | 4 Pages. Democracy Is the Worst Form of Government. critically state how democracy is the essay owl, worst type of government, but before we do this let us be familiar with the whole process of . democracy . Looking at the history of democracy or example “In Ancient Anthens in the fifth and fourth centuries before Christ, this gave us the word democracy (rule by the common people) the essay, people in this case did not include women and slaves, both were believed to be naturally inferior to male citizens” (Mayo 1960: 36) but since thence then democracy has developed and. Autocracy , Democracy , Direct democracy 1775 Words | 5 Pages. ?Brandon Steriti Dr. Norris ENC1102 January 4, 2014 Roald Dahl Literature, a word that supports the works of authors many have come to . know throughout countless amounts of essay purdue owl decades.

Although evolving in beliefs and styles of literature, methods used centuries ago, many are still recognized today as the foundations of classifications. Writing allows one to express what is truly felt, rather than following specific guidelines and ap english, formulas. There is no right or wrong way to express one's self. Charlie and the Chocolate Factory , Children's literature , Fiction 1734 Words | 5 Pages. was the concept that ideas drive events. Essay Purdue! It seems sufficient to begin by reflecting back to one of the group sales coordinator letter, first few classes.

Somewhere in that hour and owl, a half . class, I remember learning about educational perennialism. This is the notion, derived from Robert Hutchins, that there are a group of ideas that keep coming back and stronger essay, remain relevant in our present and in our future; in other words, it is the owl, concept that history is repeated. The idea behind this concept is to papers writing tasks, not only process the facts of essay purdue owl history. Ancient Rome , Democracy , Government 2136 Words | 5 Pages. JACKSONIAN DEMOCRACY An ambiguous, controversial concept, Jacksonian Democracy in the strictest sense refers simply to the . ascendancy of child thesis statements Andrew Jackson and the Democratic party after 1828. More loosely, it alludes to the entire range of democratic reforms that proceeded alongside the Jacksonians' triumph—from expanding the suffrage to restructuring federal institutions. From another angle, however, Jacksonianism appears as a political impulse tied to slavery, the subjugation of Native Americans. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 2575 Words | 7 Pages. Account for the “Failure of Democracy” in Eastern Europe (Excluding the Ussr) in the Period 1918-1939.

“failure of essay purdue democracy ” in Eastern Europe (excluding the USSR) in the period 1918-1939. According to Robert A. Discursive! . Dahl , there are certain criteria that a government must meet for it to be called a democracy . Democracy must provide first of all, opportunities for effective participation, where all members of an essay purdue, association concerned with a certain policy ‘must have equal and effective opportunities for making their views known to the other members as to vs nurture, what the policy should be’ ( Dahl R.A.: 2000). Authoritarianism , Communism , Communist state 2185 Words | 6 Pages. Athenian Democracy and Present Democracy. similarities and differences between the Greek concept of essay owl democracy and present day representative democracy ? The Greece . word 'demokratia', which means 'governement by the people', was first used by the Greece to show their political system.

Back to the 5th century BC of the classical Greece period to the modern 21st century, over such a long period of time, threre are still some similarities bewteen the Athenian democracy and our present democracy . Like our modern voting districts, the Athenian country. 5th century BC , Ancient Greece , Democracy 1006 Words | 3 Pages. Whigs. Jacksonian Democrats, a new energetic party led by President Andrew Jackson, believed strongly in trying to dessay, bolster their democratic ideals. Purdue Owl! Although . the Democrats did not protect individual liberties, they were the guardians of political democracy , economic opportunity, and the U.S. Constitution.

Foremost, the Jacksonian Democrats were not successful in protecting individual liberties. While the sats papers writing, rights of free men were protected, there were still many other social groups in society. For. Andrew Jackson , Democracy , Democratic Party 1320 Words | 4 Pages. The Theoritical Challenges to Democracy. written by Weale A, in essay purdue owl, 2007 in his book known as the “In Democracy ”. The article that is of review is child thesis statements taken from chapter 1 and the articles . Purdue Owl! title is group coordinator “The Theoretical Challenges of Democracy ”. The main theme of this article is the “global resurgence of democracy ”. In 1989, the Berlin Wall was destroyed and which brought communism to an end in the Central and Eastern Europe.

This Berlin Wall was considered as one of the major challenges of democracy but it now comes to an end. For example, the failure. Communism , Democracy , European Union 1602 Words | 4 Pages. The depression of the 1930’s was a very difficult time. With war suppressing the world and those within it, the purdue owl, impression this era left on society is . immense (BBC).

Having lived in Europe at this time, the group sales coordinator, author Roald Dahl reveals the influence which living in this time period has made. This is demonstrated in his stories “The Wish”, “Lamb to the Slaughter” and “Man from the owl, South”. The significant situations of vs nurture discursive this era assist in the establishment of a foundation for his work, bringing the dominant. 1930s , Aftermath of World War I , Domestic sheep 1706 Words | 5 Pages. Electoral System for New Democracy. Why an Open List Proportional Representation Electoral System Is the Best Choice For an Newly Emerging Democracy . Essay! Mike Ramjee Comparative Politics and Government Pol 102 (01) 12/15/2013 For a state hosting its first democratic elections, the best type of electoral system would be an open list proportional representation system. This type of electoral system offers many benefits including battling corruption, fair representation. Democracy , Election , Elections 1389 Words | 4 Pages. POL2038F—Literature Review How do scholars understand the quality and prospects of Democracy in Nigeria? The fall of the Soviet-Union saw . the emergence of democracy becoming the most universally embraced and widely spread form of governance in the world (Ogundiya, 2010:204).

The question of what makes a country a democracy is much contested by scholars, however, the concept has widely accepted core principles. These principles include, but are not limited to: justice, freedom, equality, transparency. Democracy , Direct democracy , Elections 2294 Words | 7 Pages. Is Democracy Still Relevant in child statements, Our Society? title : Research Paper Topic : Is Democracy Still Relevant in Our Society? Declaration I hereby declare that this assignment is . personal work, and purdue, does not involve plagiarism or collusion. Ariadne Auf Naxos! MOHD RAFIQ MOHAMAD MAZLAN …………………………………………. Date: 05 APRIL 2013 Is Democracy Still Relevant in essay owl, Our Society? 1.0 INTRODUCTION Recently, there are many political issues and problems that happened in some countries where the democracy system is applied.

One such example is in. Canada , Country classifications , Democracy 2150 Words | 7 Pages. According to Hewitt (2011) “the European Union's finest hour was when it stood as a beacon for democracy , the rule of law and a civil society . and enticed the vs nurture discursive essay, peoples of Eastern Europe to embrace freedom.” Despite such a rich tradition of democracy , the burning question which has been recurrently on the lips of renowned academics and purdue owl, political thinkers/actors is whether or not Britain is facing a crisis in nature discursive, democracy , with some responding to this question in the affirmative. It has therefore been argued by. Authoritarianism , Communism , Democracy 2044 Words | 6 Pages. Review of How Democratic Is the Us Constitution. American Constitution By Robert A. Dahl Context The American Constitution, seen by Americans as guiding light and bedrock . of civil rights and purdue owl, democracy is as Robert A. Dahl argues not so democratic and does not guard the rights of individuals. Auf Naxos Dessay! P.18 Dahl places his work asking fundamental questions as to the use and application of the essay purdue owl, constitution in the modern world, not as an attack as Gordon S. Wood from New York Review of Books clearly states on the front cover. Dahl merely and humbly is asks.

Articles of Confederation , President of the United States , Supreme Court of the United States 799 Words | 3 Pages. Democracy Andy Carroll July 8th, 1996 I. Strindberg Essay! Meaning of Democracy II. Summary of purdue owl Places and . Dates III. Features of Democracy IV. Types of Democracy V. Early Democracy A. Athens B. Rome VI.

Middle Ages and England VII. The Renaissance A. Auf Naxos Dessay! United States of America B. France VIII. Modern Times IX. Important People Demos Kratia, or democracy , as it is. Ancient Rome , Deliberative democracy , Democracy 1788 Words | 6 Pages. Discuss the Athenian definition of democracy . Is the city state the only kind of state in which true democracy can exist? What . happens to democracy when it is applied to a society with a large dispersed population?

What are other examples of democratic societies besides Athens? Compare and contrast Athenian democracy with American democracy . Is the United States a democracy in the classical sense of the word? The ancient Greek word demokratia was ambiguous. Purdue! It met literally people power. Ancient Greece , Ancient Rome , Athenian democracy 1306 Words | 4 Pages.

terrorism is by definition, the systematic use of terror, especially as a means of coercion. (Merriam-Webster 2) Terrorism is not something that has been . recently invented, and group sales letter, certainly is not something that will go away. Moreover, I am adamant that democracy is an adequate, if not the best solution to the threat of terror. Essay Purdue! I will also add that terrorism will not and child obesity thesis, never has been eradicated, and simply, will not, as we are inherently burdened by some who happen to be tyrannical sociopaths. One of the. Al-Qaeda , Ayman al-Zawahiri , Democracy 1782 Words | 5 Pages. Democracy Existence Democracy is a legislative system in which all citizens exercise direct and equal participation in the . Owl! development, proposal, and passage of obesity statements legislation into law. Today, most of the countries around the world present themselves as democratic countries. Some of purdue these countries are really democratic, but in most of nature vs nurture them democracy does not exist at all. Like what we saw in Egypt, and Tunisia it was only one political party rules in the country, the essay, governments arrest who speak.

Autocracy , Democracy , Egypt 879 Words | 3 Pages. ? Democracy and reality Please Vote For Me is the ariadne auf naxos dessay, documentary that recording first democracy occurred in essay purdue, a . primary school in China.The documentary seems to display how important the democracy is and how the stronger, democracy proceeding.For deeper meaning, the documentary implies democracy is deficient.What strategies the document use are constructions of reality,containing beliefs and messages and constructing to gain power to influence policy. All media messages are constructed.They. Chinese surname , Chinese-language surnames , Classmates 792 Words | 2 Pages. To what extent is Britain a liberal democracy? extent is Britain a liberal democracy ? The balance of purdue evidence would suggest that Britain conforms very well to the principles of a liberal . democracy . Whilst there are always points of evidence that could be used against this view, it is my view that these are outweighed by the positive evidence and examples. Discursive! When determining whether the country is a liberal democracy , one has to begin by discussing and defining the features of a liberal democracy . A liberal democracy is defined as one where there. Democracy , Election , Elections 1039 Words | 3 Pages. to the people” * John Lennon Introduction Democracy , it is generally believed, had its roots in essay, Ancient Athens. We know it spread its . stems to strindberg stronger, most of Europe and later to parts of Asia by mid 19th century , mostly in the form of parliamentary democracy . Purdue! But in obesity, the context of this paper,we are not interested in essay, the histrocity of the idea or concept of ap english and composition poetry essays democracy , but in the idea itself. Essay Purdue! That is to say we want to analyze the papers writing tasks, meaning of democracy and its different forms, study its efficiency (so.

Communist state , Democracy , Form of government 1562 Words | 4 Pages. Democracy without discipline is a body without soul. Essay Purdue Owl! If there is no discipline in the country, democracy will degenerate into a . monocracy i.e., a Government by a unruly crowd. In fact, in Greek ‘Demos’ means crowd. The word ‘curacy’ is from the group coordinator cover letter, Greek word ‘Krait’ or ‘Cratos’ which means power. A lack of discipline in democracy justifies Plato’s criticism that democracy is the essay, divine right of the ignorant people to rule ignorantly. Ap English Literature Poetry Essays! 6It is true that democracy is purdue based on the free will of the people. Autocracy , Democracy , Freedom of nature vs nurture essay speech 1008 Words | 3 Pages. ? Democracy is a word frequently used in british politics We are constantly told that we live in owl, a democracy in strindberg stronger essay, bitainand that our . political system is democratic and purdue owl, that nations that do not match these standards are classed as undemocratic.

D Robertson, writing in nature discursive, 1986, stated that: Robertson continued by stating that the word only purdue starts to poetry essays, mean something tangible in the modern world when it is prefixed with other political words, such as direct, representative, liberal and parliamentary. Essay Purdue Owl! . Deliberative democracy , Democracy , Direct democracy 1624 Words | 4 Pages. Direct Democracy vs Representative Democracy. Direct Democracy vs Representative Democracy The term Democracy is strindberg stronger derived from two Greek words, demos, . Essay! meaning people, and kratos, meaning rule. These two words form the word democracy which means rule by the people. Aristotle, and other ancient Greek political philosophers, used the phrase, `the governors are to be the governed', or as we have come to know it, `rule and be ruled in turn'. The two major types of democracy are Representative Democracy and Direct Democracy . Papers Tasks! Clearly.

Deliberative democracy , Democracy , Direct democracy 958 Words | 3 Pages. ‘A fear of purdue democracy runs throughout liberalism’ Discuss. 45 Marks (Jan 2011) Some political thinkers have argued that Liberalism can be . defined by its fear of ariadne auf naxos dessay democracy . Democracy is ‘rule by the people’, this term suggests that there is popular participation and essay purdue owl, also public interest within government. While liberals fear democracy they know and see it as the best possible way. As there is a clear fear of it lying underneath the liberal ideology, there are obvious arguments for literature and composition poetry, and against this. Classical liberalism , Conservatism , Democracy 1260 Words | 3 Pages.

In a time where all forms of government seem to essay owl, fail, I can only think of one form of government that seems to be better off than the literature poetry, rest. It is purdue Modern . Direct Democracy . I choose Modern Direct Democracy because it truly gives the power back to the people. With Modern Direct Democracy people will not be subjected to follow the stronger, laws which only the politicians wanted, but instead will follow the laws which they have helped create or approved of. As Jean-Jacques Rousseau once said, No act of theirs. Autocracy , Democracy , Direct democracy 904 Words | 4 Pages. Demerits of Democracy More emphasis on quantity than on quality: Majority party holds the reins of purdue government.

Inefficient corrupt, . who have neither intelligence nor vision, get themselves elected. Rule of the incompetent Democracies are run amateurs. In it, every citizen is allowed to ap english essays, take part, whereas everybody is not fit for it. Locke calls it the act of running administration by the ignorant. He says that history records the fact that a few are intelligent. Universal adult. Coalition government , Democracy , Election 715 Words | 3 Pages. Weaknesses of modern democracy Political science 202 01/01/2013 “ Democracy is the worst form of . government, except for all those others that have been tried from time to time.” These are the words used by Sir Winston Churchill while he was expressing his resolve with democracy . Democracy is the dominant form of government in the world with the exception of a few countries. In Sir Winston’s statement, the phrase, “except all those others that have been tried from time. Autocracy , Democracy , Government 661 Words | 3 Pages.

Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the essay purdue, United States of America, aptly defined democracy as a government of the people, by the people and . for the people. for the people. This definition clearly underlines the basic tenet that, in this- form of government, people are supreme. The ultimate power is in their hands and they exercise it in the form of electing. Communist state , Democracy , Government 1369 Words | 4 Pages. Industrial Democracy By Bertell Ollman Democracy , industrial, is the auf naxos, application of the doctrines of democratic theory to . people's lives as workers. Purdue Owl! Democracy is always rules by ariadne auf naxos dessay the people, and the key questions it raises are which people? Over what range of essay owl problems are they to rule? How much power should they have? And through what mechanisms and procedures should these powers be exercised? Industrial democracy is the attempt to supply answers to these questions in regard to people's lives. Capitalism , Democracy , Industrial Workers of the World 1083 Words | 3 Pages.

Democracy The word democracy comes from the Greek word demokratia. This is a combination of demos, the Greek word for . people, and kratos, meaning rule. Athens was the most famous Greek democracy . In the 400's BC, Athens had an auf naxos dessay, assembly that all citizens could attend. A council of 500 citizens elected each year did most of the important government work. Although this sounds very democratic, more than half the people of Athens, including women and owl, slaves, were excluded from ariadne auf naxos dessay, taking any. Democracy , Direct democracy , Freedom of speech 1023 Words | 4 Pages. Socrates on Democracy Socrates makes it very clear; he is not a fan of Democracy . He is openly objected to the type of . Essay Purdue Owl! democracy that Athens was running during his adult life. In contrast he was against all forms of government at the time. Stronger! Socrates believes in the connection between virtue and knowledge.

The masses, being uneducated, were therefore not virtuous and not fit to rule. Democracy is the purdue, rule of nature discursive essay people, and as a group people are very indecisive so we end up trying to have everything. Autocracy , Democracy , Government 968 Words | 3 Pages. compatible with democracy . Seemed as a simple question, such an inquiry requires an in-depth look at the matter at hand. When one asks whether . Essay! Islam is compatible with democracy , one needs to analyze the definition of democracy . According to Webster’s Dictionary, democracy is “a form of government in which supreme power is vested in the people and group coordinator cover, exercised directly by essay owl them or their elected agents under a free electoral system.” Such is the definition that mainly pertains to papers, western democracy and western.

Democracy , Direct democracy , Islam 966 Words | 3 Pages. Types of Liberal Democracies Like all PESCS, there are two types of Liberal Democracy : 1. Purdue Owl! Theoretical or Direct . Democracy (DD) 2. Practical or Indirect Democracy (ID) DD is a concept whereby all members of society take part in all aspects of decision taking in that society. While this may work in smaller communities, the strindberg stronger essay, larger a group or community becomes, the more difficult it is to include everyone’s opinion. In DD, there are also no restrictions as to owl, who may take part in the decision taking. Communism , Democracy , Fascism 1099 Words | 4 Pages. ail In Pakistan, democracy has been tried several times, and group sales cover letter, each time it has failed, there is no doubt about that. It has failed to provide . people with necessities of purdue owl life, provide security and uproot poverty and corruption. There have been several reasons given to us repeatedly for its failure such as weak judiciary, lack of sats tasks education, strong military influence in the country etc. However, we must realize that these are not the reasons for the failure of the system; rather these are problems emanating. Democracy , Feudalism , Human 1999 Words | 6 Pages.

The years between 1820 and 1840 were filled with history altering social and political changes which continue to affect our society today. These changes all . revolve around the new concept of mass democracy , in which the common man or farmer controlled the vote and the way things were ran in government. Essay Purdue! This was made possible by ap english literature and composition poetry the new reduced voting restrictions that gave all white males the right to purdue, vote, and not just wealthy land owning white males. Strindberg Stronger! Mass democracy’s formation led to essay purdue owl, new campaigning. Andrew Jackson , Henry Clay , James Madison 1218 Words | 4 Pages. Long Tran 11A November 17, 2011 Jacksonian Democracy Andrew Jackson was elected as the 7th president of the United States from . 1829-1837.

During his time of presidency, it was known as the nature discursive essay, Jacksonian era. Purdue! The states wanted more people to participate in strindberg essay, politics so they eliminated the qualification office-holding. At this time most white men, women, and African American had no rights to essay purdue owl, speak in politics unless they were qualified to. This was the age of triumphant nationalism, economic. Andrew Jackson , Democratic Party , Nationalism 768 Words | 3 Pages. ‘Is Indian Democracy Alive and Kicking?’ “As I would not be a slave, so I would not be a master.” This was the thesis statements, idea of Abraham Lincoln’s . about democracy . Though very true in its basic form, does this idea hold true In the essay, Indian context? After completing 62 years of being a ‘sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic’ and ariadne auf naxos, currently being in owl, the 65th year of sats tasks its independence, we can definitely call India a successful democracy for sustaining all the ups and downs in purdue owl, these years.

The political. British Raj , Democracy , Freedom of ap english literature and composition poetry essays speech 1882 Words | 5 Pages.

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30 Book Report Templates #038; Reading Worksheets. Reading helps students develop a strong imagination, encourages their creativity, and strengthens their analytical skills. Teachers assign a lot of book reports to ensure that students read lots of books, especially at that critical early age when they are still trying to purdue master the written word. To cut down on some of the workload, students and teachers can find a book report template to download and fill in. This gives more time to enjoy the act of reading, so students can become life long learners. A book report is typically given as an assignment to ap english and composition poetry students in elementary and purdue owl, middle school.

Students fill out a form answering basic questions about the book they were assigned to read. Turning in literature and composition essays, the report serves as proof to the teacher that the student read the book and, hopefully, got something out of it. These reports may ask students to detail what the book was about, the names of the main characters, what the essay, theme of the book is, and where the events are set. Some reports may ask specific questions about sales coordinator cover letter events or characters to ensure that the students read the purdue, book all the nature discursive essay, way through. The report can also help students understand the book better by essay asking them to vs nurture discursive think about its meaning and the plot. Teachers may also hand out worksheets for students to complete in class or as homework. Essay Owl. These are usually limited to ariadne auf naxos the earlier grades when students are still learning to read. Purdue Owl. Reading worksheets ask simple questions about the sats papers writing tasks, book without requiring multiple sentence answers. These questions may ask students to name a favorite character, or mention the main conflict in a few words. It’s not uncommon for the teacher to read a picture book with the class and have students fill out a worksheet afterwards.

If the classroom has a bookshelf, there may also be a ‘Reading Time’ when students pick out a book to essay purdue read. When they finish, the students fill out the worksheet and submit it to their teacher. Book report forms are a popular choice of assignment for coordinator elementary school classes. These forms make it simple for students to complete the report by filling out the worksheet. These sheets can be generic with standard questions, or teachers may create a unique sheet with questions specific to each different book that is assigned. These forms also help introduce students to the idea of a book report format and show them what kind of information may be expected on longer, multi-page reports that they are expected to essay purdue owl complete in the higher grades. A form is also easier to grade, especially for teachers who have a large classroom and more assignments to go over than usual. A simple book report features a few sections that ask students to answer questions in paragraph format. These each ask students to detail a different element of the book. All book report forms will ask for the title, author name, and the illustrator’s name, if it is a picture book. The other elements on a simple form include: Setting – This is where the literature and composition, book’s events took place, i.e.

New York. Characters – A list of who the main characters are and their names. Plot – A basic overview of the major events in the book. Your impressions – Whether you like the book or not, and why. A simple form may also just ask the students to describe the beginning, middle, and end events of the book in essay, three questions. Students may also be expected to identify the climax, which is the most intense point of the book where the main character’s problems are resolved or made worse. This helps get students thinking about the traditional progression of a plot. Eventually, teachers transition students to papers tasks writing a multi-page book report. The report is usually written in a word processing software, like MS Word. Students can find book report format templates for these assignments too.

These longer reports are written out in paragraph form. The teacher asks the students to essay purdue address different elements of a book in their own words or with their own formatting. A simple way to organize these reports is to sales letter divide them into purdue three basic sections, the introduction, main body, and conclusion. Group Cover Letter. In the main body, students can create a different subheading for each element to address. For instance, Introduction – The first paragraph; includes book title, author, genre, and owl, why you chose the book. Main Body – The middle part of the report; includes summary, theme, setting, and characters. Conclusion – A short summary of the book report and opinion of the nature vs nurture discursive essay, book. Difference Between The Book Report Types. Purdue. The short book report form is handed out by the teacher and can be completed in cover, one night like a homework assignment.

A multi-page report is essay, created by the student and may take more than one night to sales coordinator cover letter finish. Short templates are available in lots of essay purdue owl, fun book report ideas suitable for young children. Essay. They have questions with a few lines to hand write the answers in a few short sentences. Some templates may include activities to make them more interesting to students, such as having them draw out a scene from the book or re-write the ending. Multi-page reports start out as two page reports and gradually increase in size through middle school and essay purdue, high school. Of course, those two page reports are just as difficult for young students as the five page reports are for high school students. The great thing about these assignments is that students are usually free to organize their book report ideas however they desire. They can create bold sub-headers for the main body of the report.

Students can write about the theme, characters, and setting separately. Or they can leave out the headers and devote their report to a specific element, such as the book theme. This allows students to weave information about characters and discursive, setting into the report where they are most relevant to the theme. The former works well for short chapter books, and the latter is better for purdue books that may feature multiple themes. Ideas for Different Kinds of Book Reports. There is more than one way to complete a book report. Both teachers and students may find these creative ideas more interesting than a straightforward report. Write a review of the book. Create the report in the form of a newspaper or blog review. Summarize the book without giving away the plot or the ending. Talk about what made you like it or, if you hated it.

Feel free to give the book a thumbs up or down rating at the end. Strindberg Stronger. Do a diary. Use a journal template to essay purdue owl create a diary written by one of the main characters. There should be multiple entries that follow or discuss the events of the book from that character’s point of view. Interview one of the characters. Create an imaginary interview with one of the characters in the book. Ask them questions about auf naxos dessay where they come from, why the character did something important to the plot, and what the essay owl, character thinks about the outcome of the events in the book. Write a newspaper article. Create an imaginary newspaper article detailing one of the major events in obesity thesis statements, the book, such as a theft or an important discovery. Make sure to answer the essay purdue, who, what, where, when, and why of these events in your article. What To Do Once You’ve Written The Report.

When students finish writing out their book reports, they have completed what is called the “First Draft” or “Rough Draft”. This is just the first stage of the report, but it is the most difficult part. Finishing up that report in ariadne, the following steps is a lot easier. Read and mark the report. Purdue. Read through the book report from literature essays, beginning to end to get a feel for it overall. Purdue Owl. Get a brightly colored pen to group sales coordinator cover mark any spelling or punctuation errors you find in the report.

Young students may want to purdue read through their reports with their parents or a tutor. Sometimes, teachers actually make students submit a rough draft of their reports for points before the final report is strindberg, due. The teacher reviews the essay owl, draft, makes edits, and thesis, suggestions for changing the report before final submission. Make edits to the report. Go back into the report file and make the easy grammar and spelling fixes. Essay Owl. Take a look at your teacher’s suggestions or the ideas you wrote down for ariadne dessay things to change in essay, the report. Create a plan to make those additions or changes.

Make the changes to the report. Don’t forget to save your file as a separate document. For instance, save your rough draft as, Report1.doc, and this updated version as, Report2.doc. Review the report. Ariadne Auf Naxos. Print out a fresh copy of the report. Read through it one more time looking for spelling errors and grammar mistakes. Keep an eye out for spots where the text doesn’t make sense. Essay Owl. This can sometimes happen when you add new content to a report. Sats. If there are mistakes, fix them in the document file and review one more time. Essay Purdue. Your final draft is ready to print out when you can no longer find any mistakes.

Book reports are a big part of the curriculum. That doesn’t mean they have to be a lot of obesity thesis statements, work for the students or the teacher. Make assigning these reports less of a hassle with these tips. Assign one book for the entire class to read. This can cut down on purdue the effort required in understanding submitted reports. Group Sales Cover. Pick out a short book report template to use. There is no need to use valuable time in creating one from scratch.

Print out more copies of the form than are needed. Some students may lose theirs and need an extra form. Make reminder announcements when a due date approaches. Owl. Remind students at least twice before a book report due date. Keep the word count requirement low. Teachers also have to spend more time reviewing longer reports. Consider creative alternatives to some written reports. When your curriculum includes a lot of book reports, give students the option of turning in auf naxos dessay, a drawing, diorama, or another project as a break.

Being assigned a book report to complete can seem like a daunting task, especially if if you have never written a multi-page report. Make sure you don’t fall behind on the work by following a few of these tips. Make up a reading schedule to complete the book well in advance of the report being due. Use a calendar to remind yourself. Purdue Owl. Assign yourself different steps to complete each night for the report, i.e. make an outline, write 200 words, or revising Ask the teacher for help with ideas if you can’t figure out how to get started. Look for examples of completed reports to see how they are structured. Book reports vary in their length and thesis, complexity. Elementary school students get simple, one page forms to fill in about the books they read. Those in purdue, middle school and high school usually have to write multiple page reports. Nearly all reports require students to talk about the plot, theme, characters, and how they liked the book. Both students and teachers can find a lot of templates to use.

Those looking for something generic for students to fill in after reading a book can pick up a .pdf or .jpg form. Those who want more control over the look and wording of the template should download a .doc file.

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Representational State Transfer (REST) This chapter introduces and elaborates the essay purdue Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems, describing the software engineering principles guiding REST and the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to ariadne dessay the constraints of other architectural styles. REST is a hybrid style derived from several of the network-based architectural styles described in Chapter 3 and combined with additional constraints that define a uniform connector interface. The software architecture framework of Chapter 1 is used to define the architectural elements of REST and examine sample process, connector, and purdue, data views of child obesity thesis statements, prototypical architectures. The design rationale behind the Web architecture can be described by an architectural style consisting of the set of constraints applied to elements within the architecture. By examining the impact of each constraint as it is added to the evolving style, we can identify the essay owl properties induced by the Web's constraints. Additional constraints can then be applied to form a new architectural style that better reflects the desired properties of a modern Web architecture. This section provides a general overview of REST by walking through the process of deriving it as an architectural style.

Later sections will describe in more detail the specific constraints that compose the REST style. There are two common perspectives on the process of architectural design, whether it be for child obesity thesis statements, buildings or for software. The first is that a designer starts with nothing--a blank slate, whiteboard, or drawing board--and builds-up an architecture from familiar components until it satisfies the needs of the intended system. Purdue Owl? The second is sats that a designer starts with the system needs as a whole, without constraints, and then incrementally identifies and applies constraints to elements of the system in order to differentiate the design space and allow the forces that influence system behavior to flow naturally, in harmony with the system. Where the first emphasizes creativity and unbounded vision, the second emphasizes restraint and essay purdue owl, understanding of the system context. REST has been developed using the latter process. Figures 5-1 through 5-8 depict this graphically in terms of how the applied constraints would differentiate the process view of an architecture as the incremental set of constraints is applied. The Null style (Figure 5-1) is simply an empty set of constraints. From an architectural perspective, the null style describes a system in which there are no distinguished boundaries between components.

It is the starting point for our description of REST. The first constraints added to our hybrid style are those of the client-server architectural style (Figure 5-2), described in Section 3.4.1. Separation of concerns is the principle behind the client-server constraints. By separating the user interface concerns from the data storage concerns, we improve the portability of the user interface across multiple platforms and improve scalability by simplifying the server components. Perhaps most significant to the Web, however, is that the stronger separation allows the essay owl components to stronger evolve independently, thus supporting the Internet-scale requirement of multiple organizational domains. We next add a constraint to the client-server interaction: communication must be stateless in nature, as in the client-stateless-server (CSS) style of Section 3.4.3 (Figure 5-3), such that each request from client to server must contain all of the information necessary to understand the owl request, and cannot take advantage of any stored context on the server. Session state is therefore kept entirely on the client. This constraint induces the properties of visibility, reliability, and scalability. Visibility is improved because a monitoring system does not have to look beyond a single request datum in ap english literature poetry, order to determine the full nature of the essay owl request.

Reliability is improved because it eases the task of recovering from partial failures [133]. Scalability is improved because not having to store state between requests allows the server component to quickly free resources, and further simplifies implementation because the server doesn't have to manage resource usage across requests. Like most architectural choices, the stateless constraint reflects a design trade-off. The disadvantage is that it may decrease network performance by increasing the repetitive data (per-interaction overhead) sent in a series of requests, since that data cannot be left on the server in a shared context. In addition, placing the application state on the client-side reduces the server's control over consistent application behavior, since the application becomes dependent on the correct implementation of semantics across multiple client versions. In order to improve network efficiency, we add cache constraints to form the client-cache-stateless-server style of group coordinator, Section 3.4.4 (Figure 5-4). Essay Purdue? Cache constraints require that the data within a response to a request be implicitly or explicitly labeled as cacheable or non-cacheable. If a response is cacheable, then a client cache is given the right to reuse that response data for group sales cover, later, equivalent requests. The advantage of adding cache constraints is that they have the potential to partially or completely eliminate some interactions, improving efficiency, scalability, and user-perceived performance by reducing the essay purdue average latency of a series of interactions. The trade-off, however, is vs nurture essay that a cache can decrease reliability if stale data within the cache differs significantly from the data that would have been obtained had the request been sent directly to the server. The early Web architecture, as portrayed by the diagram in Figure 5-5 [11], was defined by the client-cache-stateless-server set of constraints.

That is, the design rationale presented for the Web architecture prior to 1994 focused on stateless client-server interaction for essay purdue owl, the exchange of static documents over the Internet. The protocols for communicating interactions had rudimentary support for non-shared caches, but did not constrain the interface to a consistent set of semantics for all resources. Dessay? Instead, the Web relied on the use of essay owl, a common client-server implementation library (CERN libwww) to maintain consistency across Web applications. Developers of Web implementations had already exceeded the early design. In addition to static documents, requests could identify services that dynamically generated responses, such as image-maps [Kevin Hughes] and server-side scripts [Rob McCool]. Work had also begun on intermediary components, in the form of proxies [79] and shared caches [59], but extensions to the protocols were needed in order for them to communicate reliably. The following sections describe the constraints added to the Web's architectural style in order to guide the extensions that form the modern Web architecture. The central feature that distinguishes the REST architectural style from other network-based styles is its emphasis on a uniform interface between components (Figure 5-6).

By applying the software engineering principle of generality to the component interface, the overall system architecture is simplified and the visibility of interactions is improved. Implementations are decoupled from the services they provide, which encourages independent evolvability. The trade-off, though, is that a uniform interface degrades efficiency, since information is transferred in a standardized form rather than one which is specific to an application's needs. The REST interface is designed to be efficient for large-grain hypermedia data transfer, optimizing for the common case of the Web, but resulting in writing tasks, an interface that is not optimal for other forms of architectural interaction. In order to obtain a uniform interface, multiple architectural constraints are needed to guide the behavior of essay purdue owl, components. REST is defined by four interface constraints: identification of resources; manipulation of resources through representations; self-descriptive messages; and, hypermedia as the obesity thesis statements engine of application state. These constraints will be discussed in essay, Section 5.2.

In order to further improve behavior for Internet-scale requirements, we add layered system constraints (Figure 5-7). As described in Section 3.4.2, the layered system style allows an architecture to ariadne be composed of owl, hierarchical layers by constraining component behavior such that each component cannot see beyond the immediate layer with which they are interacting. By restricting knowledge of the system to a single layer, we place a bound on the overall system complexity and promote substrate independence. Layers can be used to encapsulate legacy services and to protect new services from legacy clients, simplifying components by moving infrequently used functionality to a shared intermediary. Intermediaries can also be used to improve system scalability by enabling load balancing of group coordinator, services across multiple networks and processors. The primary disadvantage of purdue owl, layered systems is that they add overhead and latency to the processing of data, reducing user-perceived performance [32]. For a network-based system that supports cache constraints, this can be offset by the benefits of shared caching at intermediaries. Placing shared caches at the boundaries of an organizational domain can result in significant performance benefits [136]. Such layers also allow security policies to be enforced on data crossing the organizational boundary, as is required by firewalls [79]. The combination of layered system and uniform interface constraints induces architectural properties similar to those of the uniform pipe-and-filter style (Section 3.2.2). Although REST interaction is discursive essay two-way, the large-grain data flows of hypermedia interaction can each be processed like a data-flow network, with filter components selectively applied to purdue the data stream in order to ap english literature transform the content as it passes [26].

Within REST, intermediary components can actively transform the content of messages because the messages are self-descriptive and their semantics are visible to intermediaries. The final addition to our constraint set for REST comes from the code-on-demand style of Section 3.5.3 (Figure 5-8). REST allows client functionality to be extended by purdue owl downloading and executing code in the form of applets or scripts. Literature Poetry? This simplifies clients by reducing the number of features required to be pre-implemented. Allowing features to be downloaded after deployment improves system extensibility. However, it also reduces visibility, and thus is only an essay purdue optional constraint within REST. The notion of an optional constraint may seem like an oxymoron. However, it does have a purpose in the architectural design of a system that encompasses multiple organizational boundaries. It means that the architecture only gains the benefit (and suffers the disadvantages) of the optional constraints when they are known to be in effect for some realm of the overall system. For example, if all of the client software within an organization is known to support Java applets [45], then services within that organization can be constructed such that they gain the benefit of enhanced functionality via downloadable Java classes.

At the same time, however, the organization's firewall may prevent the nature essay transfer of Java applets from external sources, and thus to owl the rest of the Web it will appear as if those clients do not support code-on-demand. Thesis Statements? An optional constraint allows us to purdue design an architecture that supports the desired behavior in the general case, but with the understanding that it may be disabled within some contexts. REST consists of a set of architectural constraints chosen for the properties they induce on candidate architectures. Although each of these constraints can be considered in isolation, describing them in terms of their derivation from common architectural styles makes it easier to understand the rationale behind their selection. Figure 5-9 depicts the derivation of REST's constraints graphically in terms of the network-based architectural styles examined in Chapter 3. The Representational State Transfer (REST) style is an literature and composition poetry essays abstraction of the architectural elements within a distributed hypermedia system. REST ignores the details of component implementation and protocol syntax in order to focus on the roles of components, the constraints upon purdue, their interaction with other components, and their interpretation of significant data elements. Thesis? It encompasses the fundamental constraints upon components, connectors, and purdue, data that define the basis of the Web architecture, and thus the essence of its behavior as a network-based application. Unlike the sales coordinator letter distributed object style [31], where all data is encapsulated within and hidden by the processing components, the nature and state of an architecture's data elements is a key aspect of REST.

The rationale for this design can be seen in the nature of distributed hypermedia. When a link is selected, information needs to be moved from the purdue owl location where it is stored to the location where it will be used by, in most cases, a human reader. This is unlike many other distributed processing paradigms [6, 50], where it is possible, and usually more efficient, to sats papers move the processing agent (e.g., mobile code, stored procedure, search expression, etc.) to the data rather than move the data to the processor. A distributed hypermedia architect has only three fundamental options: 1) render the essay purdue owl data where it is located and send a fixed-format image to the recipient; 2) encapsulate the data with a rendering engine and send both to the recipient; or, 3) send the dessay raw data to the recipient along with metadata that describes the data type, so that the purdue recipient can choose their own rendering engine. Each option has its advantages and literature, disadvantages. Option 1, the traditional client-server style [31], allows all information about the true nature of the data to essay remain hidden within the sender, preventing assumptions from being made about the sales coordinator letter data structure and essay, making client implementation easier.

However, it also severely restricts the functionality of the recipient and places most of the processing load on the sender, leading to scalability problems. Option 2, the mobile object style [50], provides information hiding while enabling specialized processing of the data via its unique rendering engine, but limits the functionality of the recipient to what is anticipated within that engine and may vastly increase the amount of data transferred. Option 3 allows the sender to remain simple and scalable while minimizing the bytes transferred, but loses the child obesity thesis advantages of information hiding and requires that both sender and recipient understand the same data types. REST provides a hybrid of all three options by focusing on essay owl a shared understanding of data types with metadata, but limiting the scope of what is nature discursive essay revealed to a standardized interface. REST components communicate by transferring a representation of essay owl, a resource in a format matching one of an evolving set of standard data types, selected dynamically based on the capabilities or desires of the recipient and literature essays, the nature of the resource. Whether the representation is in the same format as the essay purdue owl raw source, or is derived from the source, remains hidden behind the interface.

The benefits of the mobile object style are approximated by sending a representation that consists of instructions in the standard data format of an encapsulated rendering engine (e.g., Java [45]). REST therefore gains the coordinator letter separation of concerns of the client-server style without the server scalability problem, allows information hiding through a generic interface to enable encapsulation and evolution of services, and provides for a diverse set of functionality through downloadable feature-engines. REST's data elements are summarized in Table 5-1. 5.2.1.1 Resources and Resource Identifiers. The key abstraction of information in purdue, REST is a resource . Any information that can be named can be a resource: a document or image, a temporal service (e.g. today's weather in Los Angeles), a collection of other resources, a non-virtual object (e.g. Child Obesity Thesis Statements? a person), and so on. In other words, any concept that might be the essay owl target of an author's hypertext reference must fit within the definition of a resource. A resource is a conceptual mapping to a set of entities, not the entity that corresponds to the mapping at any particular point in time. More precisely, a resource R is a temporally varying membership function M R (t) , which for discursive, time t maps to a set of entities, or values, which are equivalent.

The values in purdue, the set may be resource representations and/or resource identifiers . A resource can map to the empty set, which allows references to be made to a concept before any realization of that concept exists -- a notion that was foreign to most hypertext systems prior to the Web [61]. Strindberg Stronger? Some resources are static in the sense that, when examined at any time after their creation, they always correspond to the same value set. Others have a high degree of variance in essay purdue owl, their value over time. The only ap english essays, thing that is required to be static for purdue owl, a resource is the semantics of the mapping, since the semantics is what distinguishes one resource from another. For example, the authors' preferred version of an academic paper is a mapping whose value changes over time, whereas a mapping to the paper published in the proceedings of papers tasks, conference X is static. These are two distinct resources, even if they both map to the same value at some point in time.

The distinction is necessary so that both resources can be identified and essay purdue, referenced independently. A similar example from software engineering is the separate identification of a version-controlled source code file when referring to auf naxos dessay the latest revision, revision number 1.2.7, or revision included with the Orange release. This abstract definition of essay, a resource enables key features of the statements Web architecture. First, it provides generality by encompassing many sources of information without artificially distinguishing them by type or implementation. Second, it allows late binding of the reference to a representation, enabling content negotiation to take place based on purdue characteristics of the request.

Finally, it allows an author to reference the concept rather than some singular representation of that concept, thus removing the need to change all existing links whenever the group coordinator letter representation changes (assuming the essay owl author used the right identifier). REST uses a resource identifier to identify the particular resource involved in an interaction between components. Ap English Literature? REST connectors provide a generic interface for accessing and manipulating the value set of a resource, regardless of purdue, how the membership function is defined or the obesity thesis statements type of software that is handling the purdue owl request. The naming authority that assigned the resource identifier, making it possible to reference the resource, is responsible for sats papers writing, maintaining the semantic validity of the essay owl mapping over time (i.e., ensuring that the membership function does not change). Traditional hypertext systems [61], which typically operate in a closed or local environment, use unique node or document identifiers that change every time the information changes, relying on link servers to maintain references separately from the content [135].

Since centralized link servers are an anathema to the immense scale and ariadne, multi-organizational domain requirements of the purdue Web, REST relies instead on the author choosing a resource identifier that best fits the nature of the concept being identified. Naturally, the quality of an identifier is ap english literature and composition essays often proportional to the amount of essay, money spent to retain its validity, which leads to broken links as ephemeral (or poorly supported) information moves or disappears over time. REST components perform actions on a resource by using a representation to capture the current or intended state of that resource and transferring that representation between components. A representation is a sequence of bytes, plus representation metadata to describe those bytes. Other commonly used but less precise names for a representation include: document, file, and HTTP message entity, instance, or variant. A representation consists of data, metadata describing the data, and, on occasion, metadata to describe the metadata (usually for the purpose of verifying message integrity). Metadata is in the form of name-value pairs, where the letter name corresponds to a standard that defines the value's structure and semantics. Response messages may include both representation metadata and resource metadata: information about the resource that is essay purdue owl not specific to the supplied representation. Control data defines the purpose of a message between components, such as the action being requested or the meaning of a response. It is also used to parameterize requests and override the default behavior of some connecting elements. For example, cache behavior can be modified by control data included in the request or response message.

Depending on the message control data, a given representation may indicate the current state of the requested resource, the desired state for the requested resource, or the papers writing value of some other resource, such as a representation of the input data within a client's query form, or a representation of some error condition for a response. Purdue Owl? For example, remote authoring of a resource requires that the author send a representation to the server, thus establishing a value for that resource that can be retrieved by later requests. If the value set of ariadne auf naxos, a resource at purdue, a given time consists of multiple representations, content negotiation may be used to select the best representation for inclusion in a given message. The data format of a representation is known as a media type [48]. A representation can be included in a message and processed by the recipient according to the control data of the message and the nature of the media type. Some media types are intended for automated processing, some are intended to be rendered for viewing by a user, and a few are capable of ap english literature, both. Essay Purdue? Composite media types can be used to enclose multiple representations in a single message. The design of a media type can directly impact the papers writing tasks user-perceived performance of a distributed hypermedia system. Any data that must be received before the recipient can begin rendering the representation adds to the latency of an interaction.

A data format that places the most important rendering information up front, such that the essay purdue initial information can be incrementally rendered while the rest of the information is being received, results in much better user-perceived performance than a data format that must be entirely received before rendering can begin. For example, a Web browser that can incrementally render a large HTML document while it is being received provides significantly better user-perceived performance than one that waits until the essay entire document is completely received prior to rendering, even though the network performance is the same. Note that the rendering ability of a representation can also be impacted by the choice of content. Essay Purdue? If the essay dimensions of dynamically-sized tables and embedded objects must be determined before they can be rendered, their occurrence within the viewing area of a hypermedia page will increase its latency. REST uses various connector types, summarized in Table 5-2, to encapsulate the activities of accessing resources and transferring resource representations. The connectors present an abstract interface for component communication, enhancing simplicity by providing a clean separation of essay purdue owl, concerns and hiding the underlying implementation of resources and communication mechanisms. The generality of the interface also enables substitutability: if the users' only access to letter the system is via an abstract interface, the essay implementation can be replaced without impacting the users. Since a connector manages network communication for a component, information can be shared across multiple interactions in order to improve efficiency and responsiveness. All REST interactions are stateless. That is, each request contains all of the information necessary for a connector to understand the request, independent of any requests that may have preceded it. Ap English Literature Essays? This restriction accomplishes four functions: 1) it removes any need for the connectors to retain application state between requests, thus reducing consumption of physical resources and essay owl, improving scalability; 2) it allows interactions to be processed in poetry essays, parallel without requiring that the processing mechanism understand the interaction semantics; 3) it allows an intermediary to purdue view and understand a request in isolation, which may be necessary when services are dynamically rearranged; and, 4) it forces all of the information that might factor into nature discursive essay the reusability of a cached response to be present in each request.

The connector interface is similar to procedural invocation, but with important differences in the passing of parameters and results. The in-parameters consist of request control data, a resource identifier indicating the target of the essay owl request, and an optional representation. The out-parameters consist of response control data, optional resource metadata, and an optional representation. Strindberg Stronger Essay? From an abstract viewpoint the invocation is synchronous, but both in essay purdue, and out-parameters can be passed as data streams. In other words, processing can be invoked before the value of the parameters is completely known, thus avoiding the latency of batch processing large data transfers. The primary connector types are client and server. The essential difference between the two is literature poetry essays that a client initiates communication by making a request, whereas a server listens for connections and responds to requests in essay purdue, order to supply access to its services. A component may include both client and server connectors. A third connector type, the cache connector, can be located on the interface to a client or server connector in order to strindberg stronger save cacheable responses to current interactions so that they can be reused for later requested interactions. A cache may be used by a client to avoid repetition of network communication, or by essay purdue a server to avoid repeating the process of generating a response, with both cases serving to reduce interaction latency.

A cache is typically implemented within the address space of the connector that uses it. Some cache connectors are shared, meaning that its cached responses may be used in answer to a client other than the papers one for which the response was originally obtained. Shared caching can be effective at reducing the impact of flash crowds on the load of a popular server, particularly when the essay owl caching is obesity thesis statements arranged hierarchically to essay purdue cover large groups of users, such as those within a company's intranet, the customers of an Internet service provider, or Universities sharing a national network backbone. However, shared caching can also lead to errors if the cached response does not match what would have been obtained by a new request. REST attempts to balance the strindberg stronger essay desire for transparency in essay purdue owl, cache behavior with the strindberg stronger essay desire for essay purdue owl, efficient use of the sales coordinator cover letter network, rather than assuming that absolute transparency is always required. A cache is essay purdue able to determine the sales cover letter cacheability of a response because the interface is generic rather than specific to each resource. By default, the response to a retrieval request is cacheable and the responses to other requests are non-cacheable. If some form of user authentication is essay owl part of the request, or if the response indicates that it should not be shared, then the response is only cacheable by a non-shared cache. A component can override these defaults by including control data that marks the interaction as cacheable, non-cacheable or cacheable for child thesis statements, only a limited time. A resolver translates partial or complete resource identifiers into the network address information needed to establish an inter-component connection.

For example, most URI include a DNS hostname as the mechanism for identifying the naming authority for the resource. In order to initiate a request, a Web browser will extract the hostname from the URI and make use of purdue, a DNS resolver to obtain the Internet Protocol address for that authority. Another example is that some identification schemes (e.g., URN [124]) require an intermediary to sats papers writing tasks translate a permanent identifier to a more transient address in order to essay access the identified resource. Use of one or more intermediate resolvers can improve the longevity of resource references through indirection, though doing so adds to the request latency. The final form of connector type is ariadne auf naxos dessay a tunnel, which simply relays communication across a connection boundary, such as a firewall or lower-level network gateway. The only owl, reason it is modeled as part of REST and not abstracted away as part of the network infrastructure is that some REST components may dynamically switch from active component behavior to that of a tunnel. The primary example is an HTTP proxy that switches to a tunnel in response to vs nurture discursive essay a CONNECT method request [71], thus allowing its client to essay owl directly communicate with a remote server using a different protocol, such as TLS, that doesn't allow proxies. The tunnel disappears when both ends terminate their communication. REST components, summarized in Table 5-3, are typed by literature and composition poetry their roles in an overall application action. A user agent uses a client connector to initiate a request and becomes the ultimate recipient of the response. Purdue? The most common example is a Web browser, which provides access to information services and renders service responses according to the application needs.

An origin server uses a server connector to govern the namespace for a requested resource. It is the definitive source for representations of its resources and must be the ap english ultimate recipient of purdue owl, any request that intends to modify the value of its resources. Sats Papers Writing? Each origin server provides a generic interface to essay purdue its services as a resource hierarchy. The resource implementation details are hidden behind the stronger essay interface. Intermediary components act as both a client and a server in order to forward, with possible translation, requests and responses. A proxy component is an intermediary selected by essay purdue a client to provide interface encapsulation of other services, data translation, performance enhancement, or security protection. A gateway (a.k.a., reverse proxy) component is an intermediary imposed by the network or origin server to provide an interface encapsulation of other services, for data translation, performance enhancement, or security enforcement. Note that the difference between a proxy and cover letter, a gateway is that a client determines when it will use a proxy. Now that we have an understanding of the REST architectural elements in isolation, we can use architectural views [105] to describe how the elements work together to form an architecture. Three types of view--process, connector, and data--are useful for illuminating the design principles of REST.

A process view of an architecture is primarily effective at essay, eliciting the interaction relationships among components by revealing the path of data as it flows through the system. Writing Tasks? Unfortunately, the owl interaction of a real system usually involves an extensive number of components, resulting in an overall view that is obscured by the details. Figure 5-10 provides a sample of the process view from sats papers tasks, a REST-based architecture at a particular instance during the processing of three parallel requests. REST's client-server separation of essay purdue owl, concerns simplifies component implementation, reduces the complexity of connector semantics, improves the effectiveness of performance tuning, and increases the stronger scalability of purdue, pure server components. Layered system constraints allow intermediaries--proxies, gateways, and firewalls--to be introduced at various points in the communication without changing the interfaces between components, thus allowing them to assist in communication translation or improve performance via large-scale, shared caching. REST enables intermediate processing by constraining messages to group be self-descriptive: interaction is stateless between requests, standard methods and media types are used to indicate semantics and exchange information, and responses explicitly indicate cacheability. Since the components are connected dynamically, their arrangement and function for essay, a particular application action has characteristics similar to writing a pipe-and-filter style. Although REST components communicate via bidirectional streams, the processing of owl, each direction is independent and therefore susceptible to stream transducers (filters). The generic connector interface allows components to be placed on strindberg essay the stream based on the properties of essay purdue, each request or response. Services may be implemented using a complex hierarchy of intermediaries and multiple distributed origin servers.

The stateless nature of REST allows each interaction to be independent of the others, removing the need for an awareness of the nature vs nurture discursive essay overall component topology, an impossible task for an Internet-scale architecture, and allowing components to act as either destinations or intermediaries, determined dynamically by the target of each request. Connectors need only essay, be aware of each other's existence during the scope of their communication, though they may cache the existence and capabilities of other components for performance reasons. A connector view of an architecture concentrates on the mechanics of the communication between components. For a REST-based architecture, we are particularly interested in the constraints that define the generic resource interface. Client connectors examine the resource identifier in order to select an appropriate communication mechanism for sats writing tasks, each request. For example, a client may be configured to connect to a specific proxy component, perhaps one acting as an annotation filter, when the identifier indicates that it is a local resource. Likewise, a client can be configured to reject requests for some subset of identifiers. REST does not restrict communication to a particular protocol, but it does constrain the interface between components, and hence the scope of interaction and implementation assumptions that might otherwise be made between components. For example, the Web's primary transfer protocol is HTTP, but the architecture also includes seamless access to resources that originate on pre-existing network servers, including FTP [107], Gopher [7], and WAIS [36]. Interaction with those services is restricted to the semantics of a REST connector.

This constraint sacrifices some of the advantages of other architectures, such as the stateful interaction of a relevance feedback protocol like WAIS, in order to retain the advantages of a single, generic interface for connector semantics. In return, the generic interface makes it possible to access a multitude of purdue, services through a single proxy. If an application needs the thesis statements additional capabilities of another architecture, it can implement and essay purdue owl, invoke those capabilities as a separate system running in parallel, similar to how the Web architecture interfaces with telnet and nature vs nurture essay, mailto resources. A data view of an architecture reveals the application state as information flows through the components. Since REST is specifically targeted at distributed information systems, it views an owl application as a cohesive structure of information and control alternatives through which a user can perform a desired task. For example, looking-up a word in strindberg stronger, an on-line dictionary is one application, as is touring through a virtual museum, or reviewing a set of class notes to study for an exam. Each application defines goals for the underlying system, against essay which the ariadne auf naxos dessay system's performance can be measured. Component interactions occur in the form of dynamically sized messages. Small or medium-grain messages are used for control semantics, but the bulk of application work is purdue owl accomplished via large-grain messages containing a complete resource representation.

The most frequent form of request semantics is that of retrieving a representation of nature, a resource (e.g., the GET method in HTTP), which can often be cached for later reuse. REST concentrates all of the control state into the representations received in response to owl interactions. The goal is to improve server scalability by eliminating any need for the server to maintain an awareness of the client state beyond the papers writing current request. An application's state is therefore defined by its pending requests, the topology of connected components (some of essay owl, which may be filtering buffered data), the sats papers writing active requests on essay purdue those connectors, the data flow of representations in response to those requests, and the processing of nature vs nurture discursive essay, those representations as they are received by the user agent. An application reaches a steady-state whenever it has no outstanding requests; i.e., it has no pending requests and all of the essay responses to its current set of requests have been completely received or received to group letter the point where they can be treated as a representation data stream. For a browser application, this state corresponds to owl a web page, including the primary representation and ancillary representations, such as in-line images, embedded applets, and literature and composition, style sheets. The significance of application steady-states is seen in their impact on purdue owl both user-perceived performance and the burstiness of sats papers writing, network request traffic. The user-perceived performance of a browser application is determined by the latency between steady-states: the period of time between the selection of a hypermedia link on one web page and the point when usable information has been rendered for the next web page. The optimization of browser performance is therefore centered around reducing this communication latency. Since REST-based architectures communicate primarily through the transfer of representations of resources, latency can be impacted by both the design of the communication protocols and the design of the representation data formats. Essay Purdue? The ability to incrementally render the papers tasks response data as it is received is determined by the design of the media type and the availability of layout information (visual dimensions of in-line objects) within each representation.

An interesting observation is that the most efficient network request is one that doesn't use the network. In other words, the ability to essay owl reuse a cached response results in a considerable improvement in application performance. Stronger Essay? Although use of a cache adds some latency to each individual request due to lookup overhead, the average request latency is significantly reduced when even a small percentage of requests result in usable cache hits. The next control state of an application resides in owl, the representation of the first requested resource, so obtaining that first representation is a priority. REST interaction is therefore improved by protocols that respond first and think later. In other words, a protocol that requires multiple interactions per user action, in order to dessay do things like negotiate feature capabilities prior to sending a content response, will be perceptively slower than a protocol that sends whatever is essay most likely to be optimal first and nature, then provides a list of owl, alternatives for the client to retrieve if the first response is ariadne unsatisfactory. The application state is essay controlled and stored by the user agent and can be composed of representations from multiple servers. In addition to freeing the server from the scalability problems of storing state, this allows the user to directly manipulate the state (e.g., a Web browser's history), anticipate changes to that state (e.g., link maps and prefetching of ap english poetry essays, representations), and jump from one application to another (e.g., bookmarks and URI-entry dialogs). The model application is therefore an engine that moves from one state to the next by examining and choosing from among the purdue owl alternative state transitions in the current set of representations. Not surprisingly, this exactly matches the user interface of literature, a hypermedia browser.

However, the style does not assume that all applications are browsers. In fact, the application details are hidden from the server by essay purdue the generic connector interface, and strindberg, thus a user agent could equally be an automated robot performing information retrieval for an indexing service, a personal agent looking for essay purdue, data that matches certain criteria, or a maintenance spider busy patrolling the information for broken references or modified content [39]. Bass, et al. [9] devote a chapter on architecture for group sales cover, the World Wide Web, but their description only encompasses the purdue owl implementation architecture within the ap english CERN/W3C developed libwww (client and server libraries) and Jigsaw software. Essay? Although those implementations reflect many of the design constraints of REST, having been developed by people familiar with the ap english literature poetry essays Web's architectural design and rationale, the real WWW architecture is independent of any single implementation. Essay Purdue Owl? The modern Web is defined by its standard interfaces and protocols, not how those interfaces and ariadne, protocols are implemented in owl, a given piece of software.

The REST style draws from many preexisting distributed process paradigms [6, 50], communication protocols, and software fields. Thesis? REST component interactions are structured in a layered client-server style, but the purdue owl added constraints of the generic resource interface create the opportunity for substitutability and inspection by intermediaries. Requests and responses have the appearance of a remote invocation style, but REST messages are targeted at a conceptual resource rather than an implementation identifier. Several attempts have been made to model the Web architecture as a form of distributed file system (e.g., WebNFS) or as a distributed object system [83]. However, they exclude various Web resource types or implementation strategies as being not interesting, when in fact their presence invalidates the assumptions that underlie such models. REST works well because it does not limit the implementation of resources to certain predefined models, allowing each application to choose an implementation that best matches its own needs and enabling the strindberg stronger essay replacement of implementations without impacting the user.

The interaction method of sending representations of resources to consuming components has some parallels with event-based integration (EBI) styles. The key difference is essay purdue owl that EBI styles are push-based. The component containing the state (equivalent to coordinator an origin server in REST) issues an purdue owl event whenever the state changes, whether or not any component is actually interested in or listening for such an event. In the REST style, consuming components usually pull representations. Although this is sats papers tasks less efficient when viewed as a single client wishing to monitor a single resource, the scale of the Web makes an unregulated push model infeasible. The principled use of the purdue REST style in the Web, with its clear notion of components, connectors, and representations, relates closely to essay the C2 architectural style [128]. The C2 style supports the development of distributed, dynamic applications by focusing on structured use of connectors to obtain substrate independence.

C2 applications rely on asynchronous notification of state changes and owl, request messages. As with other event-based schemes, C2 is nominally push-based, though a C2 architecture could operate in literature and composition poetry essays, REST's pull style by only emitting a notification upon receipt of a request. However, the C2 style lacks the intermediary-friendly constraints of REST, such as the generic resource interface, guaranteed stateless interactions, and intrinsic support for caching. This chapter introduced the Representational State Transfer (REST) architectural style for distributed hypermedia systems. REST provides a set of architectural constraints that, when applied as a whole, emphasizes scalability of component interactions, generality of interfaces, independent deployment of components, and intermediary components to reduce interaction latency, enforce security, and purdue owl, encapsulate legacy systems.

I described the software engineering principles guiding REST and strindberg stronger, the interaction constraints chosen to retain those principles, while contrasting them to the constraints of essay purdue owl, other architectural styles. The next chapter presents an evaluation of the REST architecture through the experience and lessons learned from applying REST to the design, specification, and deployment of the strindberg essay modern Web architecture. This work included authoring the current Internet standards-track specifications of the Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1) and Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI), and implementing the architecture through the libwww-perl client protocol library and purdue, Apache HTTP server.