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Bell Hooks Essays and Research Papers. Title: bell hooks' Seeing and Making Culture bell. 122 Essay: Rhetorical Analysis Due Thursday, October 11 Fall 2012. We’ve been examining how writers use certain techniques to academic letter, make their writing more persuasive. We have discussed the craft and the content of various authors. Essay On Quota System! Writers sometimes emphasize their own authority or credibility (ethos); they might appeal to an audience’s values, emotions, or experiences (pathos); or they might base their argument on careful reasoning (logos). These techniques are all part of what is known as rhetoric—the effective use of letter, language or the art of persuasion. Analyzing the papers, rhetorical choices writers make allows us to evaluate their arguments more effectively and respond appropriately.

This assignment asks you to conduct such a rhetorical analysis of a text: Choose any assigned reading from IAW (Postman, hooks , Loewen, Rodriguez, Graff, Hade, Teare). Read the of application, text SEVERAL times, each time making notes about what the author is doing to make his or her argument more persuasive. Then compose an susan sontag camp, essay of approximately 3 to 4 pages in which you analyze the rhetorical techniques the author uses in the text. Academic Letter! Develop a claim of value to evaluate your article’s success or failure, effectiveness or ineffectiveness, and support your claim(s) by quoting the author. A Degree Thesis From Library! Here are some points to keep in mind as you write your essay: Ethos: What perspective and biases does the author bring to this text? What authority does he or she have to produce this text? What does the academic letter, author do within the text to establish credibility with the custom, audience?

Pathos: Intended Audience? Whom is the author of this text writing to? What is the audience's attitude towards the subject matter? How does this attitude affect the way the author presents his or her message? What does the letter, author do to appeal to the audience's emotions, values, or experiences?

What is the purpose or the message of the article? How successful is the author at “selling” his/her idea? What reasons and evidence does he/she provide to prove the claim(s)? Logos: What basic claim(s) is the author making? How appropriate and convincing is the author’s reasoning and writing a five paragraph essay evidence? Make sure your essay has a clear, focused thesis. You can’t simply hand in a list of rhetorical appeals you found in letter the text; instead, you should look at the notes you’ve made and determine whether there is an overall pattern of rhetorical appeals that makes the text effective or ineffective. You should, of course, support your analysis with examples from the text, but remember that your essay should be an analysis, not a summary.

Do not waste time telling your reader what the text says; focus on how the text says it. Look at word choice, tone, and structure as conscious decisions by custom papers for shipping, the author. Your analysis should be just that—yours—in that you’re presenting and defending your own understanding of what the author is doing in letter of application the text. There’s no need, however, to mention yourself at any point in the essay. Phrases like “I think” or “in my opinion” tend to weaken this sort of essay, so avoid them. (Write in 3rd person.) Likewise, your own opinion of the subject matter of the text is irrelevant in a Rhetorical Analysis. This assignment does not ask you to agree or disagree with the author, only to analyze how he or she is making a point. In her essay “Seeing and description Making Culture: Representing the Poor,” noted African American scholar bell hooks attempts to challenge the stereotypes specific to letter of application, poverty that have haunted and oppressed African Americans, and custom for shipping that have resulted in a legacy of shame and worthlessness among all poor people, regardless of race. hooks believes that popular culture is primarily to letter, blame for custom papers for shipping depictions of the poor that reinforce negative stereotypes, and she argues that “Television shows and films bring the message home that no one can truly feel good about themselves if they are poor” (par 8). All the while hooks cleverly ties in her distaste to capitalism with remarks such as “To change the devastating impact of poverty on letter of application the lives of food delivery, masses of folks in our society we must change the way resources and wealth are distributed.” (par 12)

Total Pages: 2 Words: 439 References:0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper. Is gender something one has or something one does? What does it mean to ?do? a feminist reading of a text or a film? How might feminist theory endeavor to both describe and undo cultural constructions of academic letter of application, gender? This course will explore these questions by reading a range of theoretical and literary texts that elaborate historical, medical, psychoanalytic, and cultural models of gender and sexuality.

We will read critics and theorists who have become central to contemporary feminism, including Freud, Mulvey, Butler, and Fausto-Sterling, among others. We will pay particular attention to literary texts that have been productive for feminist formulations of essay, gender, including work by Charlotte Perkins Gilman, Nella Larsen, and academic of application Angela Carter. Custom! Finally, we will screen several films that invite viewers to academic, reform or rethink their own perceptions of gender, including Safe, and Boys Don?t Cry. Topics we will discuss include: norms, the psychosomatic, the gaze, transgender theory, and food plan performativity. Total Pages: 15 Words: 4314 Works Cited:5 Citation Style: APA Document Type: Essay. Letter! 1. Specify why bell hooks is a wise person. 2. include your assumptions about wisdom. Papers! 3. justify your reasoning with what you have learned about or read about wisdom. Psychological Perspectives. (2005). NY: Oxford Univ. Press.

Brown, W. S. (Ed.). Letter Of Application! (2000). Understanding Wisdom: Sources, Science Society. (2000). Philadelphia: Templeton Press. The Wisdom Page: http://wisdompage.com. Grendel Description! MODULE 2. Defining Wisdom. August 27-31. (4-5 days) MODULE 3. Historical Perspectives. September 1 - 7 (1 week). MODULE 4. Philosophical Dimensions. September 8- 14 (1 week). MODULE 5. Psychological Investigations. September 15 – 21 (1 week).

MODULE 6. Cultural Connections. September 22 - Oct 12 (3 weeks). Fall Break (October 13-18th) MODULE 7. Wisdom and the Mind/Neurobiology.October 20 – 26 (1 week). MODULE 8. Development/Critical Reflection. Oct. 27 – November 2 (1 week).

MODULE 9. Academic Of Application! Educational/Learning Connection. November 3 - 9 (1 week). MODULE 10. The Loss of Wisdom. November 10 – 16 (1 week). Susan Sontag Essay Camp! MODULE 11. Virtue and Ethics. November 17 – 23 (1 week).

MODULE 12. The Wisdom Paradox. November 24 - 30 (2 weeks). Presentations of Research Papers. December 1- 14 (2 weeks). 2. Describe the historical perspectives on academic letter of application wisdom. 3. Classify the grendel essay, philosophical approaches to wisdom. 4. Explore wisdom as a worldwide cultural phenomenon, recognizing different ways of knowing.

5. Analyze their existing mental models about academic letter, wisdom. 6. Explain possible neurological and biological bases for wisdom. 7. Critique many of the essay, psychological investigations into academic letter of application wisdom. Essay! 8. Describe and compare the developmental theories that may explain wisdom. Academic Of Application! 9. Identify the attributes of those who are known to be wise. 10.

List and analyze the possible roles of mentors and teachers in grendel description essay the acquisition of academic, wisdom, developing a possible lesson plan. 11. Explore wisdom’s connection to transformational learning principles. 12. Grendel Description! Self reflect in a journal about the issues addressed in this course, including personal ideas and thoughts about of application, wisdom. Sources Science, and Society West Conshohocken, PA: Templeton Foundation Press. Total Pages: 4 Words: 1277 Bibliography:0 Citation Style: MLA Document Type: Research Paper. 1. a well organized introduction. Grendel Description! 2. what did you find most interesting/enlightening/unexpected about these chapters? 3. what aspects of these chapters did you agree with or disagree with? 4. what questions would you like bell hooks to respond to?

5. the body of the paper should explore bell hooks in depth, making sure to use the chapters 4 and 5 from Omi and Winant's to affirm dispute, or bolster bell hooks ' positions. 6. a well organized conclusion. There are faxes for this order. Works Cited hooks, bell. Killing Rage: Ending Racism.

NY: Holt, Rhinehart Winston, 1996.

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Smalls-Mantey, Sample F31 Application and academic, Summary Statement. We are truly indebted to the grantee who allowed us to post this outstanding F31 sample application to help the next generation of investigators write applications. The F31 sample application below doesn’t reflect the complex layouts of the actual SF 424 PDF forms. Instead, we’ve provided a list of delivery business key fields from academic letter of application those forms and the applicant’s responses. In addition, we redacted some applicant-specific information such as contact information, publications in press, and grendel essay, budget specifics. The text of this application is copyrighted. Academic Letter! You may use it only for nonprofit educational purposes provided the document remains unchanged and the PI, the grantee organization, and NIAID are credited. Questions? Contact deaweb@niaid.nih.gov. We also offer other outstanding Sample Applications. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the essay on quota actual PDF forms.

Here is the summary that eRA Commons generated at the start of the sample app, which reflects many key fields from that form.] Project/Performance Site Locations. [Our Web version of academic letter this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. Grendel Description Essay! Performance sites are in New York, Maryland, and the United Kingdom.] Research Related Other Project Information. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms.

Here are the letter key fields from that form and the applicant's responses.] Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by borrow from library candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in most recent vaccine trials. Academic! However, this approach has not been successful in essay containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to letter of application, deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target.

We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by papers for shipping the sera of a cohort of academic letter of application patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and food delivery business plan, Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. We hypothesize that variations in academic letter of application ADCC activity of a degree thesis from sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of academic of application HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the food delivery plan potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. Aim 2 : Characterize the academic letter specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity.

Aim 3 : Characterize the structure and function of the target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for essay in pakistan induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the Abs that mediate ADCC and image the functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of letter defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Gallo RC, Salahuddin SZ, Popovic M. Susan Sontag Essay! Frequent detection and isolation of letter cytopathic retroviruses (HTLV-III) from food delivery business patients with AIDS and at risk for academic letter of application AIDS. Science. 1984; 224: 500-3.

Barre-Sinoussi F, Chermann JC, Rey F, Nugeyre MT, Chamaret S, Gruest J, et al. Isolation of a T-lymphotropic retrovirus from a five a patient at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Science. 1983; 220(4599): 868-71. Organization WH.

Global summary of the letter of application AIDS epidemic, December 2007. 2007 [cited 2009 September 18, 2009]; Hessell AJ, Hangartner L, Hunter M, Havenith CE, Beurskens FJ, Bakker JM, et al. Fc receptor but not complement binding is important in antibody protection against HIV. Nature. 2007; 449(7158): 101-4. www.hivresearh.org. RV144 Phase III HIV Vaccine Trial Press Release. 2009. Chung A, Rollman E, Johansson S, Kent SJ, Stratov I. Borrow Thesis Library! The utility of ADCC responses in HIV infection.

Current HIV research. 2008; 6(6): 515-9. Kohl S, Starr SE, oleske JM, Shore SL, Ashman RB, Nahmias AJ. Of Application! Human monocytemacrophage- mediated antibody-dependent cytotoxicity to herpes simplex virus-infected cells. J Immunol. Susan Sontag Essay Camp! 1977; 118(3): 729-35. Forthal DN, Landucci G. In vitro reduction of virus infectivity by antibody-dependent cellmediated immunity. Journal of academic immunological methods. 1998; 220(1-2): 129-38. Food Business Plan! Stratov I, Chung A, Kent SJ. Robust NK cell-mediated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-specific antibody-dependent responses in HIV-infected subjects.

J Virol. 2008; 82(11): 5450-9. Gomez-Roman VR, Florese RH, Patterson LJ, Peng B, Venzon D, Aldrich K, et al. A simplified method for the rapid fluorometric assessment of antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Journal of immunological methods.

2006; 308(1-2): 53-67. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, et al. Letter Of Application! Lytic granule loading of CD8+ T cells is required for HIV-infected cell elimination associated with immune control. Immunity. 2008; 29(6): 1009-21. Camp! Vago L, Perna SK, Zanussi M, Mazzi B, Barlassina C, Stanghellini MT, et al. Loss of mismatched HLA in leukemia after stem-cell transplantation. N Engl J Med. 2009; 361(5): 478- 88. Ziegner U, Campbell D, Weinhold K, Frank I, Rutstein R, Starr SE. Deficient antibodydependent cellular cytotoxicity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-expressing target cells in perinatal HIV infection.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 1999; 6(5): 718-24. Brunetta E, Fogli M, Varchetta S, Bozzo L, Hudspeth KL, Marcenaro E, et al. The decreased expression of letter Siglec-7 represents an early marker of dysfunctional natural killer cell subsets associated with high levels of on quota HIV-1 viremia. Blood. Academic! 2009.

Ljunggren HG, Ohlen C, Hoglund P, Yamasaki T, Klein G, Karre K. Afferent and efferent cellular interactions in natural resistance directed against MHC class I deficient tumor grafts. J Immunol. 1988; 140(2): 671-8. De Maria A, Ferraris A, Guastella M, Pilia S, Cantoni C, Polero L, et al. Expression of HLA class I-specific inhibitory natural killer cell receptors in susan essay camp HIV-specific cytolytic T lymphocytes: impairment of specific cytolytic functions. Proceedings of the of application National Academy of Sciences of the business United States of America. 1997; 94(19): 10285-8. Ahmad R, Sindhu ST, Toma E, Morisset R, Vincelette J, Menezes J, et al. Evidence for a correlation between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity-mediating anti-HIV-1 antibodies and prognostic predictors of HIV infection. J Clin Immunol. 2001; 21(3): 227-33.

Lambotte O, Ferrari G, Moog C, Yates NL, Liao HX, Parks RJ, et al. Academic Letter! Heterogeneous neutralizing antibody and antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity responses in HIV-1 elite controllers. AIDS. 2009; 23(8): 897-906. Dalgleish A, Sinclair A, Steel M, Beatson D, Ludlam C, Habeshaw J. Grendel Description! Failure of ADCC to predict HIV-associated disease progression or outcome in a haemophiliac cohort. Clin Exp Immunol. 1990; 81(1): 5-10.

Koup RA, Sullivan JL, Levine PH, Brewster F, Mahr A, Mazzara G, et al. Letter! Antigenic specificity of custom antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity directed against human immunodeficiency virus in antibody-positive sera. J Virol. 1989; 63(2): 584-90. Doria-Rose NA, Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2009; 4(5): 426-30. Letter Of Application! Burke B, Barnett SW. Broadening our view of protective antibody responses against HIV.

Current HIV research. 2007; 5(6): 625-41. Sattentau Q. Papers! Avoiding the academic letter void: cell-to-cell spread of human viruses. Custom For Shipping! Nat Rev Microbiol. 2008; 6(11): 815-26. Chamow SM, Zhang DZ, Tan XY, Mhatre SM, Marsters SA, Peers DH, et al. Of Application! A humanized, bispecific immunoadhesin-antibody that retargets CD3+ effectors to susan sontag, kill HIV-1- infected cells. J Immunol. 1994; 153(9): 4268-80.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M, Sattentau QJ. HIV-1 cell to cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J Exp Med. 2004; 199(2): 283-93. Letter! Groot F, Welsch S, Sattentau QJ. Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to essay on quota system in pakistan, T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood. 2008; 111(9): 4660-3. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D, Sattentau QJ. Virological synapsemediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 between T cells is academic of application, sensitive to entry inhibition. J Virol.

2010; 84(7): 3516-27. Intellectual Support : My mentors Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau are leading experts in their field and have mentored numerous people that have gone on to successful careers in science. This dual mentorship will teach me to aggressively approach science from two distinctive perspectives in my graduate career, something most PhD scientist don’t experience until their first post-doctoral experience. Help Writing Essay! While at NIH I will have received extensive support of staff from Richard Siegel, Director of the NIH MD/PhD partnership program and Michael Lenardo, Director the academic NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program. While at Oxford I will have the guidance of Lucinda Risius, Managing Director of the Graduate Pathology Program and I will also be assigned a departmental advisor, outside of my lab, with whom I can discuss my research Progress. Educational Resources : Through the susan sontag FAES at NIH I have access to courses to improve lab specific skills and foundation knowledge.

I have already participated a Vaccine Development course. Academic! At Oxford I will take seminars at the Centre for Excellence in Teaching and grendel essay, Learning for training in teaching skills. I will also take courses pertinent to my research offered at the Dunn School of Pathology. Both the NIH and Oxford have libraries and IT staff that can aid me in scholarly research. Physical Resources : Both labs have sufficient funding to provided me any reagent/equipement need for the proposed research. Lab Space – I am provided with a desk and letter of application, personal desktop computer. Bench space is shared within the lab. Safety – In order to ensure our safety from hazardous blood samples we work under laminar flow hoods in a P2 facility with P3 practices. For Shipping! Samples – We receive blood samples from patients enrolled within our protocol. We also have access to academic, the NIH blood blank for normal human blood samples. As provided by Quentin Sattentau: “Oxford University is held in high international regard for its strong teaching and research background and its unique and personal teaching style.

Within the University the Department of Pathology has an excellent reputation for graduate teaching, and has achieved 100% success in DPhil graduation within 4 years for sontag the past 3 years. The Department has a strong graduate support structure, in which each student has a principal supervisor, the letter possibility of a cosupervisor, a departmental advisor, and a college advisor. The supervisor(s) will generally meet with the student multiple times a term, and can you a degree thesis from chalmers, each of the academic non-supervisory mentors will meet with the candidate approximately once a term and susan sontag essay, will file reports on the candidate’s progress. The candidate will be expected to attend a series of academic high profile external seminars that take place once a week in papers term time, and a regular series of internal seminars from leading and more junior University and Departmental investigators and academic of application, students. Adjoa will attend and participate in the weekly lab journal club, in which scientific papers are taken apart critically by members of the group, and a weekly laboratory meeting in susan essay camp which each lab member presents their ongoing research.

Adjoa will also be encouraged to chat to academic of application, other members of the department during tea lunch and coffee breaks, a longstanding Oxford institution! The Department has a fully equipped quiet library for help paragraph essay literature research and other reading and writing. Adjoa will have her own writing up space close to her work bench, equipped with a portable computer and if required, an external screen. Adjoa will have full access to all core facilities, including the imaging suite with multiple light microscopes, a flow cytometry and sorting suite, an electron microscopy facility with full technical and scientific support. Academic Letter! We also have strong connections with the biochemistry and on quota, chemistry departments and the Weatherall Institute of letter of application Molecular Medicine at the John Radcliffe Hospital for obtaining clinical samples and expertise.” BD FACSAria IIu. BD Pathways 855. VICTOR Light luminescence plate reader. AutoMACS Pro Separator.

AutoMACS Classic Separator. Containment II/III Laboratory with 4 tissue culture hoods. Tissue culture. The laboratory has a new tissue culture facility comprised of 8 double hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment that is shared with three other virology groups. Virology. The department has a large, fully-equipped containment-III laboratory shared between two groups, with three tissue culture hoods and associated incubators and ancillary equipment, in which HIV-1 is grown and used to infect cells.

Flow cytometry. The department has a core flow cytometry facility with three BD analyzers (2 x FACScalibur 2 x LSR2) and two sorters. Molecular biology. The Sattentau laboratory has all facilities for molecular biology carried out help writing paragraph under containment levels –I, -II and –III. Light microscopy. The department has 5 confocal microscopes of varying sophistication and resolution, two of which are set up for live cell immunofluorescence work. The department has three recently acquired high-speed CCD cameras and associated microscopes for live cell immunofluorescence analysis. The Sattentau laboratory has a Zeiss Pascal confocal microscope and of application, a new CCD camera set up with a Zeiss Axiovert 200 microscope for fixed and live cell work in sontag essay the containment-III laboratory, allowing real time analysis of live, infected cells. Electron microscopy.

The department has two transmission electron microscopes and a scanning electron microscope, all of which are maintained and run as a central service facility by a skilled dedicated operator. Our collaborator in Oxford (Kay Grunewald) is academic, located at the University Churchill campus, which is 4 miles from the Pathology Department. He maintains and uses 3 microscopes set up for cryo-tomography as follows. 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 Helium Polara with GIF2002 imaging filter (2 x 2k CCD) 300keV FEG cryo-electron microscope FEI TF30 with 4 x 4kCCD 120keV cryo-electron microscope FEI T12 with 4 x 4k CCD. Research Related Senior/Key Person Profile. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. See below for the biographical sketch attachments.]

My interest in studying infectious diseases stems from the 2001 anthrax scare in the Washington D.C. area. Susan Camp! I already had a strong interest in science but through my participation in the Gene Search Science Project at Catholic University the following summer I came to understand how medical research impacts treatment for routine illnesses and also plays a role in national defense. Letter! Since middle school I have been preparing for a career in science. At Eleanor Roosevelt High School I was enrolled in can you a degree from chalmers the rigorous Science and Technology Program during which time in participated in the Gene Search Project and letter, researched biochemical pathways that influence sickle cell anemia with Dr. William Winters at on quota system Howard University Hospital. This experience taught me how research and medicine are intertwined and inspired me to become a physicianscientist. Academic Of Application! At UMBC I was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program and an HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar where numerous lab experiences, seminars, rigorous classes, and multiple opportunities for scientific presentations prepared me for a career as a scientist. My lab skills and understanding of a research career increased exponentially during my four years in Michael Summers’ lab. Not only essay in pakistan, did I learn about protein purification, gel electrophoresis, NMR, and ITC while studying MuLV RNA packaging, but more importantly of the letter time and discipline necessary for sontag essay camp excellent research and the internal drive that keeps one focused. Working with Dr. Nikola Pavletich I learned the value of academic of application immediately organizing my data so that others could analyze my results quickly.

In the lab of Tom Cech I had the responsibility of designing a new protocol to study telomerase assembly, a skill that has enabled me to design a novel assay to investigate AIDS specific questions in writing essay my graduate studies. The medical education I’ve received at Columbia has given me a unique perspective with which I approach scientific questions. Under the tutelage of Mark Connors and of application, Quentin Sattentau, leaders in their fields on custom for shipping, nonprogressive HIV infection and viral transmission, my understanding of infectious disease and my capacity to pursue further research in these fields will be greatly enhanced. In addition, the courses, medical preceptorships, presentations, teaching, and career development activities I am undertaking in the forthcoming years make me an letter of application, excellent P.I. for can you thesis from this grant. Academic and Professional Honors. 2003 National Urban League Scholarship 2003 UMBC Meyerhoff Scholar 2003 UMBC Honors College 2003 HHMI Undergraduate Research Scholar 2004 NAD Distinguished Youth Award 2005 UMBC Minority Access to academic, Research Careers Scholar 2005 Abby Rockefeller Mauze Award Charitable Trust Scholar for Outstanding Achievement 2006 Goldwater Scholar 2007 UMBC Top Senior Biochemistry Major 2007 Graduated Sum Cum Laude from grendel essay UMBC 2007 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholar 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference Scholarship 2011 Keystone Symposia Underrepresented Minority Scholarship. 2004 Omicron Delta Kappa Leadership Honor Society 2004 Golden Key International Honor Society, Sophomore/Alumni Director 2007 Phi Beta Kappa.

Dey A, York D, Smalls-Mantey A, Summers MF. 2005. Letter Of Application! Composition and sequence-dependent binding of RNA to the nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus. Biochemistry. Delivery Plan! 44(10), 3735-3744. Of Application! Miyazaki Y, Irobalieva RN, Tolbert BS, Smalls-Mantey A, Iyalla K, Loeliger K, D'Souza V, Khant H, Schmid MF, Garcia EL, Telesnitsky A, Chiu W, Summers MF. 2010. Structure of a conserved retroviral RNA packaging element by help writing a five paragraph NMR spectroscopy and cryo-electron tomography. J Mol Biol.

404(5), 751-772. Smalls-Mantey A, Winter W. Academic Letter Of Application! 2003. Grendel! Biosynthesis of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate in Erythrocytes. Poster presentation at ERHS Science Fair and Prince Georges County Science Fair. March 2003.

Smalls-Mantey A, Dey, A, Phillip C, Summers MF. 2004. Academic Of Application! Characterization of High-Affinity Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Within the Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus RNA Packaging Signal. Poster presented at essay camp 2004 Annual Biomedical Research Conference for Minority Students, November 2004. Smalls-Mantey A, Min J, Pavletich N. 2005. Structural and Biochemical Studies of the letter of application Yeast Rad4-Rad23 Complex Bound to DNA.

Poster presented at Tri-Institutional Gateways to the Laboratory Program Symposium and 2005 Leadership Alliance. August 2005. Smalls-Mantey A, Miyazaki Y, Summers MF. 2007. Dimerization of Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Nucleocapsid Protein Binding Sites Facilitates Binding.

Poster presented at 2007 UMBC Undergraduate Research and Creative Achievement Day. April 2007. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Food Business! Poster presented at academic letter of application 2010 Keystone HIV Vaccines (X5) Meeting. March 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu.

2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at 2010 Oxford Pathology Department Graduate Student Symposium. June 2010. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells.

Poster presented at 2010 NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Research Colloquium. Smalls-Mantey A, Klein R, Doria-Rose N, Laub L, Rood J, Migueles S, Sattenatu. 2010. Susan Camp! HIV-Specific Antibodies Mediate Rapid Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity Against Primary HIV-Infected CD4+ T Cells. Poster presented at academic of application 2010 International AIDS Vaccine Conference. September 2010. Smalls-Mantey A. 2010.

Antibody-Dependent Cellular Cytotoxicity and the Control of description essay HIV. Talk given at Frontiers in Biomedicine NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program student presentation series. November 2010. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] A. Personal Statement Regarding Project.

Currently HIV-specific ADCC is considered one of the academic letter very top priorities in the field of HIV-specific immunity. Our laboratory has assembled the best techniques and grendel description, reagents in the field to carry out this project. We have extensive experience in HIV-specific antibodies and cytotoxicity. In addition we have a long track record of training students to prepare them for a carreer in biomedical research. 1985 - 1986 Intern in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1986 - 1988 Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts 1988 – 1989 Chief Resident in Pediatrics, The Boston Floating Hospital, New England Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts July 1989 - October 1989 Medical Staff Fellow, Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD October 1989 - June 1993 U.S. Public Health Service, Research Associate (C.O.), Respiratory Viruses Section, Laboratory of Infectious Diseases, National Institute of academic letter of application Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD July 1993 - June 1994 U.S. Help A Five Paragraph! Public Health Service, Clinical Associate, Clinical Center, National Institute of Allergy and academic letter of application, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD January 1994 - June 1994 Clinical Fellow in a five paragraph essay Infectious Diseases, The Childrens Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA. June 1994 - December 2004 U.S. Public Health Service, Medical Officer, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Clinical and letter, Molecular Retrovirology Section, Laboratory of on quota in pakistan Immunoregulation, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD December 2007- Present Chief, HIV-Specific Immunity Section, Laboratory of of application Immunoregulation, National Institute of Allergy and food delivery plan, Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD. Recent Honors and academic, Editorial and Review Board Activities. 2009 - U.S.

Public Health Service Outstanding Service Medal 2009 - present Vaccine Production Development Team Scientific Advisory Board, University of Pennsylvania 2009 - present HIV Enterprise Host Genetics and HIV Diversity Working Group 2010 - present Editorial Board, Journal of Virology. C. Peer-Reviewed Publications. Migueles SA, Sabbaghian MS, Shupert WL, Bettinotti MP, Marincola FM, Schwartz D, Sullivan J, and Connors M. HLA B*5701 is highly associated with restriction of virus replication in a subgroup of grendel essay HIV infected long term nonprogressors. Academic! PNAS 2000; 97(6): 2709-2714. On Quota! Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Sabbaghian MS, Rabin R, Hallahan C, Van Baarle D, Kostense S, Miedema F, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, and Connors M. HIV-specific CD8+ T cell proliferation is coupled to perforin expression and is maintained in nonprogressors. Nature Immunol 2002; 3(11); 1061-1068.

Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Imamichi H, Shupert WL, Royce C, McLaughlin M, Ehler L, Metcalf J, Liu S, Hallahan CW, and Connors M. The differential ability of HLA B*5701+ long-term nonprogressors and progressors to restrict HIV replication is not caused by loss of recognition of academic letter of application autologous viral gag sequences. J Virol 2003; 77(12); 6889-6898. Iyasere C, Tilton JC, Johnson AJ, Younes S, Yassine-Diab B, Sekaly RP, Kwok WW, Migueles SA, Laborico AC, Shupert WL, Hallahan CW, Davey RT Jr., Dybul M, Vogel S, Metcalf J, and can you borrow a degree thesis from chalmers, Connors M. Diminished proliferation of HIV-specific CD4+ T Cells is associated with diminished IL-2 production and recovered by of application exogenous IL-2. J Virol 2003; 77(20); 10900-10909. Tilton JC, Luskin MR, Johnson AJ, Manion M, Hallahan CW, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Davey RT Jr., and Connors M. Changes in paracrine IL-2 requirement, CCR7 expression, frequency, and cytokine secretion, of essay in pakistan HIV-specific CD4+ T cells are a consequence of letter of application antigen load. J Virol 2007; 81;2713-2725. Migueles SA, Osborne CM, Royce C, Compton AA, Joshi RP, Weeks KA, Rood JE, Berkley AM, Sacha JB, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Lloyd M, Roby G, Kwan R, McLaughlin M, Stallings S, Rehm C, O’Shea MA, Mican J, Packard B, Komoriya A, Palmer S, Wiegand AP, Maldarelli F, Coffin JM, Mellors JW, Hallahan CW, Follman DA and Connors M. Lytic Granule Loading of CD8+ T-Cells is Required for HIV-Infected Cell Elimination Associated with Immune Control. Immunity 2008; 29 (6): 1009-1021.

Migueles SA, Weeks KA, Nou E, Berkley AM, Rood JE, Osborne CM, Hallahan CW, Cogliano-Shutta NA, Metcalf JA, McLaughlin M, Kwan R, Mican JM, Davey RT Jr, Connors M. Help Essay! Defective human immunodeficiency virus-specific CD8+ T-cell polyfunctionality, proliferation, and cytotoxicity are not restored by antiretroviral therapy. Academic Letter! J Virol 2009 83(22): 11876-11889. Doria-Rose NA, Klein R, Daniels M, O'Dell S, Nason M, Lapedes A, Bhattacharya T, Migueles S, Wyatt RT, Korber BT, Mascola JR, Connors M. Breadth of HIV-Specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and custom, association with clinical variables. J Virol 2009 84(3): 1631-1636. Doria-Rose NA and Connors M. Antibody-secreting B cells in HIV infection. Curr Opin HIV AIDS 2009 4:426-430 Wu X, Yang ZY, Li Y, Hogerkorp CM, Schief WR, Seaman MS, Zhou T, Schmidt SD, Wu L, Xu L, Longo NS, McKee K, O'Dell S, Louder MK, Wycuff DL, Feng Y, Nason M, Doria-Rose N, Connors M, Kwong PD, Roederer M, Wyatt RT, Nabel GJ and Mascola JR. Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.

Science 2010 329:856-861. Migueles SA and letter of application, Connors M. Delivery Business Plan! Long-term nonprogressive disease among untreated HIV-infected individuals: clinical implications of understanding immune control of HIV. JAMA 2010 304:194-201. Academic! [Redacted publication in writing paragraph essay press] The research direction of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section of the Laboratory of of application Immunoregulation is focused upon mechanisms of immunity to HIV. The laboratory is delivery business plan, staffed by PhD and MD scientists with extensive experience in the humoral or cellular immune response to HIV. In addition we have close collaborations with investigators at academic the NIAID Vaccine Research Center in the area of structure-function relationships of HIV-specific antibodies. Our laboratory is well equipped with multi-laser flow cytometers, automated magnetic sorters, and imaging equipment to carry out this project.

Our laboratory is supported by the research budget of the Division of Intramural Research. Essay! Over the past 4 years we have received supplemental funding from the Intramural AIDS Targeted Antiretroviral Program (IATAP). This will continue for the next 2 years. We have also received funding from the of application Office of AIDS Research for work on the humoral response to HIV. Positions and Employment.

1985 - 1992 Lecturer, Department of Genito-Urinary Medicine, University College London, UK 1989 - 1991 Visiting scientist, Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Columbia University, New York, NY 1992 - 1998 Staff scientist (Director of Research), Centre d’Immunologie, Marseille, France 1999 - 2003 Reader, Section of Infectious Disease, Imperial College London, London UK 2003 - Professor of immunology, Department of Pathology, University of essay Oxford, Oxford UK. Other Experience and academic, Professional Memberships. 1995 - Member, American Association for the Advancement of Science 1998 - Member, American Society for Microbiology 1998 - Member, British Society for Immunology, UK 1998 - Member, Society for General Microbiology, UK 2005 - Member of the Pasteur Institute Paris France Scientific Evaluation Committee. Susan Sontag Essay Camp! 2005 - Member of the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) NIH Board of Scientific Councilors 2007 - Member of BMGF Vaccine Monitoring Centre SAB 2008 - Member of NIH HIVRAD/Novartis Neutralizing Antibody Vaccine Consortium SAB 2009 - Member of study section for Swedish Program for International Development 2010 - Member of NIH study section for the B cell Immunology Partnership Program for HIV-1 Vaccine Discovery (U19) C. Selected Peer-Reviewed Publications. Most relevant to the current application. Martin N, Welsch S, Jolly C, Briggs JA, Vaux D and academic letter of application, Sattentau QJ. (2010) Virological synapse-mediated spread of human immunodeficiency virus type-1 between T cells is sensitive to entry inhibition. Custom Papers For Shipping! J. Virol. 84: 3516-3527. Gonzalez N, Bermejo M, Calonge E, Jolly C, Arenzana-Seisdedos F, Pablos JL, Sattentau QJ and Alcami J. (2010) SDF-1/CXCL12 production by mature dendritic cells inhibits the propagation of X4-tropic HIV-1 isolates at the dendritic cell-T-cell infectious synapse.

J Virol. 84:4341-51 Groot F, Welsch S and Sattentau QJ. (2008). Efficient HIV-1 transmission from macrophages to letter, T cells across transient virological synapses. Blood 111: 4660-4663. Help A Five Paragraph! Sowinski S, Jolly CJ, Berninghausen O, Purbhoo, MA, Chauveau A, Kohler K, Oddos S, Eissmann P, Brodsky FM, Hopkins C, Onfelt B, Sattentau QJ and academic, Davis DM (2008).

Membrane nanotubes physically connect T cells over long distances presenting a novel route for for shipping HIV-1 transmission. Letter! Nature Cell. Biol. 10: 211-219. Jolly C and Sattentau QJ (2007).

HIV-1 assembly, budding and cell-cell spread in grendel T cells takes place in tetraspanin-enriched plasma membrane. J. Virol. 81:7873-7884 Jolly C and letter of application, Sattentau QJ (2007). Adhesion molecule interactions facilitate human immunodeficiency virus type-1-induced virological synapse formation between T cells. Business! J. Academic Letter Of Application! Virol. 81: 13916-13921. Jolly C, Mitar I and Sattentau QJ (2007). Requirement for an intact actin and tubulin cytoskeleton for efficient HIV-1 assembly and spread.

J. Virol. 81: 5547-6 Jolly C and Sattentau QJ. Human Immunodeficiency virus type-1 virological synapse formation in T cells requires lipid raft integrity. J. Can You Borrow A Degree! Virol. 2005 79: 12088-12094.

Jolly C, Kashefi K, Hollinshead M and of application, Sattentau QJ (2004) HIV-1 cell-to-cell transfer across an Env-induced, actin-dependent synapse. J. Exp Med. 199: 283-193. Additional recent publications of important to the Field (in chronological order) Wegmann F, Krashias G, Luhn K, Laamanen K, Vieira S, Jeffs SA, Shattock RJ and Sattentau QJ (2011) A novel strategy for inducing enhanced mucosal HIV-1 antibody responses in description an anti-inflammatory environment. PlosOne 6: e15861. Kong L, Sheppard N, Stewart-Jones G, Robson CL, Chen H, Xu X, Krashias G, Bonomelli C, Scanlan CN, Kwong PD, Jeffs SA, Jones IM, Sattentau QJ (2010) Expression system-dependent modulation of HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein antigenicity and immunogenicity. J. Mol. Academic Letter Of Application! Biol. Aug 25th epub. Krashias G, Simon K, Wegmann F, Kok WL, Ho LP, Stevens D, Skehel J, Heeney JL, Moghaddam AE and Sattentau QJ. (2010).

Potent adaptive immune responses induced against custom papers, HIV-1 gp140 and influenza virus HA by letter of application a polyanionic carbomer. Vaccine 28: 2482-2489. Zanetti G, Briggs JAG, Grunewald K, Sattentau QJ and Fuller SD. SIV spike glycoprotein structure in can you from library situ determined by cryo-electron tomography. Plos Pathogens August 2 (8): e83 Sheppard NC, Bates AC and Sattentau QJ (2007). A functional human IgM response to HIV-1 Env after immunization with NYVAC-HIV C. AIDS 19: 524-527. [Outside research support redacted from sample.] PHS Fellowship Supplemental Form, Research Plan. [Our Web version of this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual PDF forms. The attachments are included below. In the original version, these attachments met the page limits.]

Understanding the basis of an immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for of application effective vaccines or immunotherapies for HIV. A Five! Antibodies (Abs) induced by letter candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the help a five paragraph essay primary goal in letter most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in essay system in pakistan containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to mediate sterilizing immunity against academic, challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the essay camp best responses achieved by natural infection. First, we will compare ADCC mediated by the sera of a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of academic patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and characterize the mAbs based on system, epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type.

We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally we will use microscopy to examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in academic the design of HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Grendel Description Essay! We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1 : Characterize the potency of sera of HIV-infected individuals in ADCC. In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes that are presented by infected CD4+ T cells. NKs expressing an Fc receptor bind the Fc domain of the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes to the HIV-infected cell.

Subsequently, granzymes induce apoptosis within the cell. Academic Of Application! Our lab has developed a flow cytometric assay that measures granzyme B delivered to an HIV-infected CD4+ target T cell. We will classify ADCC by the percent of target cells receiving granzyme and the elimination of targets as defined by residual percent of writing a five paragraph targets expressing p24, HIV capsid. Compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of letter of application progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. Compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient sera. Aim 2 : Characterize the specificity and can you borrow a degree thesis, breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Our laboratory has panels of NAbs derived from patients with known serum neutralizing or ADCC-mediating activity. Determine whether recognition of specific epitopes is academic letter of application, required for ADCC. Define the breadth of the polyclonal sera by its ability to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades of HIV.

Titer serum total IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 binding infected CD4+ T cells. Aim 3 : Characterize the sontag camp structure and function of the target-effector synapse. Using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography, we will examine the synapse formed between NK and letter, other cells with potential ADCC activity (macrophages and neutrophils) and infected target cells. We will specifically investigate: The structure of a functional ADCC synapse. The kinetics of ADCC function in real time and its relation to antibody type and specificity. A role for antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) in description elimination of HIV-infected cells. d. Receptors and effector molecules central to ADCC activity against HIV infected cells. Since being identified as the causative agent of AIDS in 1983, HIV infection has reached epidemic proportions with an estimated 2 million people worldwide dying from AIDS each year 1- 3. There is of application, more public awareness about how to prevent HIV infection but with the growing incidence of HIV infection and the limitations of can you borrow a degree chalmers current antiretroviral therapy, there is an imperative need for a vaccine.

One of the most critical areas of research on vaccines for HIV is the search for correlates of immunity. At present the only method for determining the potential benefits of a vaccine with regard to protection from infection or lowering of viral load upon infection remains very large clinical efficacy trials. Letter! Determining correlates of immunity would tremendously accelerate the development process by permitting some estimation of clinical efficacy prior to a Phase III trial. Reliable correlates would permit screening of vaccine candidates at writing a five essay a much earlier point in academic of application development with smaller numbers of participants. Over the past 20 years, research into help a five essay, correlates of immunity to HIV have largely focused on CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) or neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). In addition to neutralization, antibodies (Abs) may fight viral infections by of application antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) or by antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Custom! In ADCC, Abs bind viral epitopes presented on infected target cells and Fc? receptor-bearing effector cells such as natural killer cells (NKs) recognize and bind the Fc? region of these Abs. Upon cross-linking of the Fc? receptor, NKs release perforin that punctures the target’s cell membrane and deliver proteases such as granzyme B (GrB) which induce apoptosis. ADCC has become a major focus within the field following two important studies highlighting its potential importance in providing immunity to HIV.

A recent study by academic Burton and custom, colleagues demonstrated that neutralizing Abs with mutated Fc? receptor binding regions were less effective in protecting macaques from HIV whereas Abs with impaired complement binding conferred protection to macaques, suggesting that ADCC may be more important in academic letter of application preventing infection than neutralization or complement activation alone 4. Prior to this study, it was widely accepted that infection of a single cell would lead to integration and chronic infection. However, because ADCC mediated effects are on virus infected cells and not free virions, this study provided indirect evidence and custom, proof of the concept that ADCC can eliminate lentivirus-infected cells in of application vivo. In addition, some recent data in human efficacy trials has also greatly increased interest in ADCC as an important component of vaccine induced immunity to HIV. In September 2009 data from the writing a five essay phase III RV144 (Thai) vaccine trial were released and academic, showed that the prime-boost combination of ALVACR HIV and AIDSVAXR B/E reduced HIV infection. Essay! This vaccine regimen was known to not elicit a strong cellular or NAb response. It does, however, elicit binding antibodies that have suggested to letter, the field that the protective efficacy is likely mediated through ADCC 5. Our laboratory is part of essay a large international effort to characterize ADCC antibodies from this trial in letter of application order to determine whether there were higher ADCC-mediating antibodies in uninfected vaccinees compared to those that were infected. Although HIV-specific ADCC is now considered an extremely important part of vaccineinduced immunity several basic questions regarding the nature of an effective ADCC response have not been addressed. For example, the number, affinity, and specificities of antibodies necessary to mediate ADCC remains poorly understood. Our laboratory has now developed assays that can accurately measure ADCC against HIV-infected cells. We also have assembled panels of essay in pakistan monoclonal antibodies from individual patients that permit a characterization of academic letter of application individual antibodies that mediate HIV-specific ADCC.

One of the initial goals of this project was to adapt our current killing assay to provide a more robust assay for HIV-specific ADCC. Past studies of ADCC have been hampered by the availability of susan sontag essay camp assays that are only academic letter of application, partially quantitative. There are four primary methods that people use to help writing a five paragraph essay, measure ADCC 6. The most prevalent is the chromium release assays (CRA), which is highly variable, does not specifically account for academic letter the mechanism of killing, and is insufficiently quantitative 7. The ADCVI assay incubates targets, serum, and a five essay, effectors for 24 hours and the supernatant is applied to the B95-8 cell line for academic letter of application 5-7 days. The endpoint is reduction of viral infection of the B95-8 cells 8. Custom For Shipping! This method measures inhibition of viral production and subsequent infection but its disadvantages lie in the length of the academic letter assay and failure to measure killing of infected cells. Another assay is the intracellular cytokine staining ADCC (ICS-ADCC) assay measures IFN-?, the primary cytokine responsible for the antiviral activity of many cells including NKs, CTLs, Th1, and dendritic cells 9. Business! The advantages of this assay are that multiple effector functions can be measured and all cells and Abs are from the academic same patient, but it is still a proxy that does not measure HIV-infected cell killing.

The rapid and fluorometric antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (RFADCC) assay directly measures cell killing but requires whole protein 10. While use of protein pulsed targets is a sensitive method, it likely places artificially high amounts of protein on the surface of infected cells, potentially overestimating the efficacy of essay system in pakistan ADCC. Recently our lab has developed a highly quantitative flow cytometric assay to measure GrB cytotoxicity using primary HIV-infected CD4+ T cells as targets and autologous NKs as effectors. This is an adaptation of an assay for measuring the letter of application cytotoxic activity of essay on quota system CTLs developed in our lab11. This assay measures the cleavage of a GrB substrate, and eliminates background cell death using a Live/Dead stain to produce accurate quantitative and highly reproducible results. In brief, CD4+ T cells are stimulated for 3 days and HIV infected. Autologous, negatively selected NKs are used as effectors. Effectors and academic letter of application, targets are labeled with surface dyes so that they can be discriminated. NKs, targets and serum are incubated in the presence of a granzyme cleavable fluorescent substrate.

Granzyme delivery to susan essay camp, the target cell and elimination of academic letter HIV-infected targets can then be measured by flow cytometry (Figure 1). Cellular GrB content. GrB cleaves GranToxiLux substrate (FITC), indicating the on quota system amount of GrB present within a target cell (Pacific Blue). Elimination of HIVSF162-infected cells. Live targets are stained for intracellular HIV capsid, p24 (PE). Some infected cells show downregulation of CD4 (PE-Cy7). A reduction in the number of p24 stained cells is academic letter, represented as Infected Cell Elimination (ICE) and is an indication of cell death. In the example above, ICEInfected+Effectors+Serum = [(58.2-25.8)/58.2] x 100 = 54.9%.

There are several advantages to this assay over older assays that use mismatched cell lines. Because NKs lyse target cells in custom for shipping the context of MHC mismatch and cause nonspecific killing, autologous cells are used in our assay to reduce background. 12. In addition, because NK function is academic letter of application, diminished in HIV-infected patients, we use the NK cells and CD4+ T cell targets from uninfected patients in our assay as a readout for the effectiveness of a given serum sample in mediating ADCC 13, 14. Writing A Five! We observed variations in academic letter NKs from normal individuals in their ability to mediate ADCC and choose donors that provide optimal signal to noise ratio that we will use to compare the serum of plan HIV+ individuals (Figure 2). The targets used in this assay are likely closer to the in letter of application vivo situation given autologous HIV-infected targets are used in the place of antigen pulsed cell lines.

Other advantages include our assay’s ability to measure the mechanism of ADCC (granzyme delivery) and the outcome (death of infected cells) (Figure 2). MHC-1 is down-regulated in virally infected cells, and the loss of MHC-mediated killer inhibitory signals permit NKs to kill a cell 15, 16. We control for this by measuring the granzyme content of targets that are incubated only with effectors and sera from HIV-uninfected volunteers. For a positive control we are using a novel anti-CD3 Ab that will mediate ADCC to all CD3-bearing targets (Figure 3). Help Writing Paragraph Essay! With this Ab we have already demonstrated (1) the sensitivity and dynamic range with which we are able to academic letter of application, measure ADCC, (2) Abs mediate ADCC in a dose dependent manner, and (3) GrB delivery is plan, proportional to cell death. Aim 1: Characterize the magnitude of ADCC in HIV infected individuals . Rational : There is of application, considerable controversy regarding the magnitude of ADCC activity in sera from HIV+ individuals and can you a degree from, how it correlates with disease progression.

It has been suggested that sera from elite controllers exhibit greater ADCC activity which correlates with CD4+ T cell count 17, 18 while others have sighted no correlation between ADCC and disease progression 19, 20.We will compare the serum of HIV+ individuals with various rates of progression and viral loads to determine which contain Abs capable of mediating the highest levels of ADCC. We will also compare the ADCC and neutralizing activity of patient serum to evaluate whether or not ADCC and of application, neutralization always occur together in polyclonal sera which is yet to be determined 21, 22. Methods : Over the past several years, in collaboration with the Vaccine Research Center (VRC) our laboratory has focused upon recruiting HIV-infected patients with broadly crossneutralizing antibodies. We have extensive clinical data and neutralization data for all of the a five patients. With the data we generate from our ADCC assay we are able to letter, compare multiple indicators of plan immunity with ADCC. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Based on in vitro and passive transfer macaque studies, we expect LTNPs to exhibit greater ADCC than progressors. Academic! Our current knowledge attributes LTNP delayed progression to superior CTL cytotoxicity but our data may show ADCC also to be a significant factor 11. Potential Complications : We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. Aim 2: Characterize MAb from serum identified as having potent ADCC activity with regard to specificity. Rational/Methods : HIV-infected cells express Envelope (Env) protein on help writing paragraph essay, their surface which is recognized by NAbs and presumably by ADCC-mediating Abs.

We will use standard Nabs (including b12, 2F5, 2G12, 447-52D, 17B, and VRC01) and patient derived MAbs to probe specificities required for ADCC. An ideal HIV vaccine would be able to protect against diverse virus strains so it is important to determine whether Abs raised against one clade of virus would be able to mediate ADCC in CD4+ T cells infected by different clades. Academic Letter Of Application! We will use multiple strains of sontag essay camp virus from clade A/E, B, and C to infect CD+ T cells and compare killing of target cells in the presence of serum pooled from clade B HIV+ patients. IgG1 and IgG3 are the academic predominant IgG isotypes with roles in ADCC. It is custom papers for shipping, possible that variations in ADCC activity of sera are mediated by variations in IgG subclass. We will use infected CD4+ T cells, apply sera with various levels ADCC at academic letter of application the same dilutions used in our killing assay, and measure total bound IgG, IgG1, and IgG3 by custom papers flow cytometry. We believe flow cytometry is a better way of measuring titers of binding Abs as compared to ELISA because Abs will recognize all possible epitopes on the surface of an infected cell in their natural conformation. Expected Outcomes/Interpretation : Determining the letter of application association between ADCC activity and help writing paragraph, IgG subclass may provide insights into the necessity of eliciting a specific class of IgG via particular antigens and adjuvants. Potential Complications : We now have robust assays for subclass binding and do not expect complications with this portion of the project.

Aim 3: Evaluation of the target-effector synapse. Rational : Using microscopy to study ADCC is important because it will help us define structural and kinetic parameters and will relate structure to function. Academic Letter! Multiple mechanisms for cell-to-cell spread of HIV have been described but few have described inhibition of viral transmission or targeted cell death 23. To date there has been no study using microscopy to investigate ADCC in HIV using NKs or macrophages as effectors and CD4+ T cells as targets. In 1994 one group designed a bispecific antibody with anti-CD4 and anti CD3 heavy chains that would redirect CD8+ T cells to kill HIV infected targets 24.

With fluorescent microscopy they observed after 1 hour of incubation that 24% targets had formed conjugates with CD8+ T cells although many more cells had lysed. At 2 hours 50 - 80% of targets were conjugated and undergoing lysis and by 24 hours all targets had been lysed. However, the bispecific antibody may not be representative of ADCC with naturally occurring HIV-specific antibodies. In addition, the structure of the NK to HIV-infected target synapse was not examined. Methods : The lab of help essay Quentin Sattentau has focused on examining the synapse of cells involved in HIV infection. They were the first to demonstrate HIV-1 spread between T cells via virological synapses and nanotube structures for viral transmission between CD4+ T cells 25. They have recently demonstrated that macrophages can infect CD4+ T cells every 6 hours and academic letter of application, that cell-tocell transfer of virus is 10-fold more efficient than free virus spread 26.

To study the kinetics of ADCC in real time we will use time-lapse laser scanning confocal microscopy (time-lapse LSCM). Cell populations will be negatively selected from PBMCs using magnetic cell sorting. On Quota System! HIV-infected CD4+ T cells will be mixed with patient serum or Abs of multiple specificities (see Aim 2) and NKs to evaluate ADCC; or neutrophils/monocytes to evaluate antibody-dependent cell-mediated phagocytosis (ADCP) and applied to poly-L-lysine coated cover slips. Cover slips will be fixed in paraformaldehyde, quenched with NH4Cl, permeabilized with Triton-X, and stained for granzyme B, IgG, CD4/CD16/CD14 with fluorescent probes. After mounting, images will be acquired every minute for 6 hours using a Zeiss Pascal Axivert 200M scope.

We will use transmission electron microscopy and tomography (TEM) to generate higher resolution static images of the ADCC functional synapse. Academic! For TEM targets, serum, and effectors will be incubated for approximately 1 hour, fixed in paraformaldehyde and glutaraldehyde, and stained with osmium tetroxide. Samples will be embedded in epoxy resin, cut, and imaged using a 300kV FEI Technai TF30 27. If necessary cryo-EM will also be used for custom for shipping structural studies with the letter aid of Oxford collaborator Kay Grunewald. These experiments will be completed using the pathology department’s core bioimaging facility and papers for shipping, I will take department’s Advanced Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy course in preparation for letter of application this research. Expected Outcomes : We expect to elucidate the kinetic and functional relationship between ADCC components and answer questions such as what density of Env epitopes are needed to recruit effectors, how many effectors are recruited per target. We do not foresee any difficulties in accomplishing this objective. The results of these studies will include novel MAb with possible therapeutic value; a new tool for the study of ADCC with potential utility for can you library HIV vaccine trials; and increased understanding of basic HIV immunology. In the academic wake of the essay on quota system in pakistan RV144 trial, ADCC has become a major focus in the field of HIV-specific immunity. We are very well positioned to carry out these important studies because of our large collection of of application cells, sera, and detailed clinical data from patients that are part of the NIAID HIV clinic, and both labs’ extensive experience in this area.

Samples are collected under the NIAID IRB-approved protocol 02-I-0086. Protections for susan sontag camp human subjects are in accordance with NIAID Division of of application Intramural Research policies. Phlebotomy may cause some discomfort, and can you, occasionally some bleeding or bruising at the site. On rare occasions, people faint while having blood drawn. Blood drawing will not exceed 150 milliliters (30 teaspoonfuls) on academic, any day or visit. System In Pakistan! In the course of any time frame during this study, the total amount of letter blood will not exceed 10.5mL/kg, or 550 milliliters over any 8-week period, which is essay, within the safety guidelines for academic letter of application blood drawing practiced at the Clinical Center. Like standard phlebotomy, leukapheresis is occasionally associated with local bleeding and bruising at the site of needle insertion.

Lightheadedness can also occur, and people faint on rare occasions. Occasional tingling in the arms and legs can occur with the procedure and can usually be relieved by chewing a calcium-rich tablet that the staff will provide. In addition, on very rare occasions (less than 1 in every 1,000 times), malfunction of the sontag leukapheresis machine can result in blood loss of up to 450 milliliters. Trained medical personnel who are equipped to deal with any of letter these potential problems will always be on hand during the procedure. Inclusion of Women and Minorities. Gender, Ethnicity and Race Consideration. This study involves techniques and procedures that are currently approved for various indications. Male and female adult patients (18 years of food plan age or older) will be enrolled without preference to academic, gender, race or ethnicity from the pool of patients that receive care in Clinics 8 at the NIH Clinical Center. Patients will be recruited from outside the NIH community by advertisements posted in the Clinical Center, the NIAID web site, and advertised in other media. We will attempt to facilitate minority recruitment using existing NIAID community outreach efforts involving local clinics in the Washington, DC metropolitan area. In adult HIV-infected patients planning to interrupt HAART, patients will be fully counseled prior to entry into the study as to the potential risks of susan sontag essay discontinuing HAART therapy and the potential benefits of continuing HAART therapy, in the setting of a documented virologic and/or immunologic response.

Patients who do not fully comprehend these potential risks of HAART cessation, in the opinion of the study team, will not be offered participation in the study. Patients stopping HAART therapy will be monitored closely for virologic and immunologic relapse and academic of application, will be offered therapy, based upon the algorithm for susan essay safety outlined above. Target enrollment for academic letter this study is 300 individuals and is currently ongoing. Inclusion of Children (and Pregnant Women) Inclusion of Children and Pregnant Women. This study will be confined to HIV-infected adults greater than or equal to can you, 18 years of age.

As an academic letter of application, observational study there is grendel, no therapeutic benefit or clinical intervention resulting from participation in this trial, thereby children are not being denied the potential benefits of a research intervention. We also do not have the historical research database and in vitro findings on HLA linkages with LTNP in the pediatric population to make valid comparisons within that cohort. The potential risks of withdrawing therapy in minors have not been studied and therefore may present unknown additional risks to that study population. Comparable units specializing in pediatric HIV are available at the NIH to address this topic, should preliminary results from this study warrant further evaluation in the pediatric population. The safety of discontinuing antiretroviral therapy has not been established during pregnancy and nursing, and current guidelines continue to advise HIV-positive women to take antiretroviral therapy to prevent viral transmission to the child during that time period. Therefore, pregnant or nursing women will be excluded from this study. Any woman of academic letter of application childbearing potential must have a negative pregnancy test within two weeks prior to study entry. All participants who engage in food business plan heterosexual intercourse must use two forms of reliable birth control for the duration of the study. When I entered the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program I identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as two HIV researchers with whom I would like to train with because of their focus on HIV immunology, vaccine design, and their expertise in of application basic immunology techniques, flow cytometry, and microscopy. I initiated contact between the two individuals and for shipping, they agreed to start a collaborative project with me. After studying NAbs with Mark Connors for one summer I decided I wanted to focus on of application, antibodies that mediate ADCC.

I outlined the facets of ADCC I wanted to investigate then received feedback from both mentors. I subsequently wrote the proposal that was edited by both mentors and Mark Connors made final revisions. I meet multiple times during the susan sontag essay camp week with Dr. Connors to discuss my research progress and to academic, plan future experiments. We also conduct quarterly phone conferences with Dr. Sattentau, maintain a regular email correspondence, and meet at conferences. Communication will continue in the same manner while I am in Quentin Sattentau’s lab.

Selection of Sponsors and Institution. Selection of Institution. I decided to writing, join Columbia’s MSTP program because of its tradition of exemplary medical education, medical research, and unparalleled support offered to students from program administrators. Letter Of Application! Because of my previous research experience with HIV I knew I wanted to continue research in this field. Sontag Essay Camp! I decided to join the NIH/Oxford/ Cambridge Scholars Program to complete my dissertation research because it would provide me access to a more extensive network of scientists than Columbia could. Oxford has a particularly strong network of HIV investigators and academic letter, the structure of grendel essay its graduate program allows for a particularly specialized education. As a graduate student in of application the pathology department I am allowed to select seminars and accelerated 1-day to 1-week courses that allow me to attain skills quickly and immediately implement them into description essay, my research. In addition, the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program provides funding for students to take courses offered by any institution giving me access to virtually any educational opportunity necessary. Academic Letter Of Application! In addition, through NIH’s Foundation for Advanced Education in the Sciences I’ve had the opportunity to take courses that will help me towards my goal as in infectious disease investigator such as the Vaccine Development course I completed.

The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program is designed so that students work with a mentor at NIH and susan sontag camp, one at a university. When I joined the academic letter of application program I searched for HIV investigators throughout NIH and Oxford and identified Mark Connors and Quentin Sattentau as potential mentors because I wanted to conduct research that had direct implications in description vaccine development. Quentin Sattentau was studying how to elicit effective anti-HIV neutralizing Abs (NAbs) for vaccines and adjuvants to stimulate systemic and mucosal immunity. Letter Of Application! Through my search at essay on quota system the NIH I identified Mark Connors as a potential collaborator though he and Quentin had never collaborated before. I believed Dr. Academic Letter! Connors’s expertise in NAbs of essay on quota in pakistan long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs) would complement Dr. Sattentau’s vaccine development goals.

In addition, Dr. Connors’s unique cohort of academic letter of application LTNPs would provide ready access to samples to on quota in pakistan, study many facets of HIV infection. Finally, I believe Dr. Sattentau’s approach to research as a PhD and Dr. Connors’ as an academic letter of application, MD will teach me to think about science in a more practical way that is suited to me as a future MD/PhD researcher.

I will follow the help writing a five essay principles on academic letter, responsible conduct of research as outlined in NOT-OD-10- 019. As an undergraduate at UMBC I took a semester-long course entitled “Ethics/Integrity in Scientific Research” which first help me to understand the responsibility scientists have to one another and medical community honestly share information. Essay On Quota System In Pakistan! As a Columbia medical student, I have taken the Hippocratic Oath to academic letter, guide my patient care and I am expected to adhere to the code of ethics as outlined in student handbook. Papers For Shipping! Upon joining the NIH I took an online ethics course and academic letter of application, will continue to delivery business, take refresher courses annually. At Oxford I will continue my ethics training by taking the required “Ethics: Introduction to Research Ethics”. Since I will have access to sensitive patient data it is essential that I maintain the confidentiality of these individuals. When I started research at NIH I participated in a patient confidentiality seminar. Oxford offers an “Ethics: Confidentiality” course in which I will enroll to better my further my understanding and ability to academic of application, maintain ethical practices with regards to research.

As a physician, I hope to alleviate an individual’s immediate suffering; and as a scientist I hope to contribute to long-term solutions that can prevent suffering. System In Pakistan! To work most effectively at the interface of medicine and science, I have endeavored to earn an MD/PhD. I believe that the combined degree’s greatest value lies in academic letter the perspective that it affords: to approach patient care with a researcher’s eye, and to approach research with a physician’s focus on improving the quality of life. A few years ago I conducted research on telomerase, an enzyme that maintains healthy chromosome length. When telomerase is susan sontag, upregulated, as it is in 90% of carcinomas, cells can propagate indefinitely. When telomerase levels are halved, a bone-marrow failure disease called Dyskeratosis Congenita (DC) results. Academic Of Application! While looking at yeast cells with low levels of telomerase and measuring their growth rates, I noticed two things. Essay On Quota In Pakistan! The first was that cells with low levels of telomerase grew slowly. Secondly, these cells had abnormal morphologies, as do tumor cells. These observations led me to wonder whether the progression of academic of application cancer in individuals with DC was slower than in patients without it because DC patients have less active telomerase. Upon discussing this with my P.I., he acknowledged having never considered his research from that aspect.

A literature search demonstrated a lack of any substantial research concerning this question. Research in biochemistry affords many new advances in medicine, but through that experience the importance of can you borrow library keeping a broader medical picture in mind became clear to me. My goals as a physician scientist are to treat patients and conduct research that will allow me to impact patients I will never meet through therapeutic discovery; specifically serving as a creative link between science and medicine in the field of infectious disease. The training I will receive in Oxford’s doctorate program will prepare me to be a competitive investigator through a tailored curriculum, expert dual-mentoring, learning to work in a collaborative environment, and by giving me extensive writing experience via paper submissions and academic letter of application, even through this grant. These are all specific skills that would be harder and take longer for me to garner through a traditional medical student experience. The advantage I have in understanding that I want to custom for shipping, be a physician-scientist has given me the opportunity to carefully cultivate these skills early in my career. Activities Planned Under This Award. Research 80%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10% Research Skills : While working in Mark Connors’s lab I have acquired specific skills such to creatively study immunology such as learning to use flow cytometry. Academic Of Application! I discuss my research progress frequently during the grendel description week with Dr.

Connors. Academic! We also have phone conferences and meet with Dr. Sattentau at description essay numerous conferences throughout the year. Writing Skills : When I entered the of application program I took a grant-writing workshop sponsored by a five essay the NIH Graduate Partnership Program. I also completed a 3-day grant-writing course during my senior year of college. I will improve my writing skills through preparation of letter of application manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for susan sontag essay publication, applying for training grants, and submission of a report for my transfer viva (qualifying exam). I will also complete the academic letter of application Scientific Writing from a Reader’s Perspective seminar. Discipline specific learning : I completed the 3-day “Vaccines: Development and grendel, Evaluation of Efficacy” course offered by FAES in February 2010. I also attended “Psychiatry and HIV,” a 2-day workshop offered by the American Psychiatric Association so I could learn to academic letter of application, effectively interact with HIV+ patients I encounter. I attend weekly seminar series hosted at the NIH such as the essay system Wednesday Afternoon Lecture Series, Immunology Interest Group seminar series, and weekly lab meetings.

Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the Clinical Research Training Program (CRTP) weekly rounds. Academic! I will also have the opportunity to be mentored by an infectious disease clinician. Presentations : I will continue to annually attend and writing, present at pertinent Keystone Symposia and the Annual AIDS Vaccine conference. I have also had opportunities to present posters at the NIH/Oxford Cambridge Scholars Program Colloquium and the Oxford Pathology Graduate Student Symposium. I have given a talk to my graduate program journal club and will have more opportunities to academic letter of application, present my research in lab meetings.

Career Development : The NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars programs hosts a seminar series where leaders in government/academic research, the pharmaceutical industry, and finance speak with us about their career. I also attended NIAID Fellows retreat that focused on career development. Teaching : As I prepare to susan camp, leave the lab I will be responsible for training a new research fellow. Year 1 (continued) and Year 2: Quentin Sattentau Lab (Oxford) Research 75%, Seminars/Courses 10%, Presentation/Career Development/Clinical 10%, Teaching 5% Research Skills : While working in Quentin Sattentau’s lab I will learn to apply microscopic imaging to studying HIV infection. Letter! I will have weekly meetings to discuss my research progress. We will have phone conferences and meet with Dr.

Connors at essay system various conferences throughout the year. Academic! I have also been assigned a graduate advisor within the pathology department but not in my specific lab who will help me to objectively evaluate my research. Writing Skills : I will improve my writing skills through preparation of susan sontag camp manuscripts based on my research to be submitted for publication and academic of application, writing reviews. I will complete the following 1-day courses offered at Oxford: Writing Skills – Paper and custom papers for shipping, Thesis; Doctoral Thesis Writing, Discipline specific learning : I will participate in courses and Skills Workshops offered by Oxford including “Advanced Light Microscopy,” “Electron Microscopy,” and academic, “Introduction to Statistics.” Bench to bedside clinical training : I will attend the custom for shipping Nuffield Department of Clinical Medicine Grand Rounds and shadow an infectious disease clinician. Career Development : See above. I will also attend the 4-day Oxford GRADschool, a personal development course. Teaching : I will seek to be an undergraduate lab instructor and take the Oxford course “Teaching and Learning Skills” to prepare myself. Year 3 and Year 4: Medical School (Columbia) In the summer after 11th grade I participated in the intensive 6-week Gene Search Program at the Catholic University of America that introduced me to academic, molecular biology and the exciting race to sequence the human genome.

That summer, I learned much more than how to paragraph, run a gel; I learned to academic, read and comprehend primary research articles and how to design experiments. Food! Because of academic of application my accomplishments that summer, I was invited to participate in an extension of the Gene Search Program during my 12th grade year. This program inspired me to pursue a career in biomedical research because I began to understand how the principles I was learning in school fostered scientific discovery. As a high school senior, I worked with Dr. Custom Papers! William Winter at academic Howard University School of Medicine to investigate pathways that regulate 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) levels in red blood cells (RBC). Grendel! 2,3-DPG lowers the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, thereby facilitating oxygen release to tissues. Patients suffering with sickle cell anemia have high levels of academic of application 2,3- DPG. From Chalmers Library! While this effect may seem advantageous to patients with sickle cell anemia, deoxygenating hemoglobin ultimately causes red blood cells to letter, sickle by writing a five essay promoting hemoglobin polymerization.

Previous studies indicated that adenosine might regulate 2,3-DPG levels through an academic letter, interaction with the a five essay A3 receptor. Letter Of Application! To test this idea, we indirectly measured 2,3-DPG levels by on quota system in pakistan using spectrophotometry to measure a by-product of the 2,3-DPG pathway. An exciting therapeutic prospect of our research is that an antagonist of the academic A3 receptor may prevent the accumulation of 2,3-DPG and RBC sickling in patients with sickle cell anemia. Papers For Shipping! I documented this work in a five-chapter thesis, in accordance with my high school’s Science and academic letter, Technology Program, and grendel description, presented it at my school’s science fair, where I was awarded third place in biochemistry. During college I spent four years working with Dr. Michael Summers to investigate Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus (MuLV) dimerization. Understanding dimerization is key to developing gene and antiviral therapies. Academic Letter Of Application! MuLV is similar to HIV in essay that it is a retrovirus that packages two copies of its RNA genome.

Packaging of dimerized RNA is mediated by interactions between the academic nucleocapsid (NC) domain of the assembling Gag polyproteins and a specific domain of the essay on quota RNA called the Psi-site. Letter! Previous work in the Summers lab suggested a riboswitch mechanism for MLV genome packaging, where, in monomeric RNA, Psi-site UCUG segments capable of binding NC are sequestered by base pairing, but upon dimerization, become exposed to grendel description, bind NC. Academic Letter! My project was to writing a five paragraph, investigate whether similar sequences in the Psi-site could also bind NC. Using isothermal titration calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance, we identified short RNAs (ACAG, UUUG, and academic of application, UCCG) that bind NC with nanomolar affinity. Our findings suggest that: 1) binding depends on an unpaired guanosine, 2) binding is enhanced in short RNAs containing terminal phosphates, and 3) binding affinity varies by more than one order of business plan magnitude depending on which three nucleotides lie upstream of the guanosine. The paper I co-authored (Dey, A., et. al., 2005) extends an of application, established model for genome recognition, in which the NC domains of assembling Gag molecules interact with multiple X(i-3)-X(i-2)-X(i-1)-G(i) elements (X is a variable nucleotide) that appear to be preferentially exposed in the dimeric RNA. I presented this research at the 2004 ABRCMS and at can you from chalmers library multiple UMBC symposiums. I continued to investigate potential dimerization and NC-binding regions of the Psi-site using native and academic, mutant MuLV RNA segments in gel-shift assays. As expected from custom our riboswitch hypothesis, we observed NC binding preferentially to academic of application, RNA dimers which was also confirmed by equilibrium dialysis. Most recently our lab published the NMR structure of this dimer (Miyazaki, Y., et al., 2010). During the summer of 2005 I participated in the Weill Cornell/Rockefeller/Sloan Kettering Gateways to the Laboratory Program.

I worked with Dr. Nikola Pavletich toward solving the crystal structure of the custom papers for shipping Saccharomyces cerevisiae Rad4-Rad23 complex bound to a DNA substrate. Rad4-Rad23 is a homolog of human XPC-HR23B, a DNA damage-repair protein. In its mutated form, XPC-HR23B causes the disease Xeroderma Pigmentosum. Patients are extremely sensitive to UV-light and develop skin cancer during childhood. Letter Of Application! I identified DNA substrates to be used in crystallization trials by a five paragraph essay HPLC-purifying DNA, performing gel-shift assays, and setting up crystal trays. Letter Of Application! I presented this work in a talk before the Tri-Institutional community and during posters sessions at the 2005 Leadership Alliance National Conference and at the 2005 SACNAS National Conference. In 2006 I studied telomerase assembly in the lab of Dr.

Thomas Cech at borrow a degree from chalmers library the University of Colorado at Boulder. The central role telomerase plays in protecting chromosome integrity places telomerase at the heart of two common human ailments—cancer and aging. To study how and where in the cell telomerase is academic letter of application, assembled from its RNA and protein components, we used the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as a model organism. We sought to understand whether the susan sontag noncoding telomerase RNA (TLC1) goes through a cytoplasmic phase during its biogenesis. One model is that a polyadenylated precursor form of TLC1 is exported to the cytoplasm where it associates with Sm proteins. Mtr10p then plays a role in importing the TLC1-Sm complex back into the nucleus, where the telomerase holoenzyme is assembled. Using cellular fractionation and real-time RT-PCR, we attempted to localize TLC1 in letter of application its various stages. During the summer between my first and second year of medical school I joined the lab of for shipping Mark Connors where I screened patient sera for breadth and potency of neutralizing Abs against letter of application, HIV using a TZMBL neutralization assay. We demonstrated that that progressor serum has greater breadth in potency in neutralizing HIV than Long-Term Nonprogressors (Doria- Rose, N., et al., 2009). Studying NAbs peaked my interested in other anti-viral mechanisms mediated Abs and lead to my proposed project of investigating antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity.

Each research experience has shown me the many nuances of a research career. I learned about: 1) the importance of basic research in developing medicines, 2) the time, organization, and ingenuity it takes to conduct research, and 3) the vital role that a physician-scientist plays in translating basic research into medical treatment. Although I’ve experienced frustrations and disappointment in research, the thrill of observing something new, finishing a project, or publishing a paper always outweighs these challenges. Borrow Thesis Chalmers! Each successive experience only increased my eagerness to improve health care through innovative research. [Redacted from sample.] QUENTIN SATTENTAU MENTOR STATEMENT. [Redacted from academic letter sample.] [Our Web version of grendel description essay this sample application can't reproduce the layout of the actual summary statement. Letter Of Application! See below for essay the data fields and critiques.] Center for Scientific Review Special Emphasis Panel. Fellowships: AIDS Predoctoral and Postdoctoral. RESUME AND SUMMARY OF DISCUSSION:

In this application, the fellowship candidate proposes to investigate antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-infected patients do determine the extent of academic letter of application protection that ADCC provides. The reviewers noted that the candidate is grendel description, outstanding, with a strong record of academic letter research training and for shipping, accomplishment. The candidate appears to be highly motivated. Her sponsors, at both institutions, are well qualified to provide the necessary training and the letters of recommendation were uniformly laudatory. Minor weaknesses of the application included the ambitious research plan to be accomplished in two years, the letter of application risk of conducting the research at two sites, and the failure to address pitfalls and alternatives of the research project. These weaknesses, however, did not detract from the reviewers’ enthusiasm.

This training project will have a high impact in ensuring that the candidate maintains her potential to become an independent clinical researcher. DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Understanding the basis of an grendel description essay, immune response that controls infection or provides sterilizing immunity remains a major goal in the search for academic effective vaccines or immunotherapies for help paragraph HIV. Antibodies (Abs) induced by candidate vaccines to the surface envelope glycoprotein have not neutralized a broad array of primary virus isolates. For this reason, eliciting a cytotoxic cellular response has been the primary goal in of application most recent vaccine trials. However, this approach has not been successful in food delivery containing viral replication in vaccinees that have become HIV-infected. Antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) has been shown to letter, mediate sterilizing immunity against challenge with pathogenic simian immunodeficiency virus [Hessel 2007]. In ADCC, Fc-bearing Abs bind viral epitopes coating an infected CD4+ target T cell and custom, an Fc receptor bearing effector, most commonly natural killer cells (NKs), bind the Ab and use perforin to deliver granzymes which induce apoptosis in the target. We want to study ADCC in infected patients to understand the magnitude and characteristics of the best responses achieved by natural infection.

First, we will compare ADCC mediated by letter of application the sera of on quota in pakistan a cohort of patients using a granzyme B cytotoxicity assay developed in our lab. Based on these findings, we will select the sera of letter of application patients with the most ADCC, generate monoclonal Abs (mAbs), and papers for shipping, characterize the academic of application mAbs based on epitope specificity, affinity, potency, breadth, IgG isotype, and Fc type. We will also evaluate whether ADCC is disparate from classical neutralization. Finally, we will use microscopy to a degree library, examine the synapse between effectors, Abs, and targets. The outcome of this research will provide insight into the characteristics of of application Abs that mediate ADCC that are likely important goals in essay on quota system the design of of application HIV vaccines or immunotherapies. Hypothesis: Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) is a function that has been shown to mediate protection from lentiviral infection. Papers For Shipping! We hypothesize that variations in ADCC activity of sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific antibodies. Aim 1: Characterize the potency of sera of of application HIV-infected individuals in ADCC.

Aim 2: Characterize the can you borrow a degree from chalmers library specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Aim 3: Characterize the academic of application structure and paragraph essay, function of the of application target-effector synapse using both fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) and tomography. Understanding the role of on quota system in pakistan antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV could provide important insights for induction of this activity through vaccination. This project seeks to characterize the academic letter of application Abs that mediate ADCC and image the for shipping functional synapse formed by cellular components involved in ADCC with the goal of defining new goals for the development of HIV vaccines and therapeutics. Fellowship Applicant: 1. Sponsors, Collaborators, and academic letter of application, Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 2. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal is from an applicant who is susan, currently enrolled in letter of application the NIH M.D./Ph.D.

Partnership Training Program and is a participant in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes joint research in an NIH laboratory and in a university research lab. Ultimately, she will receive her Ph.D. from Oxford University and complete her medical training at Columbia University. The applicant is can you borrow a degree chalmers, highly recommended by previous research mentors and has an outstanding academic record. Her research experience, which includes four years of undergraduate research, is matched by her productivity; she is a contributing author on academic of application, two published papers and has presented her work at numerous scientific venues. Camp! The research plan, which derives directly from the letter of application expertise and interests of the mentor, focuses on relationships between antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) in HIV-1-infected patients, HIV-1-associated disease progression, and antibody subtype. Additional experiments, which will draw on the expertise of the co-sponsor, will investigate the target-effector synapse during ADCC. These studies will be significant for their basic science and translational value. The training plan is susan essay, unique in that training and research will be accomplished in two separate laboratories of the sponsor and co-sponsor. This proposal outlines an academic letter, excellent training opportunity that will greatly benefit the applicant and her potential for establishing an independent research career. The applicant, who is delivery business plan, currently enrolled in an M.D./Ph.D. training program, is described in letter three strong letters of food business plan recommendation as enthusiastic, articulate, knowledgeable, highly focused, and very inquisitive.

Her undergraduate research mentor characterized her as “easily among the top two or three of the more than 200 current and former undergraduates” that he has mentored. Letter! The applicant has four years of undergraduate research experience, which involved work with the help a five Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus, and letter of application, research performed during a summer program at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute focused on studies of telomerase. Sontag! Technical approaches for which she was trained included cell growth assays, transformation, RT-PCR, isothermal titration calorimetry, NMR, and cryo-electron tomography. Through her prior research experience, the applicant has been included as a contributing author on two published papers and academic, has presented eight posters and one oral presentation at various local, national, and international meetings. The applicant has an writing paragraph essay, outstanding academic record (3.97 GPA) and numerous awards and recognitions reflecting superior academic performance. The collaborative project outlined in the proposal was an academic of application, outgrowth of a dialog initiated by the applicant between the sponsor and essay in pakistan, co-sponsor. The applicant has provided thoughtful goals for developing a career as both a scientist and physician. 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: The applicant’s mentor and letter of application, sponsor, who is currently Chief of the HIV-Specific Immunity Section in the Laboratory of Immunoregulation, NIAID/NIH, is an help paragraph, established and productive senior investigator with research support provided by academic letter the NIH. The co-sponsor is also a productive researcher with a consistent record of support for studies related to HIV/AIDS.

The research interests and food delivery, expertise of the academic sponsor and writing a five paragraph, co-sponsor will provide excellent support for academic letter of application the applicant’s research and training. The expertise of the co-sponsor will be particularly relevant to studies outlined in Aim 3. The sponsor has trained an average of four students per year over description 20 years, suggesting an academic letter, excellent training environment for the applicant. Similarly, the co-sponsor has trained nine Ph.D. trainees since 2003. During her predoctoral fellowship, the can you from library applicant will be interacting with four post-baccalaureate students and one M.D. in letter the sponsor’s lab, and four Ph.D. trainees in food business the co-sponsor’s laboratory. Letter Of Application! The latter trainees will overlap with the applicant for one year or more. These interactions will enrich the applicant’s training. The research plan is built on studies of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity in HIV-1-infected individuals. Experiments will examine the potency of sera of HIV-1-infected individuals in ADCC (Aim 1), the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 2), and the structure/function of the target-effector synapse that mediates ADCC. The central feature of the proposed research is a novel and quantitative ADCC assay (developed in the sponsor’s lab) that offers significant improvements over grendel description essay other ADCC assays.

Results generated from experiments in Aims 1 and 2 will have both basic science and translational value, while results from Aim 3 experiments will provide basic information about the mechanisms of ADCC. The applicant and sponsors are well positioned to perform these studies, since the academic patient populations and study procedures are already in place. Custom! The applicant is participating in the NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars Program, which promotes research with a mentor at the NIH and another mentor at a university. Of Application! Consistent with the Scholars Program, the research training plan includes studies and training in year 1 in the sponsor’s lab at the NIH, continued studies and training in essay year 2 in the co-sponsor’s lab at Oxford, and years 3 and 4 in medical school. Training in each laboratory will include the development of specific laboratory skills, writing skill development, discipline-specific education, bench-to-bedside clinical training, career development, and opportunities for presentation of results and teaching. Training at the NIH (sponsor) will be a continuation of the of application current laboratory work, with increased emphasis on independent research and critical thinking.

Training at custom Oxford (co-sponsor) will include skills development in letter experiments involving infectious HIV-1, microscopic imaging, and biochemical and serological techniques (such as ELISA, gel electrophoresis, and mass spectrometry). Although the targeted patient enrollment is given as 300 HIV-1-infected individuals, the experimental plan does not provide details regarding the scope of description essay studies in academic Aim 1. Correlates of ADCC to be studied in Aim 1 (“rates of progression and viral loads”) were not described in sufficient detail. How will rates of essay progression be measured? Will viral load be documented on a continuous scale or will patient viral loads be stratified? An explanation of how the results of Aim 1 experiments will be used to guide the selection of pooled patient sera in letter Aim 2 would have been informative. A research project spanning the food delivery plan laboratories of two different principal investigators will offer diversity in training and acquired expertise, and academic letter of application, enhance the capability of the applicant to help paragraph, develop an independent and productive research career. 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: The resources and facilities at both institutions will provide outstanding environments for training and research. A more detailed plan regarding the coordination of training plans between the letter of application sponsor and co-sponsor would be valuable, considering the distance and time difference between the two performance sites.

Training in the Responsible Conduct of food delivery business plan Research: Comments on Format (Required): The description of RCR training is brief and does not provide a detailed plan for academic letter of application formal training. However, enrollment in two formal courses at Oxford (both focused on ethics) is mentioned. Comments on Subject Matter (Required): Training courses and borrow a degree chalmers, certifications at academic the NIH and Oxford should provide information on susan essay, relevant subjects. Comments on Faculty Participation (Required): Faculty participation could not be evaluated from the description of RCR training. Comments on academic letter of application, Duration (Required):

The duration appears to be adequate, although exact contact hours were not provided. Comments on Frequency (Required): The frequency of training could not be discerned from the description of RCR training. Fellowship Applicant: 2. Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2.

Training Potential: 2. Institutional Environment Commitment to grendel description, Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This is an outstanding proposal from a highly qualified applicant. The applicant has an exemplary scholastic record, strong research history and outstanding letters of reference although she lacks a first author publication. The applicant has chosen two superb sponsors with complementary skill sets. Academic Letter! In fact, the applicant brought these two investigators together herself. Both sponsors have excellent training track records and both are actively involved in the HIV arena.

The primary goal of paragraph this project is to characterize antibodies that mediate antibody-dependant cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). The Connors lab at the NIH has developed a novel flow cytometric-based assay to measure granzyme B delivered to an HIV infected cells. Using this novel assay the letter applicant plans to compare ADCC in help writing paragraph essay HIV+ subjects with various rates of disease progression and to define the specificity and letter of application, breadth of custom antibodies with ADCC activity (Aim 1 and letter of application, 2). The third Aim to characterize the structure and writing, function of the academic of application target-effector synapse will be carried out at Oxford under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau.

This aim will use fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microscopy and TEM to examine the food samples between NK and academic of application, other cells with ADCC activity. If the applicant is successful the data from this project will be highly important for HIV vaccine development. The research project however is quite ambitious and no timeline is given. It appears that the applicant plan to spend 1 more year in the Dr. Connors lab and 1 year in Dr. Sattentau lab making it a very busy two years if the applicant plans to finish all the work they outlined. Despite the highly ambitious nature of the proposed research project the grendel description overall project goals warrant further study and the applicant herself is of the highest caliber making this application worthy of academic letter funding. The applicant has a very strong research background dating back to high school where she participated in the Gene Search Project at Howard University Hospital. As an undergraduate at UMBC she was a member of the Meyerhoff Scholars Program funded by the HHMI. The applicant has coauthored 2 papers and is the first author on 8 posters and sontag essay, 1 oral presentation. Academic Letter Of Application! The applicant has extremely strong letters of susan camp recommendations, one of which is from a Nobel Prize winner.

Exemplary scholastic record and many community-based volunteer positions. 2. Of Application! Sponsors, Collaborators, and essay on quota system, Consultants: Two suburb sponsors are listed. Dr. Connors, Chief, HIV-specific Immunity Section NIAID, has a long track record of high quality research and publications and a solid list of successful trainees (4/year for 20 years). Academic Letter Of Application! The other sponsor, Dr. Sattentau, a Professor of Immunology and susan sontag, Pathology at the University of Oxford, is equally meritorious with over of application 151 published manuscripts and custom for shipping, solid funding record. Of Application! Dr. Sattentau, also has a established track record of training PhD student (n=9) and susan sontag, post-docs Both sponsors have well established complementary HIV research programs that will support the applicants proposed research project. The planned research, if successful, could provide important information about of the role of ADCC in HIV infection.

The project is well outlined and there are sufficient preliminary data to support the feasibility of the project. The plan is to utilize a novel recently developed (Connors lab) quantitative flow cytometric assay to academic of application, measure GrB cytotoxicity and susan sontag camp, determine which Abs are capable of mediating the highest level of ADCC. Using this technique the applicant plans to characterize the potency of academic sera from subjects with different rates of disease progression, characterize the specificity and breadth of antibodies with ADCC activity. Using advance microcopy techniques (fixed and live cell laser scanning confocal microcopy and electron microscopy) the essay system applicant plans to examine the structure and function of the target-effector synapse. This work will be done under the guidance of Dr. Sattentau who is an expert in studying the virologic synapses. This is a highly ambitious grant. It may be difficult for the applicant to finish all the proposed work especially the academic letter of application work proposed in Aim 3. Can You Borrow A Degree Chalmers! The applicant is academic of application, calling for food plan 300 subjects but no power calculation is shown to support that many subjects. A timeline for the proposed work would be helpful. The applicant does not anticipate any issues nor are any alternative approaches outlined. This maybe a little naive.

The research training plan is well laid out by year. The plan includes research, writing skill (grant writing course), presentation, career development, teaching (both in class room training of new personnel) and discipline specific learning (i.e. in house courses and seminar series, lab meetings). Letters describing each institution’s role in training the applicant were provided. Applicant states that she will interact on daily basis with section head and other senior laboratory member on a daily basis. Students also make formal presentations and attend weekly LIR, meeting, NIAID grand rounds, clinical center Grand Rounds and HIV journal club. The training plan indicates that the applicant will be at academic letter the NIH for one year and Oxford for one year and then back to can you from chalmers, medical school for the last 2 years. This raises some concerns regarding the duration of the funding (3 vs. 2 years). 5. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training:

The work will be conducted at the NIH/NIAID and University of Oxford. Letter! Both institutions are of the help writing paragraph highest caliber with access to all the academic required resources. Oxford has a program in place for graduate students to take accelerated courses and the NIH Foundation for Advanced Education in grendel description the Sciences also has specialized courses that will facility the applicants goal to become an infectious disease investigator. Training in the Responsible Conduct of Research: Comments on Format (Required): On line ethics course at the NIH and formal classroom course at Oxford. Comments on Subject Matter (Required):

Applicant states they will follow principle of academic research outline in NOT-OD-1-019. The applicant has taken semester long course on Ethics/Integrity in Scientific research. The applicant took another Ethic course upon entering the NIH. Oxford offers a similar course. Comments on essay system, Faculty Participation (Required): No comment on academic letter of application, faculty participation. Comments on Duration (Required): Comments on Frequency (Required): Online course and annual refresher at the NIH. Additional Comments to susan essay camp, Applicant (Optional): Fellowship Applicant: 1.

Sponsors, Collaborators, and Consultants: 1. Research Training Plan: 2. Training Potential: 1. Institutional Environment Commitment to Training: 1. Overall Impact/Merit : This proposal comes from an excellent candidate who is part of the academic letter NIH/Oxford/Cambridge Scholars program, carrying out custom papers her PhD research under the guidance of two excellent researchers and mentors, Drs.

Connors (NIH) and Satentau (Oxford) and academic, will complete her MD studies at Columbia. The primary hypothesis of this proposal is that ADCC activity levels in sera are dictated by the amount, specificity, and subclass of HIV-specific Abs. Description! This represents a highly relevant area of research that will be tackled through 3 straightforward and well-planned aims – (i) characterize the potency of sera from individuals at different stages of HIV infection in ADCC (comparing to clinical status and Ab neutralization), (ii) characterize the academic letter specificity and breadth of Abs mediating ADCC (comparing the sera to panels of essay in pakistan known neutralizing Abs), and (iii) characterize the ADCC synapse. This will involve state-of-art approaches established in the sponsors’ labs, allowing the applicant an excellent chance to perform this research. Academic Letter Of Application! It is thesis, a clear and well-written proposal detailing a strategy to carry out academic relevant research in an excellent training environment.

THE FOLLOWING RESUME SECTIONS WERE PREPARED BY THE SCIENTIFIC REVIEW OFFICER TO SUMMARIZE THE OUTCOME OF DISCUSSIONS OF THE REVIEW COMMITTEE ON THE FOLLOWING ISSUES: PROTECTION OF HUMAN SUBJECTS (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF WOMEN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF MINORITIES PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE. INCLUSION OF CHILDREN PLAN (Resume): ACCEPTABLE.

COMMITTEE BUDGET RECOMMENDATIONS: The budget was recommended as requested.

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Writing Challenges: 18 Challenges Writers Face and How to Overcome Them. While being a writer has major advantages, it also has its own challenges. Anything without challenges is boring because challenges mould and train us. Some challenges can drain the life out of us, though, which is why it is good to enlist help from others when we experience them. Academic Letter Of Application. Below are some of the major challenges writers experience and my solutions to them.

STRUGGLING TO MAKE MONEY WRITING? : You should check out susan The Freelance Writer’s Success Starter Guide, my ebook that is guaranteed to finally help you make money as a freelance writer. This is what you feel when you find it difficult to letter write. You just don’t know what to description write, you’re not in the mood, and you don’t know when you will be in the mood. Writer’s block can be very dangerous, especially if you don’t deal with it quickly. Academic Letter. Below are some quick solutions to overcoming writer’s block. Take some rest . Make sure you’re getting adequate sleep, and that you’re not over-stressing yourself. Essay On Quota. Read, read and read . You can’t produce without consuming. You need information to thrive, so make sure you read, read and read some more.

Exercise regularly . Sometimes, the problem is with you being inactive. Academic. The flow of blood through your brain can have a lot to do with how creative you are, so make sure you are getting enough exercise. Exercise makes us healthy and physically fit. It puts us in the right frame of mind. Don’t Write . Sometimes, you’re experiencing writer’s block because you have been writing for so long that it’s killing you. Try not to write for a whole day. Go out there, enjoy the world, see friends and have a lot of fun.

You will be amazed at how refreshed and productive you can be at the end of the day. You’re very sure you can write that article, but you don’t have ideas or points to write on. It happens to everybody, and the good news is that there’s a solution to this. Below are some ways to camp get ideas on academic, what to write on. Observe Nature. Taking a look at trees around you, or your dog, or any other object of nature can give you some of grendel, your best ideas. Read anything (good, of of application, course) that comes your way. Reading is a cure to lack of ideas. Read anything that comes your way with openness to new ideas that can contribute to what you want to write. Camp. Research what to write. Use Google, social media sites, and websites to letter ignite some of custom papers for shipping, your own ideas.

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Most importantly, a lot of writers reading this don’t want just any client; they want REAL clients that are willing to pay them what they’re worth. If you’re one of these writers I have good news for you, you’re not alone ! There are several ways to get clients who are ready to treat you with the academic of application respect you deserve. Based on delivery business plan, my experience the formula below is always going to work. Look for a Service Very Few People Can Offer : The more people can offer the service you want to offer the academic letter of application less likely a client will hire you, and if they do, the less likely they are to treat you well. Your aim should be to be almost indispensable. The more integral you are to the success of an organization; the food delivery business fewer people who can offer the same service you; and academic letter, the more likely not having you will have an impact on any organization; the higher your chances of food business, success. Academic Letter Of Application. This takes time and effort, of course, and a lot of creativity, but you will have enough clients and be paid what you’re worth if can offer a service very few people can. Look for susan sontag essay camp a Group of People/Organizations who Need Your Service : The next thing is to compile a list of individuals or organizations that will need your service. Make sure your list is letter as extensive as possible and custom for shipping, make sure you only academic letter of application compile a list of people who share the same values as you. My reason for saying you should compile a very extensive list is on quota in pakistan that not everybody will hire you.

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Worse than this, they dampen your spirit and make you doubt yourself and essay, if you’re not careful, this will cost you a lot on the long run. Whenever you’re dealing with an overbearing client and are sure of the academic quality of service you’re offering, double your rates! They probably won’t be able to writing a five paragraph essay pay it, but that will make them respect you more and control themselves. If they still don’t, fire them! Ever tried to work only to of application find that you’re not in the mood or that you don’t have the drive? In most cases this has to do with your current lifestyle and has nothing to help a five paragraph essay do with you not having anything to write about. For example, I recently discovered I was unable to letter do anything lately no matter how much I tried.

This continued for a few days and a five essay, my productivity level was so low, I decided to rest. I found out that I was sick the following day. If you can’t get yourself to work it mostly has to academic do with your body complaining. Take some rest, go for a medical checkup and do the following to ensure you’re always in good mood. Exercise regularly Eat good food regularly; no junk food – and don’t starve yourself Wake up early; sleeping till 9 or 10 in the morning will probably contribute to damaging your creative juice. Help A Five. If possible, wake up by 6 in the morning and exercise then, read for academic of application an hour or so and get back to work.

Look for emotional encouragement. If you’re not emotionally fit you can’t work. Make sure you regularly encourage yourself internally and externally, and make sure your happiness and emotional health don’t depend on borrow thesis from chalmers library, anyone or anything. This happens a lot, when you start to doubt yourself and can’t get yourself to work. Academic Letter Of Application. It is mostly as a result of being criticized by a client or someone else. You may be having some problems at home or online, or just having a feeling that you’re inadequate.

The first step is to realize that it is just what it is, a feeling and essay on quota, not reality. The solution is to work towards your personal development by doing the academic letter following. Exercise every day Eat good food Read personal development books and blogs Work on improving your self-confidence Examine all criticisms but don’t get attached to for shipping them Surround yourself with good friends who can offer you encouragement. No matter how important your work is, make sure you aren’t alone for too long. Take regular breaks to be with friends. Academic Letter Of Application. Take a few minutes to read, think and papers for shipping, watch the TV. Writing is important, but ditching your friends is dangerous. In fact, ditching your TV is of application dangerous, too.

Sometimes, you can even listen to essay on quota system music. Anything you can do to ensure you don’t feel alone will go a long way to academic letter improving your life. A lot of people don’t know they are isolated until it is too late. On Quota In Pakistan. Don’t be one of them. This applies especially to non-native English speakers. A lot of letter, us struggle with use/expression of words and we think we can’t succeed as a writer.

Some of us are even ashamed because we think we don’t qualify to be a writer. The solution: Don’t be afraid to speak/write where a lot of qualified people are. Try to make your mistakes soon so that people can correct you. Also, associate with people who are good with the English language and over time you will notice a pattern. Your use of the susan English language will improve gradually. You should also spend more time reading and writing. Read quality blogs that focus on helping people become better writers, read quality books dedicated to writers and spend more time writing and writing and writing. One great book I recommend every writer should check out is The Elements of Style ; it’s a bible for anyone who wants to master the English language. Insanity is doing the of application same thing, over and over again, but expecting different results – Albert Einstein.

Most people complain about not getting a better deal from their clients while still offering the same service. It just doesn’t make sense. Why would a client pay you more for the same service you’ve been doing at a lower rate for months/years? The solution is to increase your value. The increase in value might not be much but the papers for shipping pay will be great. Focus on increasing the value you offer to academic letter a client. Focus on developing a unique approach for delivering your work and negotiate with the client to get a better pay. Most clients will happily pay more if they see they’re getting a better value. One major problem I’ve faced with my writing career is with money. Essay On Quota In Pakistan. I just don’t know how to budget.

There are a lot of academic, major expenses out there that need my money immediately, and attending to these expenses sometimes result in me having to be offline for days. The solution is to save and budget. On Quota System. Before you’re paid your income for a particular month make sure you budget how much you want to academic of application spend and how much you want to save. Saving and can you a degree from chalmers, budgeting will also help you deal with clients. Having enough money in letter of application, your account will help you avoid acting impulsively because you need quick cash. Early to bed, early to delivery business plan rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise – Benjamin Franklin. How many hours do you sleep in a day? How much do you think it helps your productivity?

I have compared days of sleeping 6 hours a day with days of sleeping 8-9 hours a day and I have found the latter to be better. The more rest I take in a particular day, the more focused I am and the more work I’m able to academic get done. Getting things done as a writer is all about thinking and being focused and if you can’t do those two things you’re toast. Lack of rest makes it almost impossible to do those two things. The key to papers for shipping getting more done isn’t about letter of application having more time, it is to have enough focused time . We all struggle with this, and sontag camp, this is why a report I promised will take two weeks is already taking two months. It’s normal.

It is part of why we’re writers. Academic Of Application. We don’t want to release anything to the world except it is food business plan our best, and letter of application, sometimes, this can be our undoing. The solution is to realize that your work is perfect as it is. The key isn’t to perfect something before it is released. It is to release it and food delivery, then perfect it. Spending months on something that will take weeks might look like a smart decision, but what if it is released and it isn’t what your audience likes? Release that thing you’re finding difficult to release to the public. Improve it based on the feedback you receive and you will be amazed at how effective that can be. What Other Challenges Do You Experience? Kindly share your challenges as a writer below as well as a solution to them. Letter. Also take a minute to spread the description word by sharing this post on your favorite social media site.

56 Comments on Writing Challenges: 18 Challenges Writers Face and How to Overcome Them You’re so real with your writings and in most cases profer solutions to the challenges most writers face….thanks alot for this awesome post….i’ve found some of the letter tips very helpful…keep it up bro. I’m glad you found the article helpful, Albert #128578; after reading this awesome interview , i too love to face challenges. thank you for the writing tips man, alot of people have this problem when writing “lack of papers for shipping, ideas” and academic letter of application, I think that shouldnt be the case because there is so much to write about in any topic. there is food business so much to teach our readers. I understand it but I never run out of writing ideas because I always have something to teach my readers.

I’m glad you enjoyed the of application article #128578; You’re right that there’s so much to write about can you thesis from chalmers any topic and taking the steps in academic of application, the above article will help writers overcome problems with lack of ideas. Great tips from writing a five, a seasoned writer. Letter. I just discovered your blog a few days ago and help, have been lurking around and getting a feel of things. I am a freelance copywriter and of application, can really relate to the challenges you talk about. For me, the hardest thing is to stay motivated day after day after day after day after…..yeah. Killer article Oni. You always come up with something that I keep in my bookmark for thesis from library weeks. Of Application. I read them for twice, thrice sometimes more then that. Every time I read it it gives me strength to continue my work – It doesn’t matter if you are a freelance designer (me) or a freelance writer (you) your tips are always helpful doesn’t matter in what field you working in.

Though it would be good to read something here for freelance Graphic Designers. I’m glad to hear my articles are of help, Irfan! #128578; Oni, you’ve hit it hard on the head with this post. Excellent stuff, man. Some of the papers challenges that you’ve listed down really strike hard on academic letter of application, freelance writers, especially the part about getting clients and low writer’s pay. Amazing killer post, Oni. I’m new to your blog but you amaze me by how you always manage to write articles that I really have to spend a long time reading and bookmarking it! #128578; Productivity is a biggie. Keeping a back-up folder with posts for times where you can’t write anything (or have no ideas) is a great idea as well. Works for me. Thanks so much for the compliment about my articles.

I’m glad you’re enjoying them #128578; I love your tip about having a post folder in case you can’t write. Can You Borrow A Degree. I do that every once in academic letter, a while on can you borrow a degree from chalmers library, this blog by publishing posts from my ebook and the results have been awesome, too. Great post. I have not been active in academic letter, the blogosphere these days (I’ll make a comeback when the time is right), and there are not many items in my reader that are interesting, but your post really caught my eye! #128512; It’s really helpful and susan, encouraging. And you, Oni, seem to be one of the few bloggers out there who is still posting top-notch, quality content! #128578; I recently saw your blog my friend and I was blown away, how old are you now? its really nice to see a young man like yourself paving a way of of application, greatness for grendel essay yourself. you are younger than me, but I’m truly inspired by academic letter you, by the way I have ou in essay, my feedreader but I haven’t gotten any post from you since I added you. but its nice to see you here Gloson #128578; Thank you so much! I am 14 years old now.

I’m really glad you like my blog! Haha. Academic Letter Of Application. Thanks so much for subscribing to grendel essay my blog, even though I have not posted any blog posts. #128539; I am focusing on academic letter, getting into university right now, so I have to essay system in pakistan put my blogging aside. Maybe, when I get into university, I can continue to academic of application blog. I will make an for shipping, epic comeback when the letter time comes. On Quota. #128512; my friend you are going to be a great blogger/internet marketer, and good luck with your university. you must be super smart because at academic, 14 I was still in high school here in america, I’m looking forward to your comeback my friend #128578;

Great points Oni! Because of the huge internet traffic lately the competition is grendel essay growing and academic letter, I believe the one who is most creative will succeed! You’re right on point! It’s the person with the susan essay most creative will that will succeed. Nicely written post, young man – I can say that being old enough to be your mother, but still young enough to learn from academic, you! The biggest challenge I face is trying not to grendel write too much.

Inevitably a one post topic ends up being 3 or 4, then I can’t decide which to post first. Letter Of Application. Solution – bang ’em out together! There’s always plenty more where they came from. Look forward to reading more soon. Aha, thanks Linda! I guess that’s a good challenge. I believe no writing is too much, so the more you write the better it gets! Great post Oni, One of the thing i fear the most as a writer, is writing something that i put alot of effort in and afraid nobody is help writing a five paragraph going to letter of application read it. Custom Papers For Shipping. I always check my google analytics to see if i have any visiors even if its a small amount. As long as somebody is letter reading, im happy.

Aha, I think marketing is solution to that challenge. This is quite a long list. And this is a good one. Keep writing. Essay In Pakistan. These are good ideas. Thanks. These are simple yet very practical suggestions. Of Application. The best way to essay on quota system write is well, start writing. You will feel good once you finish it. The best way to make more money is to grow and expand your existing network.

Give your existing network the help they need honestly and letter, they will help you back in essay, return. I recommend a wonderful book on academic letter of application, how to grow your network called Never Eat Alone – by Keith Ferazzi. Description Essay. Read it. You’re right on academic letter, spot! Start writing! Outstanding sharing. It seems you have deep experience in writing. Essay System In Pakistan. I hope these excellent points will help in overcoming writer block and help in writing something exciting to the reader. Academic Of Application. Thanks keep posting such gratifying work. Thanks! I’m glad my tips could be of help!

Talk about overbearing clients! Last month I wrote for a client I found on Problogger. They promised to pay 24 hours after the link went live (the job was 2 sponsored posts on 2 of my blogs). Essay On Quota System. Three weeks later they hadn’t paid. I did over and above what they asked. Eventually, I wrote to academic letter of application them saying that I would take the link down and inform Problogger the work was no longer live. They promised they would pay -and so on. Eventually I did take the link down and told them so.

I haven’t heard from papers, them again. I think they were bogus. I don’t mind waiting to academic letter be paid, I just want to custom papers know what’s going on. Academic. To add to insult to writing a five paragraph injury – the ‘payment’ I was supposed to receive was rubbish, anyway. I agree that writers have to academic letter be motivated. I write a lot about motivation and building confidence on one of my blogs.

I can help if anyone here would like some tips. Great post on can you thesis chalmers, challenges writers face. I totally agree. Writers block can be a killer, but as you said, physical exercise and reading have both paid off for me before. Glad to see you’re up and running again.

I think this is becoming rampant these days, especially with those who purchase links/articles on other blogs. A solution in this case is to not publish the academic review unless you get paid, or to business remove it asap if a problem arises. I try to be in control when working with clients, so it rarely happens that someone fails to pay me. Oni, I must express my appreciation for the services you render, your blog has been very helpful and all encompassing. keep up the good work and may God bless you. Thanks Bucchi! I’m glad you’re enjoying the blog! Hi Oni once again great post! i’m not new to your blog but i haven’t commented in a while.

Id like to add a 19th challenge that faces writers. I have in the past consulted bloggers on how to improve their writing and one of the academic number one problems with skilled bloggers is susan essay that they tell a “bad story”. What i mean is that although many of my clients are experts in their field they lack the ability to tell a story or rather make what they are trying to bring across more interesting. Being a public speaker i know that its not about the story you’ve come to academic of application tell it’s more about how you tell it. So i suggest to my clients that we look at what makes a good public speaker captivating. Without going to deep into it, what makes a good public speaker captivating is his ability to essay on quota spark emotion in the listener.

In order to to overcum the 19th challenge (bad story teller),one must learn how to write in such a way that it attracts a emotional response. One great way to get your readers more engaged is to share personal experience. Another is to letter of application state facts or statistics (when used correctly it inspires awe) Have an intro that keeps them wanting more, promise an delivery business, end result that will benefit,shock or inspire them, which will keep them glued to the screen. There are many more in-depth ways to become a better story teller, many of which ill be writing on my latest blog http://www.abovethecrease.com. I’m starting to see the importance of storytelling lately, and it is what I’ll try to letter master and start teaching more on this blog! Most of the essay on quota items listed here have been bugging me since I starting blogging. Lack of sleep is one of those.

Getting away from work sometimes means increasing your productivity when you come back. How to academic Blog Guide. Yeah, lack of sleep is a real killer. I see myself more productive when I rest more. Just thought I’ll stop by at your blog to see what’s happening. Only for me to find a really long practical post! Man I thought I write long posts, but now it seems I don’t! Talking seriously, this is a well thought out article.

I don’t think you left anything out as to the challenges writers/information publishers face. Man I can relate to 7 of them – Writer’s block, lack of ideas, too much competition, emotional breakdown, Isolation, lack of rest, money problems. There seem to essay be a lack of academic of application, connection between my mood and my brain at times. On Quota System. And it can really be frustrating. Most times my mood and brain connect so well (that is I feel like working (mood) and my brain just keeping pouring in the ideas about what I want to write about) that when I start to write I can write for of application hours non-stop. A good example was when I wrote my first free ebook “Blogging at a Glance”.

It’s 40 page long but I wrote it in one sitting within 24 hours. And I always love it when I am like that. But then there are times when my mood is right, and I sit to write but my brain just fails to paragraph turn in academic of application, the ideas. I know what I want to can you borrow thesis chalmers library write about but sometimes I have problem with how to start writing it. What I do?

Most times I work away from the computer, from any other distraction, lay on academic of application, my bed doing nothing than thinking about the point for what I want to write. And doing so sometimes give me some ideas about how to start it well and I note it down. Then I power my laptop and start writing. If I still keep failing to get ideas how to start, I just take myself completely from work. Usually I do my next most love activity. Susan. Watch TV, movies and chat with neighbors. And funny enough sometimes the perfect ideas comes to me in times when I am doing something completely unrelated to work. I think I am getting over this now. Academic Of Application. Recently I started reading blogs a lot and taking my time to make comments.

And during this process ideas for content sometimes not even related to susan camp what I am reading, comes to me. I use my twitter account to academic of application find articles to reads and susan sontag essay, after reading 4 or 5 articles, I get at least one strong content idea. Completely guilty of this. Since I lost my job in 2009 and of application, started full time online business, I can count how many times I have actually dressed up to go out. System In Pakistan. And don’t be surprised it’s not up to 20. I work around the clock.

I work all through the night. And sleep for at most 5 hours during the academic day. Then I am back to writing an article or other activity that is essay set for the day. And then back to working all through the academic night again. This one for now has no solution. I have so much to do. And it just seems the time keeps running these days. And one keeps fighting to catch up. Too much competition. I knew blogging was too competitive but I decided to still do it as a niche because of the experience I had with it.

Just too many misconceptions I am trying to correct with my articles. So my eyes were opened when I went into it, but even at that it’s not a good feeling to be in essay in pakistan, a niche with other half a million people. All talking about the same topic. I long to be in a niche not so competitive, demands less seriousness and more fun. But I do love writing about blogging for money, because it’s just something I know, and know well. So I think that alone keeps me in academic of application, the playing field. Man, what can I say.

You can’t help it sometimes. What do I do? Sometimes I give in. Sontag. Cry, get frustrated and letter of application, shut down for a day or two. And find myself again. And sometimes I fight it; especially if what is causing it doesn’t make sense. Description. Or working myself up about it doesn’t help me. Letter. I am matured enough to know when somethings just don’t make sense to worry about.

So I guess that helps #128578; Guilty, guilty, guilty. What can I do? Nothing for custom now I guess. The truth is, when you’re just starting to build a business, even if you want to, you can’t afford to get enough rest. But keep hitting at it and letter of application, soon you’ll be able to essay employ some helping hand and get to rest as long as you want and the business won’t suffer for it. Does that mean you should slave yourself to death for now? I don’t think that’s possible; because from my experience you can’t work 24 hours of the day, not if your business involves your brain. Sometimes when I try to of application push myself more than necessary, my brain stops responding. And when that happens I really have no choice than to food delivery plan shut down and rest.

Well, mine is more about lacking as much as I need, than lack of saving. Academic Letter. In this case I have no choice than to manage and work harder at my businesses to start earning me as much as I need. Thanks so much for the comment; I must say this is an entire post in its own…lol! I can relate to your point about being in mood and then not being in mood. It happens to grendel essay me too.

There are times I will write for more than 10 hours, and there are times I can hardly write for a week. In times like these I can see myself falling sick sooner; it mostly has to do with stress, lack of passion or being overwhelmed by academic of application the project you’re embarking on. Taking some rest has always solved the a five essay problem for me. Yeah, I think I am beginning to academic letter of application make a name as “the one who writes the food business plan longest comment”. Letter Of Application. LOL. Seriously I just like to take my time when making comments and write out susan essay camp all I have to say about the academic letter of application topic at hand like I do when writing my own posts not minding it’s a comment. For me I think it’s not mostly stress (though I should really start to plan rest time in my schedule) it’s more of being overwhelmed with the task at hand and emotional issues. And both are really not something you can completely avoid. One just has to susan sontag camp keep fighting these feelings when they come up. I received the download link today about your new ebook. I am really glad to see that finally it’s done!

I’ll download it now and academic, find time to read it. If it relates to any chapter of my upcoming book, I will include a link in the book to description essay the download page. And keep up the academic good work. Writer’s block can be a major downer for me, but I use several techniques to at least get something down. For the last eight years, my work has required me to write technical reports (usually 40 hours a week) with only short breaks for research or fieldwork. It can be a real drag.

Getting outside, which you mentioned, is one way to break the block, but here are three of my favorites. 1 Work under a schedule- only write (or try to write) for no more than 50 minutes with a 10-20 min break. Custom Papers For Shipping. That may be enough to break the block and give you new ideas during the break. 2 Use an outline- Make a useful outline when you are inspired that you can use to academic letter guide posts later. 3 Keep your topic narrow- As a beginner, I recommend you keep to a narrow, focused area that you continually concentrate on. Borrow A Degree From Chalmers Library. This way you can recycle old posts with a new spin that will keep you alive until you get back in the saddle. Hope this helps you all.

Keeping your topic narrow is a strong point on its own, and I’ve seen that helped me in a number of situations! Oni, you face challenges and come through stronger every time #128578; Please, drop by my blog and academic letter, pick up your award, because your work is appreciated. Thanks so much for the award. Essay Camp. I’m so glad you could think of me for the award, and I so much appreciate it #128578; it will be helpful for beginner writers. Many online writers are lacking with these kind of problems… i love your writing man ! usually its not possible for me to read your post in academic letter, a day . so i bookmark your posts and read it daily .. Description Essay. sometimes twice too .. keep writing . you are helping us allot . I’m glad you’re enjoying my posts! can you tell me how much exactly time you devoted to this post ? usually when i write this kind of academic of application, posts it takes 2-3 days for me . what about you ? Trying to description get more into of application blogging myself, this definitely helps, thanks. It’s undeniable that bloggers often experience these problems especially beginners.

Anyway your suggestions help me how to deal with these challenges in blogging. Thank you. Once you take the first step and system in pakistan, decide to face a challenge, you have to state the … Are you a good writer? love the way you write bamidele!! wowsome post!! crisp clean. Good post ..Thanks for sharing ! I must confess, I am always inspired by any of your post, but this particular post as proffer solution to academic letter many of the problems I am facing that I can not even discuss with people. They are problem I face even outside of writing. Susan Essay. I pray God will increase your strength as you teach on. You have been my Role Model in Make Money Writing. Thanks for sharing this invaluable content. Letter Of Application. I have already bookmark it.

Great post and on quota in pakistan, lot of information ..thanks for sharing ! Waking up at 6 and get ready to work? Uhm– no thanks! I admire people who do — I really do! — but usually I end up exhausted by end of the day, so that’s not a good option for me. Letter. I try to papers sleep at least 7-8 hours a night and take a small nap in the afternoon, to keep my brain refreshed and academic, productive. #128578; You covered a big list of susan sontag camp, challenges here. Low-paying clients and a low self-confidence are some of the biggest buggers, in my opinion; it can take time to get rid of things such like an inferiority complex, low self-esteem and other psychological blocks, and sometimes we develop a close relationship to low-paying clients, which makes it harder to give up on letter of application, them. Perfectionism– ah! The monster!

I’m a fictional novel writer, and I’m also 16. One of the main challenges i face is my inability to slow down. Susan Essay Camp. There are so many elements that I plan to put in my work, but never do. It’s because I can never force myself to academic plan it all out before hand, and if I do, I get bored and stop writing that. I write like I read, I need to be kept interested and on my toes, and I think my work may be suffering for a degree thesis from chalmers it.

I’m a professional journalist with more than 20 years of letter of application, experience. I’ve been applying for fulltime editorial positions every day for custom for shipping an embarrassingly long time. Letter. I won’t blog for $10; I won’t write a page one newspaper article for $25 either, nor will I write/edit for a website that pays months late, if at all. I recently hired a pro to help me rework my resume and cover letter, and I’ve been using the revamped versions since December. Food Business. Meanwhile I’m getting by via my monetized niche news blog (I average around 50k UMVs) and proceeds from a book I wrote, which reached as high as number 3 on letter of application, one of Amazon Kindle’s paid best seller lists. I get no responses from resumes. I worked as a freelance writer, with great success in business, 2011, but now something has changed. Academic Of Application. I couldn’t get any of my previous clients back.

I know there was nothing wrong with my work, I think my old clients have the freelancers they need. So everyday I send resumes, I blog and I’m working on book number two. Honestly I’m thinking of leaving the profession… but what else can I do? I’m not earning enough to sustain my modest life. Custom Papers. Any advice?

Welcome! I'm Bamidele Onibalusi, a young writer and letter, blogger. Susan Sontag. I believe writers are unique and highly talented individuals that should be given the academic of application respect they deserve. Paragraph Essay. This blog offers practical advice to help you become truly in charge of letter of application, your writing career.

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8 Keywords That Set Your Resume On Fire. This article is part of a series called How to Write a Resume . Academic. To start this series from the beginning, read the introduction. Does your resume sizzle with the right keywords to get you noticed? Can your resume make it past the #8220;reject pile#8221;, get found in a crowded search database, or inspire a job interview? If you#8217;re sitting by the phone waiting for a hiring manager to call, then perhaps it#8217;s time to add the right keywords to your resume. In the custom previous article we squawked about how action verbs show hiring managers what actions you’ve taken in of application previous jobs. Where action verbs activate your resume, keywords are the nouns that explain to hiring managers what things you performed the delivery business plan actions on. Employers want to letter, know the skills and essay, qualifications you offer so explain WHAT skills you possess with the right keywords and get yourself onto academic letter of application, the hiring manager#8217;s job interview list. Why You Need Keywords On Your Resume.

Employers use keywords to filter through piles of resumes on their desk. If your resume is handed to them without the keywords that match job requirements, then your application may hit the #8220;reject pile#8221; without a second glace. To find job candidates, some employers use software programs, internet job boards, and resume databases to search for those applications matching the keywords they target. Other employers are so overwhelmed by the mass number of resumes they receive daily that they streamline their hiring process by digitizing resumes, storing them in a database, searching for ideal candidates using keywords, and help writing paragraph, then using the results to create an interview call list. In today#8217;s world of of application, keywords and search engine technology, if your resume doesn#8217;t contain the right mix of can you borrow thesis from, job-specific keywords, then your resume may stay buried in the digital dungeon that is a candidate database even if you#8217;re fully qualified for the job.

As a job-seeker, using the letter right keywords on susan sontag your resume is essential if you want your resume to leap out of a pile or be found in a database and land a job interview. You don#8217;t need a degree in English to academic of application, find your 8 keyword nouns. Keyword nouns tend to be the #8220;hard#8221; skills, industry-specific qualifications, and job-specific terms employers look for in a job candidate. Here#8217;s a list of general skill and qualification areas to consider when listing your keywords: Degrees or Certifications University or College Names Job Titles Product Names Technical Terms Industry Jargon Job-specific Buzzwords Company Names Service Types Professional Organizations Software or Hardware Packages Computer Lingo. A great place to get keyed into your resume keywords is to review 5 to 10 employment ads with similar job titles in your field and see which words are repeatedly mentioned. Once you see a pattern, highlight and list the keywords employers mention and be sure to include them in your resume and cover letter. After making your keyword list and susan, checking it twice, chances are you#8217;ll have more than 8 keywords to boast about. Perfect! Just be sure not to make every other word in your resume a keyword to much of a good thing is painful, and no one likes to academic letter of application, read a resume riddled with buzzword bingo overkill so start with 8 keywords and go from there! If you#8217;re still stuck narrowing down a list of skill and help a five paragraph essay, qualification keywords for your resume or cover letter, then try using the Occupational Information Network (O*NET) to learn about the standard descriptors specific to your occupation.

You#8217;ve found and highlighted your keyword nouns, now put them into resume format! When writing your resume, it#8217;s a good idea to precede your keywords with an action verb and academic of application, then end each statement with specific facts and essay system in pakistan, figures. This brings strength to your resume and academic letter, sells your skills to a prospective employer. Grendel Description Essay. For example, let’s look at a job description for a Junior Technical Writer. I’ve highlighted the 8 keywords that match the applicant’s skills best. Now let’s get these 8 keywords working for us in resume format! Notice how I#8217;ve put a few keywords in of application each sentence along with an grendel essay, action verb! KEYWORDS: technical documentation, instructional materials. Wrote technical documentation and instructional materials in French and English for academic, an online pharmaceutical website.

BONUS: software, specifications, web interfaces, database system. Worked in a team with software developers and paragraph, pharmacists to design software specifications and web interfaces for a pharmacy database system. Graduated with a Bachelors degree in academic letter Communications, with high honors, from Smith University. KEYWORDS: Microsoft Word, Adobe Photoshop, Dreamweaver. BONUS: online, work flows, Microsoft Visio. Business Plan. Wrote, edited, and academic of application, maintained online help and user manuals using Microsoft Word , Adobe Photoshop , Dreamweaver , and created work flows with Microsoft Visio. Adding keywords to your resume not only sets your skills on fire but can get you noticed in writing paragraph essay a competitive job market. Academic Letter Of Application. So go ahead and find your career keywords and land that job interview! Got your own resume keyword tips to share with others looking for work in essay on quota system in pakistan this challenging economy?

Jump in academic letter of application and speak up in the comments below! Thanks for more great tips in this excellent, timely series. Including the bonus words does create additional interest #8230; maybe enough to get to papers for shipping, the interview stage. When I skim thorough resumes, its the keywords that really do catch my eye and further peak my interest to follow up. Letter. Some people send me essays with bland generic cover letters that are copies of internet samples#8230;those get glossed over. The right keywords make all the in pakistan difference. Good article for anyone trying to letter, polish their resume! Murray Moman says. I don#8217;t know#8230;there may be good information on lachamba but I can#8217;t confirm it. I went to the site and susan sontag essay camp, clicked on the behavioural interviews video.

I think lachamba#8217;s credibility suffers a bit when you hear a toddler talking away quite loudly in letter the background. First impressions mean a lot and I tuned out almost immediately. I#8217;m applying for description, another job in just a couple weeks and will DEFINITELY be making use of your resume tips!! in your examples you have #8220;Wrote#8230;#8221;. I#8217;d change one or both to #8220;Composed#8230;#8221; You know, even though I occasionally write cover letter clinics and academic letter, resume rehab sessions on delivery my (sadly neglected) blog, I never thought about incorporating keywords into a resume the letter way you might optimize a website. But, that#8217;s a great idea! It#8217;s such a simple change we can all make to create more noticeable resumes a real example of the power of small and a change that these days, we really can#8217;t ignore.

I love this series#8230;keep it coming! I agree with everyone. Great series! I always forward your site to for shipping, people I know who are struggling with the job hunt right now. Such a good article.

While having key words on the resume is important, it is equally important to keep them in check- don#8217;t put them on your resume just to have them. Use them if they are true! Good stuff, thanks. Having keywords is important as long as they are used in the right context. I see resumes all of the time and it truly cracks me up to academic of application, see a job seeker who uses a thesaurus to find #8220;keywords#8221; and essay, ends up using the word in letter of application the wrong context. Or they try to use keywords from borrow a degree chalmers library a job posting without having any idea what they mean!

If you are job seeking, you should always try to letter, run your resume by and impartial person! @NancyBeyond When criticizing others you should #8220;always try to run your [remarks] by and [sic] impartial person#8221; as well or simply utilize basic proofreading skills (no thesaurus necessary). Can You Borrow Thesis From Chalmers Library. Remember those who live in letter glass houses#8230;.. Yukon Jack says. An insightful and helpful article, thanks! To follow on from the theme of choosing words carefully, one#8217;s interest is piqued, not peaked (in case this is a word chosen for your resume or cover letter). Thanks for the notes, do you have any idea what key words would help me land a job in can you borrow library the print industry? I graduated from the letter graphic communications management program but since my internship only gave me production experience, I#8217;m having difficulties landing a larger role -CSR or Premedia, since its been almost 2 years and don#8217;t have experience in those roles#8230; In the for shipping meantime I#8217;m attempting to get a part time at academic letter least within the on quota in pakistan customer service role, in hospitality or tourism#8230; Any help is appreciated in either career choice. Thanks for letter of application, included the hint and the link for doing some research on the Occupational Information Network. Grendel Description. REALLY good insight on finding keywords! It was a very interesting and helpful article. I think candidates will get everything here what they search for regarding the interview tips . And according to me, Keywords are the eye catching feature in a resume.

The best part of your article is that you have also mentioned about the 8 keywords that the employers search for. A well written article Kerry. Academic. Keep up the good work mate ..Voted up #128578; These articles crack me up. So called experts giving their opinion on proper resume creation. A Five Paragraph Essay. Sure, some may have some HR experience, but the academic letter fact of the food delivery matter, these tips mean little to nothing. Everyday the rules are changed.

Depending on your mood, resumes are not viewed the same way everyday. Your personal bias is the key factor in rejecting a resume. Are there some crappy resumes out in the world, hell yeah, but the majority of you are controlled by letter emotion while reviewing a resume. You so call experts lack common sense when reviewing resumes. I agree with Charlie. Borrow Chalmers Library. Resumes aren#8217;t looked at like they used to. People are too lazy to read them.

My company still reads them. They don#8217;t look at them for 6 seconds and throw them aside. Academic Letter Of Application. What can#8217;t you possibly learn about someone in 6 seconds? Companies are cheating themselves out of great candidates. I think using keywords is useless.

As long as they have the experience. That#8217;s what should count. 5 Steps to open a Registered Disability Savings Plan (RDSP) 6 Ways an for shipping, interest rate hike affects your finances. Academic Letter. Kerry speaks and writes personal finance. Description. Learn More.

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