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This is an Essay entry for Scenarios from Africa 2008 HIV drama competition by a student from the primary school in Bwiam. I made

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Essay aids africa

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apartheid laws essay Law about the racial segregation in South Africa was published in essay aids, 1910, same year as the constitution of South Africa. There came a lot of college paper term term, resistance against racial segregation. Between 1910 and 1930 Africans founded many political parties and labour organizations. For example South African Native National Congress was founded in essay, 1912. It later became the most famous and biggest of the parties and is called ANC, African National Congress.

The leader of this party is Nelson Mandela. ( South Africa is known about college paper term term its history of apartheid. Africaner intellectuals started to use the word apartheid in essay africa, the 1930s. The word means apartness. (Thompson 1996, 186.) In 1948, The Afrikaner National party wan a general election and began to apply its policy of apartheid. Strategists in the National Party invented apartheid as a means to cement their control over the economic and social system. Initially, aim of the apartheid was to maintain white domination while extending racial separation. Racial discrimination was institutionalized with the enactment of apartheid laws in 1948. In 1950, the Population Registration Act classifies people by race. There were three categories: white, black (African) and coloured (of mixed decent). The coloured category included major subgroups of paper paper, Indians and Asians. ( cale/cs201/apartheid.hist.html) Thompson says (1996, 190) that the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act (1949) and essay aids the Immorality Act (1950) created legal boundaries between the races by making marriage and sexual relations illegal across the example of a good colour line. Essay Aids Africa! The National party used its majority in motivation, Parliament to eliminate the voting rights of Coloured and africa African people.

Thompson (1996, 191) says that the government transformed the the hidden sins administration of the African population. It grouped the reserves into eight (eventually ten) territories. These territories became homelands for potential African nation, administered under white tutelage by a set of Bantu authorities. The idea was that Africans would be citizens of the homeland, losing their citizenship in South Africa and any right of involvement with the South African Parliament which held complete hegemony over the homelands. All blacks were required to carry pass books containing fingerprints, photo and information on access to essay non-black areas ( In 1952, ANC and its allies launched a passive resistance campaign.

In 1953 the government assumed control of African education. (Thompson 1996.) The Bantu Education Act denied blacks to get higher education. College Paper Paper Term Term! Next year the government decided to essay aids resettle 60 000 Africans, Indians, coloured and Chinese from sins Johannesburg to the South-West of the city. The remove was called Western Areas Removal Scheme. In 1955, National Conference of ANC accepted foundation of the Congress of the People. Same year the Congress of the essay aids africa People adopted a Freedom Charter. It had four points: 1) The People Shall Govern, 2) All National Groups Shall Have Equal Right, 3) The People Shall Share In The Country's Wealth, 4) The Land Shall Be Shared Among Those Who Work It. ( Pan African Congress (PAC) was founded in 1959. In 1960 African and Coloured representation in Parliament was termined. Same year police kill 67 African anti-pass-law demonstrators at Sharpeville and the government bans African political organizations.

Nelson Mandela and other ANC and PAC leaders sentenced to life imprisonment in 1964. In 1984, a new constitution gave Asians and Coloureds but not Africans limited participation in the central government. First contacts between the file government and imprisoned and exiled ANC leaders happened in essay aids africa, 1985. De Klerk became leader of the National party and then president in 1989. He unbans the ANC, PAC and SACP and entrepreneurs releases Mandela and other political prisoners in 1990. In 1994, the ANC won first nonracial election. Nelson Mandela was elected the first black president of South Africa. Essay Africa! He formed Government of example, National Unity. (Thompson 1996, 1959 - 1960.) According to Thompson (1996, 221-240) apartheid was in crisis in the years 1978 - 1989.

There came domestic resistance against apartheid. The end of apartheid was really important stage in essay aids, South Africa. Years 1989 - 1995 were time of essay for great gatsby, transition (Thompson 1996, 241-277). Africa! In 1997 Helsingin Sanomat wrote an article about black people coming to business life in South Africa. Most of the black enterpreuners have small enterprises, but there are also some very rich owners and businessmen. ( Apartheid ended in 1994, but South Africa still struggles with racism and racist attitudes.

One story on BBC News (26.8.2001 tells about a black South African woman, who works in a coffee shop. She was attached by white man, who told her that there is no place for kaffir lover like her in the town. And he used a sharp instrument to carve a K onto her chest. K denoting an abusive term for black people. BBC (28.8.2000 tells also about quite new racism, a dramatic rise in xenophobia towards black African immigrants. Kuzwayo, E. 1987. Sano minua naiseksi. (Call me woman). Naisten kulttuuriyhdistys. Gummerus.

Jyvskyl. Thompson, L. 1996. See Attached! A History of South Africa. Revised edition. Yale University Press. New Haven and London. - history of apartheid in essay aids, South Africa. The Hidden! - Liikanen, article about Soweto. - the Commission on essay, Gender Equality in South Africa. - article about racism in South Africa. - article about new racism in South Africa.

- article about black people coming to business life in South Africa.

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HIV/AIDS in South Africa and the United States: A Comparative Essay

Public health and essay, the obsession with behaviour. ESSAY: Recent thinking on health policy has been driven by two myths: that bad health is caused by bad habits, and that government can promote good health by changing our behaviour. I n the gatsby run-up to the UK General Election, spiked is essay aids africa publishing a series of college paper paper paper essays reposing political issues. The aim of the africa ‘Question Everything’ essays is to encourage people to rethink the thesis for great gatsby past, the present and the future. Aids. In this eighth essay, Dr Michael Fitzpatrick says that in the sphere of health the Tories are planning to replace New Labour’s ‘nanny state’ with a ‘nudge state’ – a development which would damage our liberty and dignity even further. ‘Today we can’t escape the fact that today many of our most severe health problems are caused, in part, by the wrong personal choices. Obesity, binge-drinking, smoking and drug addiction are putting millions of lives at risk and costing our health services billions a year.

So getting to grips with them requires an altogether different approach to the one we’ve seen before. We need to promote more responsible behaviour and encourage people to make the right choices about what they eat, drink and do in their leisure time.’ (David Cameron, foreword, A Healthier Nation, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.) Conservative Party leader David Cameron proposes an ‘altogether different’ and ‘entirely new’ approach to public health compared with that pursued by the Labour government over the past decade. In his foreword to the policy green paper that provides the college paper basis for the Conservative Party election manifesto commitment to relabel the africa Department of Health as the Department for Public Health, Cameron emphasises that ‘we must think practically about how to help people to take more responsibility for their own health’. College Paper Term Term. But this sounds like the same old public health sermon that has been preached by different governments over the past 40 years. Indeed, the Labour Party manifesto proclaims a similar commitment to essay aids africa ‘preventative health care’, insisting that ‘we all have a responsibility to look after our own health, supported by our family and our employer’. So, what is new and different about the Conservative approach to example of a essay public health? The central theme of A Healthier Nation is aids that Tory policy will be guided by ‘cutting-edge science and research’ in the spheres of ‘social psychology and behavioural economics’ (or alternatively from ‘cognitive science and behavioural psychology’, all terms are readily interchangeable).

Official resort to the latest psychological fad (usually imported from the US) is not particularly novel: this has been a key feature of a range of New Labour therapeutic initiatives, including Sure Start parenting programmes, the ‘We Need To Talk’ campaign for ‘improved access to psychological therapies’, and the promotion of ‘social and emotional aspects of learning’ in schools. But before looking more closely at the politicians’ preoccupation with the see attached use of psychological techniques to manipulate behaviour, let’s first consider some of the assumptions underlying Cameron’s public health policy. The myth of a public health crisis. The notion that deviant individual behaviour is essay africa a major cause of disease is central to contemporary public health and it is endorsed by all the big political parties. File. But is it true? The most striking change in the health of the nation in aids, the years that I have been a general practitioner in London has been increasing longevity. Last year, the practice I am part of welcomed three more patients as centenarians.

It is extraordinary that our ageing patients have not only survived numerous threats to decimate the nation (AIDS, BSE, SARS, bird flu, pandemic flu), but they have also lived through decades of steadily rising obesity and alcohol consumption. No doubt the decline in smoking from the 1960s onwards has saved many from a premature death, but even the persistence of a hard core of example good essay smokers has not deterred the general improvement in both the essay aids duration and quality of example essay life of older people. Ruth Davidson: poster girl of the flimsy new politics. ‘If I can’t say what I think, then I don’t get to think’ Guns aren’t to blame for the horror in Vegas. Social policy and the welfare state. Closer inspection of the behaviours chosen by David Cameron as major contributors to the burden of essay aids africa ill-health reveals a highly arbitrary selection. In the term mounting panic about obesity over the past decade, both the scale and consequences of individual weight gain have been grossly exaggerated. There are relatively small numbers of individuals whose weight is a serious threat to essay aids africa their health, but for the vast majority of people who are moderately overweight, this is unlikely to have significant consequences for their health. Though some young people may drink excessively and cause a public nuisance, this is more a matter for essay the licensing and public order authorities than for doctors.

There has been an increase in alcohol-related liver disease and example, other problems associated with prolonged high consumption, but these are still on a much smaller scale than in other European countries. Drug addiction is another social problem – but a much smaller one – and in my 20 years in an inner-city practice, one that has not significantly increased in size. Furthermore, the links between particular diseases and the deviant behaviours identified by Cameron are weak. Essay Africa. For example, it is widely assumed that coronary heart disease is thesis in work motivation strongly linked to ‘unhealthy diets’ and obesity. Yet the number of deaths from aids africa heart attacks has been steadily declining over the past 50 years – during which diets high in supposedly lethal sugars, fats and salt combined in all sorts of college paper paper term term term so-called ‘junk foods’ have become increasingly popular. These are also the decades of the couch potato, in which people are supposed to aids africa have assumed sedentary lifestyles and shunned physical exertions. It is clear that factors other than diet and entrepreneurs born essay, exercise, notably genetics, possibly infections, are more important than behavioural contributors to aids heart disease. Paper Paper Term. It is true that, as people live longer and die less from circulatory diseases, more people seem to be getting cancer. Africa. But, apart from lung cancer, the mortality from which has been declining for decades, no other common cancer is strongly associated with a behavioural cause.

How then can we explain Cameron’s selection of ‘our most severe health problems’ on of a good essay which public health policy should focus? Why not, for example, choose some of the neurological and aids, rheumatological problems, such as Parkinson’s disease, Alzheimer’s, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, connective tissue disorders and many more that constitute a substantial disease burden for our ageing population and entrepreneurs made essay, a major challenge for the National Health Service (NHS), both in hospitals and in primary care? Why not, for essay aids another example, focus on chronic mental illnesses, such as schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder, which affect large numbers of people and have major consequences for affected families and born essay, the wider society? It is evident that Cameron’s choice has little to do with health, but is more a political selection arising out of prejudice against the sorts of people who engage in the sorts of essay africa activities that would be increasingly stigmatised under a new Tory government (as indeed they have been under New Labour). People who are overweight, appear drunk in public places, smoke cigarettes, use heroin, have become objects of public disgust and college paper paper term term term, professional condescension and would remain so under a Cameron government. In their emphasis on links between behaviour and disease, politicians assume that public-health authorities have reliable techniques for aids achieving the behaviour changes they believe will improve the health of the nation. But this is a triumph of wishful thinking over experience. For at least half a century – longer in in work motivation, the US – doctors and africa, other health professionals have been telling patients that their health would benefit from eating less and exercising more.

This has clearly been a spectacularly unsuccessful intervention in terms of the hidden sins influencing diet and activity (though, as we have seen, this has not deterred dramatic improvements in health). Take a more specific health-promotion intervention: the essay aids drive to persuade children to eat ‘five a day’ portions of the hidden sins essay fruit and vegetables. Despite nationwide propaganda and major school-based programmes promoting this policy, the proportion of children reaching this target has remained steady at around one in five over africa the past five years, after an earlier increase. Example Good. But not to worry! Recent research shows that ‘five a day’ confers only marginal benefits in terms of cancer prevention – confirming earlier studies casting doubt on wider health benefits (see Bofetta et al ). The focus of government health policy on behaviour reflects a wider transformation of the relationship between the state and essay aids, the individual.

The concept of behaviour is traditionally associated with children and animals, often in the context of psychological experimentation. In place of the active subject of democratic citizenship, the behavioural approach assumes an individual who is the passive object of official policy. Instead of an independent agent playing an active role in society, the citizen is essay thesis for great gatsby assumed to be ignorant and essay aids, immature, requiring expert professional guidance. The Hidden Essay. The self-determining individual is reduced to being the target of official propaganda and political manipulation. In his book Dread , American public health researcher Philip Alcabes traces the origin of the contemporary culture of aids public health back to the response to paper term the emergence of AIDS in the 1980s, which he characterises as the first ‘behavioural epidemic’: ‘The turn from risk group to risk behaviour was a sign of an important change in thinking, a behavioural turn, wherein behaviour as risk became behaviour as cause. Before the advent of AIDS, never had the entirety of disease prevention policy been to tell people what they should stop doing… In the AIDS era, behaviour control was disease control.’ Alcabes shows how this approach led to the ‘new moralism’ of safe sex – and essay aids africa, the neglect of the various forms of blood-borne transmission of HIV, which offered no scope for moralising. Alcabes also shows how the ‘behavioural turn’ in response to a real infectious disease in the 1980s was consolidated in response to ‘imaginary epidemics’, such as ‘bioterrorism’, from the 1990s onwards. He singles out the file obesity scare as the archetypal postmodern ‘epidemic’ which ‘plays on fantasies of mayhem and misgivings about our habits’.

Depicted as ‘the fault of aids africa individuals’ poor choices, the of a essay failure to opt for essay aids the healthy lifestyle’, obesity is college term term ‘an easy canvas on which to paint our psychic unease, our difficulties in essay aids africa, achieving personal goals, or our sense that we have become lazy – even though no study on the topic of body mass and psychic impairment shows any clear connection’. Nevertheless, the panic over childhood obesity has contributed to the notion of childhood as ‘a period of both intense vulnerability and grave toxicity to society – despite the lack of gatsby evidence of widespread harm’. Africa. The concept of childhood obesity as an epidemic or risk leads us to ‘create administrative solutions to manage our children’s behaviour’. The distinctive feature of Conservative Party’s approach to public health is its acknowledgement of the failure of past attempts to change behaviour in the cause of thesis health (of course, these are associated with the years of New Labour government). Thus, the Tories’ public-health Green Paper endorses recent judgements by medical authorities that propaganda on the dangers of drinking alcohol has been ineffective.

The familiar response to (numerous) studies revealing that health promotion policies do not achieve their objectives is to demand more of the essay aids same and that everybody involved should try harder – while also proposing more coercive interventions, such as more punitive taxation, more bans and proscriptions. But while there are plenty of such proposals in the Conservative document, its claim to novelty is in work motivation its reliance on the insights of recent popular psychology books such as Connected: The Amazing Power of Social Networks and How They Shape Our Lives and Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth and Happiness . The sole insight of Connected , the joint work of a Harvard physician and a Californian political scientist, is that individuals are influenced by social factors: ‘People do not have complete control over their own choices.’ But the authors’ ‘social network’ perspective treats individuals as passive objects who receive and transmit behaviours as though they were an infectious virus (though even the spread of the most infectious virus is influenced by specific individual and social factors). The results of supposedly groundbreaking academic inquiries appear banal. For example, the essay aids authors tell us that ‘psychological research suggests that feelings of loneliness occur when there is a discrepancy between our desire for connection to others and the actual connections we have’. Essay Thesis For Great Gatsby. Or in other words, ‘people with more friends are less likely to experience loneliness’. When it comes to aids practical measures, the authors boldly propose ‘a new foundation for college paper paper term public health’ that offers Weight Watchers and Alcoholics Anonymous as models. One of their few specific proposals is essay africa a ‘creative alternative’ to current vaccination policy based on immunising ‘the acquaintances of randomly selected individuals’. In Work Motivation. This strategy is based on a mathematical model that suggests that ‘acquaintances have more links and are more central to the network than are the randomly chosen people who named them’. The authors suggest that ‘a choice informed by essay aids, network science could be 700 per cent more effective and efficient’. But this model takes no account of the the hidden essay fact that most immunisations are aimed at essay, a highly selected population (mainly babies) who have a very limited circle of ‘acquaintances’.

The concept of Nudge , written by a behavioural economist and a law professor based in Chicago, is that governments and employers should make self-conscious efforts to steer the paper term term term choices of their citizens and workers in essay africa, ways that improve their lives. They describe themselves as ‘liberal paternalists’ who reject bans and mandates in essay thesis, favour of ‘weak, soft, non-intrusive’ measures to essay aids create a ‘choice architecture’ that can ‘influence people’s behaviour in order to see attached make their lives longer, healthier, and better’. The most familiar illustration of this approach is the fly incorporated into essay africa, the ceramic of essay for great gatsby airport urinals, providing careless men with something to aim at aids africa, – and thereby at a stroke reducing ‘spillage’ by 80 per cent. However, the see attached relevance of aids this example to the subsequent discussion of the Medicare subsidy for prescription drugs and the controversy over explicit consent or mandated choice in relation to organ donation is not readily apparent. The ‘nudge’ that appears most appealing to entrepreneurs made essay Tory public health strategists is the ‘dollar a day’ scheme piloted in North Carolina, under which teenage girls receive $1 for every day that they avoid becoming pregnant. A programme along similar lines in aids, the UK offers pregnant women supermarket vouchers (exchangeable for any commodity but alcohol and tobacco) in return for abstinence from cigarettes: early results suggest that this is both cheaper and more effective than established ‘smoking cessation’ programmes that rely on ‘nicotine replacement’ and group therapies. College Paper Paper Term. Such crass economic incentives are more likely to invite fraud than produce long-term changes in behaviour. In A Healthier Nation , Conservative public-health advisers claim that ‘there are some hugely successful strategies now emerging from cognitive science and behavioural psychology’. Perhaps they have in mind the theories of ‘positive psychology’ promoted by aids africa, the psychologist and self-help guru Martin Seligman. Of A Good Essay. These theories enjoyed a major influence in the era of speculative finance capital in essay aids, the US, in paper paper, what Barbara Ehrenreich refers to as ‘the decade of magical thinking’. These are the sort of notions used to aids justify charismatic leadership in corporate rulers and to thesis in work motivation help them in ‘managing the despair’ of the millions of workers who lost their jobs in restructuring (aptly satirised by the character played by essay aids, George Clooney in Up in born made, the Air ).

It is ironic that at the very time that ‘positive psychology’ began to be imported into the UK – under the authority of New Labour happiness tsar Lord Richard Layard – its influence reached a ‘manic crescendo’ in the US subprime mortgage crisis that triggered the global financial collapse of 2007. A similar combination of self-delusion and wishful thinking of the essay sort that united creditors and debtors and dragged the world into recession is now offered in another package of cod psychology, as a model for public health. #5: James Panton on the welfare state. #8: Dr Michael Fitzpatrick on public health. P Basham, J Luik, Fat kids? Obesity: epidemic and college paper, myth , Democracy Institute, 2009. M Gard, J Wright, The Obesity Epidemic: science, morality and ideology , Routledge, 2005.

P Campos, The Obesity Myth , Gotham 2004. P Boffetta, E Couto, J Wichmann et al, ‘Fruit and Vegetable Intake and Overall Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)’, Journal of the National Cancer Institute , 6 April 2010. B Ehrenreich, Smile or Die: How Positive Thinking Fooled America And The World , Granta, 2009. R Thaler CR Sunstein, Nudge: improving decisions about health,wealth and happiness , Penguin, 2009. N Christakis, J Fowler, Connected: the amazing power of social networks and how they shape our lives, Harper 2010. P Alcabes, Dread: how fear and fantasy have fuelled epidemics from the essay africa black death to avian flu , Public Affairs, 2009. ‘A Healthier Nation’, Policy Green Paper No.12, Conservative Party.

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Hiv Aids Situation In South Africa - UK Essays

Style aspects of Baroque Art and Music essay. This paper is going to prove that Baroque era stands for extravagant, highly detailed, flamboyant art and music of the period dating from roughly 1600 1750. The paper is also going to show the aids connection between the style aspects of Baroque visual art and Baroque music. Spanish novelist and poet, Juan Goytisolo, in his essay “ Problemas de la novella” wrote: “A contemporary artist can use the findings of sins essay all epochs and all styles, from the most primitive literary expressions up the most refined products of the baroque” (Goytisolo, 1990). Light and dark, divine and essay africa, human, violent and gentle, religious and see attached, secular became the foremost features in Baroque arts. Artworks and musical compositions of this era are manifestations of africa this turmoil: their bright, emotional, theatrical and energetic compositions are featured by college paper paper term term expressive and intense movement (Charles, 2009). Such artists like Gianlorenzo Bernini, Rembrandt, Rubens, Velazquez, Caravaggio, Vermeer, Bach, Vivaldi, Monteverdi, Purcell and Handle invented inimitable Baroque style have illustrated intense emotions and created characters that seem to be alive, often appealing to africa the viewer’s feelings. Musicians, sculptors and painters became fascinated with the idea of creating a total illusion of living art. They exploited their talent, feelings and emotions to expand the dramatic potential of light, color, sound, space and essay, contrasts; to create so baroque and simultaneously emotional, logical and africa, natural world that is still ruled by an invisible hand of God. Baroque Historical Background.

The Baroque was complex and contradictory. A lot of ambivalent arts were created for the Church and monarchy. The Baroque era was a thrilling time of scientific explorations, increased education, and thesis for great, new discoveries. Aids? In the south, majorly Catholic Europe was influenced by the consequences of the Counter Reformation. Largely Protestant Northern Europe was characterized by growing capitalism. The 17 th century was also a disquiet time of constant battles throughout Europe, as a result of the Reformation of the Catholic Church. With the pretentious prosperity of monarchs and increased cruelty of priesthood in some regions of Europe and growingcapitalism; the of a essay spiritual, sensual as well as simultaneously scientific and logical the aids Baroqueperiod was an era of remarkable contrasts (CMS, 2002). Origination of the Baroque Era. The Baroque Era was an essay thesis gatsby era of africa increasing emotionality, secularization and naturalness. These phenomena can be observed in a plethora of art works and compositions that referred to the end of 16 th century. In visual art, it was for instance, “Feast at the House of Levi” painted by Paolo Veronese in 1573; initially the painting was conceived by the artist and painted for the Dominican order as a scene of the Last dinner.

However, Paolo Veronese was pursued by the Catholic inquisition for depicting the irrelevant commoners, drunk Germans, buffoons, and sins essay, even dogs and other scurrilities. Essay? Therefore, Veronese was forced to change the name of the painting. Nevertheless, a brisk, agitated and secular sensitivity of the scene demonstrated something more baroque than mannerist (the movement in art peculiar for that time) (Gombrich, 1995). In music, an example of growing secularity, naturalness and emotionality was the “ Euridice” composed by Jacopo Peri (very influential composer and singer of that time) and Giulio Caccini. It is entrepreneurs born obvious for today’s contemporaries that music should appeal to emotions; yet, before Baroque Era, the aids africa principal concern of musicians was the melodic assembling, not the listener’s emotions. In 1580, The Camerata Bardi, all together, decided that to evoke emotions only one voice should sound at the hidden, a time; so monody was invented (one singing emotional voice accompanied by simple adequate chords). The “ Euridice” is the aids earliest opera that was published; so its release in paper term 1600 celebrates an epoch-making turning point in the European history, such as the start of the Baroque era (Germain, 1998).

The Greek and Roman classical arts became extremely popular during Renascence and stayed popular during Baroque period; so artists and musicians continued creating their works of art guided by the Greek mythology motifs. Claudio Monteverdi’s “ L’Orfeo ” (1607) is not only the first opera that he composed, but also the first widely acknowledged “real opera”. The tragic story of Orpheus and Eurydice attracted many composers. Although the plot remains the same, the setting and performance has changed. For example, Peri’s Eurydice and Monteverdi’s Orfeo have only popular motif in common, but the africa embodiments of the story are completely different.

Monteverdi has used in example of a good this opera synthesis of all musical genres and expressive devices available to him at essay aids africa, that time. During the course of the opera, there are madrigals, emotional solos (new Baroque era movement of rising popularity) and popular at that time rhythmic dance. Example Good? Monteverdi calls for instrumental ensemble that consists of 40 instruments, whereas Peri’s Eurydice was written only for 4 instruments. The most fascinating melodically and dramatically strong recitative (Orpheus cry) ever written before, or since is applied here. Due to the new technique of emotional solo singing, the audience feels the despair of Orpheus in every fibre of their being (Charles, 2009). Essay Africa? Monteverdi’s opera L’Orfeo is associated by its emotions with “ Orpheus in the Underworld” (1594) painted by Flemish artist Jan the Elder Brueghel (1568-1625). Jan Brueghel shows Orpheus in the underworld. This painting still has features of mannerism, but bizarre and graceful posturing of essay thesis underground creatures is actually truly natural and essay africa, absolutely appropriate here. Moreover, masterly applying light, darkness and shadows Brueghel was able to depict the horror and drama, which explains why Orpheus could not resist the temptation of making sure that Eurydice follows him. The dark scene represents enslaved and tortured people; a lot of reptiles throughout the entire composition represent the evil, delusion and death. The Orpheus who plays with lyre to Hades and Persephone, and river that lightens represent the only connection with life.

Brueghel contrasts the strong dark background colors of the good underworld with Orpheus, Hades and Persephone who are depicted in the pastel shades (Sartorious, 2012). Caravaggio and Handle. Motif of extreme naturalism and unification of secular and essay africa, religious themes was one more characteristic of Baroque era. Essay Thesis For Great Gatsby? Spanish painter Caravaggio invented a new “naturalism” in art history. Africa? Caravaggio painted religious stories as everyday scenes with people of of a essay plebeian background; he depicted their poor and dirty clothes. His invention of tenebrism, or the skillful usage of light, shadows and darkness was adopted by other prominent painters. Africa? In his “ Judith Decapitating Holofernes ”, an intense ray of light gives an impression of time stoppage as Judith’s sword slices into paper the general’s neck. Essay Aids? Such usage of light emphasizes the horror of the sins moment and demonstrates the naturalism, which is a main feature of Caravaggio’s unique artistic style. Caravaggio underlines the gloominess of the scene by aids making the background so dark, that it is impossible to see any detail except the see attached file main action again reinforcing the dramatic impact. Caravaggio’s Judith dislikes her action very much, she almost empathizes his pain.

The red blood from the general’s neck is perfectly underlined by the red curtains above him. There is a notable contrast between Judith’s and old lady’s face expressions. Old lady actually wishes to be in Judith’s stead; she hates the general and feels no remorse. However, Caravaggio is faithful to his principles and focuses the audience’s attention on the seventeenth-century clothing; it seems that he contraposes the ordinary aspects to the biblical event (Marceau, 1995). George Frederic Handel united secular entertainment and sacred texts, which was not acceptable at that time. Based on biblical texts, Handel’s “Messiah” was an extended musical work like opera, and for that time it was a controversial decision. To avoid problems with clergy, it was performed without costumes or scenery, and the performers had no specific roles. The scene “the annunciation to the shepherds” Handel took from the Gospel of Luke: “ There were shepherds abiding in the field, keeping watch over their flocks by night” (Gospel of Luke, 1741).This phrase is “secco”, notably complimented by the continuo.

It is essay africa solo soprano, and it is recitative. Handel emphasizes lines by expanded coloraturas. He uses both homophonic and polyphonic instrumental background to convey the context of text in the best way. Timpani highlight the the hidden sins closing movement Part II, Hallelujah . Handel applied four voice parts, bass, tenor, soprano and alto in the choral movements. During Hallelujah Handle uses melisma, multiple repletion of the africa word “Hallelujah ” . College Term Term? He also applies cantus firmus on prolonged repetitive notes to underline majesty and grandeur of the scene (Sartorius, 2012). Gentileschi and Purcell. Motifs of death and doom were one more characteristic of Baroque era. Artemisia Gentileschi (1593 1653) was influenced by Caravaggio’s naturalism and dramatic usage of tenebrism. In her painting “ Judith Decapitating Holofernes ” she as well as Caravaggio uses absolute darkness for dramatic effect.

The terror of the essay africa scene emphasized through blood that flows from the general’s neck and in work motivation, bloodstained sheets. Gentileschi depicts the young woman who is performing the essay aids murder with a sense of confidence and the hidden essay, resolution, which were untypical of the traditional concept on feminine character at that time. Some historical facts indicated that Artemisia was raped; so, maybe for reason her Judith image is empowered with physical strength in a way that allows the audience to essay aids sense her superiority in this concrete situation. She neither enjoys nor fears her action; she just executes her duty (Schaeffer, 2012). In Henry Purcell’s aria that Dido performs in his “Dido and Aeneas” exactly before her suicide, the audience hears over and over the baseline descends, which is a musical icon for example good, death. Moreover, because the melodic material is set in minor, the impression is reinforced by essay africa the clear similarity to the funeral march that emphasizes the rhythm of the aria. The emotional impact is so profound that Dido’s despair, pain and grief move the audience to tears (Sartorius, 2012). Rembrandt and Vivaldi. The rulers of the European countries wanted these works of art to glamorize their reign.

Therefore, the greatest baroque artists were commissioned to create pieces of work that glorify power of their patrons. Rembrandt van Rijn (1606 - 1669) was an extremely popular painter. In Work Motivation? He was especially famous for his portraits, but he also painted a lot of landscapes, religious and secular scenes where he depicted two and more people. In his “ The Night Watch ”, the essay aids guardsmen and college paper term, officers celebrate a visit of aids africa Maria de Medici to Amsterdam in 1638. “The Night Watch” is not only natural but also filled with the example of a vivacity and dynamism that are peculiar to a company which is africa anticipating a noteworthy event. The diverse members of the gathering are shown busily organizing themselves. Rembrandt made skillful use of tenebrism, chiaroscuro as well as intense and see attached, dramatic lighting to animate his painting (Charles, 2009). Antonio Vivaldi’s (1678-1741) concertos (“ The Four Seasons”, “Pleasure”, “The Hunt and Storm at essay, Sea” ) were extremely successful, especially in France. The “Spring” was a steadfast favorite of French King Louis XV, who was listened it again and again and asked orchestra to perform this masterpiece for see attached, him almost every day. For this reason Vivaldi was receiving various commissions from the Versailles court for the creation of new compositions (Schaeffer, 2012). Bach and Rubens. Great French composer and writer Pierre Schaeffer once said: “Has it struck you that the music which is regarded as the most sublime in western civilization, which is the music of Bach, is called baroque” (Schaeffer, 2012).

Johann Sebastian Bach and Peter Paul Rubensare the true representatives ofBaroqueera. Their exuberantand creative works of art came toepitomize theextreme and conflictual differences that characterized the historic periodknown as the Baroque. Johann Sebastian Bach (1685 1750) created over essay aids 1100 compositions. There are works for college paper, voice, organ, harpsichord, different solo instruments, canons and others. Peter Paul Rubens (15771640) produced about 2,000 paintings in his lifetime;his paintings depicted religious, classical (Greek and Roman mythology), and secular scenes. Baroque was successful in Flanders, supported by Peter Rubens (Charles, 2009).

The Baroque style mirrors its time-period. As science discovered new things and Galileo published his heliocentric theory people started to be less and less devoted to essay God. Therefore, art was getting less and less religious by context. For example, Jan Vermeer created a painting “The Geographer” that portrays a scientist. Other works of art depicted self-portraits (Rembrandt), soldiers or secular scenes. The Greek motif remained popular, so many of artists and musicians continue created compositions with mythological heroes. However, some artists continued creating religious paintings and compositions like “ The Raising of the example of a good Cross ” by Rubens and “ Hosanna” by Bach, the well-known sculpture “ The Ecstasy of essay africa St.

Teresa ” by Bernini. Baroque sculptors, architects, painters and musicians sought the ways to essay thesis for great gatsby reflect their emotions and essay aids, feelings in good essay a variety of movements and africa, devices. College Paper Paper Term? Such Baroque featured as grandeur drama, opera, pomposity, vitality, action, tension, flamboyance, exuberance erased the distinction between the different kinds of art. Essay Africa? The Baroque Style was characterized by file intense contrasts and daring ornamentation that added drama and action to the art.

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100 Argument or Position Essay Topics with Sample Essays. Aids! VirginiaLynne has been a University English instructor for over 20 years. She specializes in helping people write essays faster and easier. For your paper, you will pick an issue to research. You will need to be sure that this is an arguable issue, which means it is one that people hold different views about. As you read through information on this issue, you should be narrowing your topic into a single statement which states your position. This could be a claim of fact, definition, cause, value, or policy.

Note: Some teachers use the see attached file, term argument essay and others call it a position essay. Aids Africa! These terms mean the same thing and are used interchangeably in this article. Is there a way to reduce abortions without legislation? (policy) Does a police officer's racial background make a difference in how they do their job? (value) Should the racial make-up of a police department be the same as the community they serve? (definition) How can pro-life and pro-choice groups work together? (values) Should Barbie be banned? (value) Should reality T.V. shows have regulations? (policy) What is true beauty? (definition) Is video gaming good or bad? (value) Are beauty contests a positive thing for young girls? (value) Are participation trophies in athletics a good idea? (policy) Are overbearing sports parents helpful or harmful? (definition) Should young children be pushed to compete at athletics? (policy) Should children have scheduled activities or be left more time for free play? (value) What is the cause of the increase in child obesity? (cause) How can we encourage children to be more active? (policy) Should people on welfare be required to submit to drug testing? (policy) Why do so many celebrities have terrible life problems? (cause) Should media coverage be regulated? (policy) What is the college paper paper term, effect of media coverage on elections? (fact) What is africa human trafficking? (definition) How can human trafficking be stopped? (policy) How do elected female officials differ from entrepreneurs made elected males? (fact) How important is it to have equal representation of genders and races in political office? (value) How can we support the election of more females to political offices? (policy) How can we get more minorities to become police officers? (policy) How can the essay aids africa, rights of artists and writers be protected on the Internet? (policy) Why should you pay for your music? (value) Does religious persecution exist? (fact) Should people be allowed to make designer babies? (value) What can be done to reduce unemployment among young African American men? (policy) Should the minimum wage be raised or lowered? (policy) This essay argues that sometimes, a nursing home can be the best choice. Poor Across Oceans. This essay argues that we need to in work motivation care more for people in developing countries. Hunger Hurts. How can we solve the problem of hunger?

Should we have a national high school exam? (policy) Is private school tuition (elementary, high school, or college) really worth it? (value) Does statewide testing (like the TAKS/STAAR test in aids africa Texas) really increase student knowledge? (cause) Should colleges abolish reliance on SAT and ACT scores in admissions? (policy) How should the thesis in work motivation, country's school system be reformed? (policy) Should the U.S. adopt an educational system like Europe's? (policy) What causes students to graduate from high school without basic skills? (cause) How do American students compare with students from other countries? (fact) What role should technology play in africa education? (value) What is the value of example of a good essay a liberal arts education? (value) Should students be required to essay africa take foreign language courses (or any other type of specific course)? Does adding days to the school year really improve learning? (fact) Should schools continue to example essay spend money on aids, fine arts? (value) How should students whose first language is not English be taught in public schools? (policy) Should college athletes be paid? (policy) Cell phones control our relationships. Example Of A Essay! (definition) Computers are changing the way humans think. Aids! (fact) Texting and cell phone use has caused young people to be less able to concentrate and focus (or you can do the college term term, reverse—has caused them to essay aids be able to handle multi-tasking more effectively and gatsby, efficiently). (cause) Cell phones have changed the way we relate to each other in africa positive ways. Sins! (value) Cell phones, texts, and emails are not as good as talking face-to-face. (value) Textbooks should be replaced by i-Pads and online resources. Aids! (policy) How are online technologies changing the way we live? (policy) How is technology changing our definition of what it means to be human? (value) What laws should we have about cell phone use in in work motivation cars? (policy) How is social media changing family relationships? (definition) Should parents limit teenagers' use of social media? (policy) What privacy policies should be upheld by social media companies? (policy) What should (and should not) be posted on Facebook by college students? (value) Should scientists be allowed to aids experiment on entrepreneurs made essay, human embryos? (value) What is nanotechnology? What are its applications and aids africa, possible uses in entrepreneurs the future? (definition) Which kind of topic are you most interested in? Is China the Next Superpower? (Fact) How should we respond to the global problem of aids africa illegal immigration? (policy) Would a border fence solve the immigration problem in the U.S.? (fact) What is the college paper paper term term, relationship between immigration and nationality? (definition) What causes people to immigrate illegally? (cause) Should the U.S. have a visitor work program? (policy) How has immigration affected the aids, history of the U.S.? (definition) Should all states have laws giving policemen the right to require people to the hidden sins prove their legal status? (policy) How can legal immigration be streamlined? (policy) Who should be allowed to immigrate? Who should not? (value) How many illegal immigrants live in the U.S.? Who are they and where do they live? (fact) Toilet Video Games? Have We Gone Too Far? Is war inevitable? How does war become integral to essay aids society? (definition) How do people justify war? (value) What might help establish peace? (policy) Should the see attached, U.S. Essay! continue to act as a policeman for other countries? (value) How should the sins, United States defend itself against africa, terrorism? (policy) Is drone warfare ethical? (value) How is cyber warfare becoming more important? (fact) Is the U.S. engaging in cyber attacks on other countries? (fact) How did 9/11 change the way Americans feel about themselves as a world power? (definition) Should military spending in the U.S. Thesis Gatsby! increase or decrease? (policy) How important is aids race to American identity? (fact) To what extent does individual identity depend on ethnic affiliation? (definition) How does immigration from sins essay Latin America affect the culture of America? (fact) Why do Americans think in terms of a person having one race when so many Americans have a mixed racial, cultural, and/or ethnic background? (value) Is it a good idea for people to adopt children from another ethnic group? (value) What is essay aids africa culture? (definition) What is the value of good essay knowing your racial and cultural heritage? (value) Should schools be required to teach multiculturalism? (policy) Should churches work harder to be multi-racial? (value) How can parents help raise their children to be appreciative of other cultures? (policy) Is global warming a problem and if so, what can we do about essay africa, it? (fact) How can we resolve the economy versus environment debate? (policy) How can we be sure to provide clean water for everyone? (policy) What responsibility do Americans have for providing clean water to entrepreneurs other nations? (value) How will the aids africa, worldwide population increase affect our planet? (fact) What can be done to stop poaching of endangered species? (policy) Is hunting good for thesis, the environment? (definition/fact) How can citizens be responsible for their local environment? (policy) What can manufacturers do to help clean up the earth? (fact) What is the importance of clean water? (fact) What is the relationship between health and pollution? (fact) How does the current trend of species extinction compare to the past? (fact) What can Americans do to essay aids stop global pollution? (policy) How can we encourage people to see attached recycle more? (value) How does global warming increase the aids, dangers of disease in the U.S.? (fact) Sometimes, it can help to look through your textbook to find essays to example spark ideas.

In my class, we use a book by Nancy Wood called Perspectives on Argument . In the back of this book is africa a list of entrepreneurs made suggested issues and articles related to those issues. Usually, these articles are just a start for essay africa, looking for a topic. You can take an idea from the article you like and then research it to find out what different people think about that issue. Essay! Still having trouble finding a topic? Try looking up an issue you are interested in on YouTube. Essay Africa! You might get some good ideas just browsing around. Sometimes the title of a video can give you a main idea and title. Especially look for ideas that can be turned into questions that you can argue pro see attached or con.

Whether you go online or look at a paper copy, you can use the news to give you an idea of what to write about. Just remember that if you are doing a research paper that you will need to cite any sources that you use, so make sure you keep a copy. How to Write an Evaluation Paper with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 15. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. 100 Expository Essay Topic Ideas, Writing Tips, and essay aids, Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 22. Easy Argumentative Essay Topics for thesis motivation, College Students. by Virginia Kearney 5. 100 Problem Solution Essay Topics with Sample Essays. by Virginia Kearney 42. How to Write a Summary, Analysis, and Response Essay Paper With Examples. by Virginia Kearney 55. Virginia Kearney 2 weeks ago from aids United States.

Hi Rosie--You have a good topic and essay thesis for great gatsby, an interesting personal connection. I'd suggest that you do a frame story introduction and conclusion. Start with your situation and then stop part-way through and ask the question: should you call CPS? Then do your answer and tell why or why not. Finish with telling the end of your story.

See my articles on How to aids write an argument paper and How to write a position paper for full instructions. Wondering how to write a position essay. Topic should you call Child Protective Services. In my personal life we are going through a situation where we called the child protective services but much is not being done. Was thinking if I choose this topic I could write some of paper paper term term our family's frustration about the situation, don't know how to go about writing this essay. Virginia Kearney 5 weeks ago from United States. Khen--You can find help if you look for my articles about how to write different kinds of position or argument papers. I have several different articles that can lead you step by step through the aids africa, process. Can you please help me in my position paper? Virginia Kearney 2 months ago from United States. Roami, You have an interesting idea.

I think one way for in work motivation, you to essay aids africa get some good information to start your paper is to research why local languages are not included in the instruction first. Thesis! Next, you might want to interview some people to find out their positions and to get some quotes on this topic. Finally, you might want to get some research articles which show whether or not using a local or home language of a student helps them to learn better. In the United States, research has shown that students who receive some instruction in their own language at least at first often do better in the long run than a child who is fully immersed in English. In my own experience as a teacher, I discovered that children who came to an all-English classroom before grade 2 or 3, generally was very competent in that language by age 12. However, if they entered an all English school later, they were often not able to essay aids catch up. However, that only works if the child is in a school where no one else speaks their native language (as is often true in the U.S. but not true in a school where all the children speak their local language together). You have a wonderful topic and one that is very important for your country to consider. I wish you great success in your paper. pls, i need u to look into example of a good essay this position topic for essay aids africa, me. Should local languages be made as compulsory as religious languages in schools. Virginia Kearney 4 months ago from United States.

Hi Sam, you might want to thesis in work motivation try my article about Funny Argumentative Essay Topic Ideas, or else do the negative of any idea here or in one of my many other argument essays. In a devil's advocate paper, you want to go against what most people think. Here are a few ideas just to africa get you thinking: Why Trump will be regarded as one of our top 5 presidents. Why we should leave ISIS alone. Why race is less a problem in thesis America than Europe. Why the leader of North Korea isn't really crazy. I have this assignment of playing the africa, role of devil's advocate and I can't think of a good topic! ( I personally prefer a political related topic).

Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Born! Aidyn-You add a very interesting position topic. I had not thought about schools making rules against fasting but it certainly could hurt a child's performance in school if they were fasting for a longer period than a day or two. That could cause a school to be concerned. Africa! Thanks for your comment and idea. Sins Essay! Aidyn Krikorian 6 months ago. I greatly appreciate your website, and I have a suggestion for a topic. Should we allow fasting or other religious acts in africa schools? This topic facsinates me and I do hope you will consider it.

I have chosen a topic to use for a paper from this webpage and will be returning. Thank you, Aidyn. Virginia Kearney 6 months ago from United States. Rose--You did not mention what aspect of paper term term culture you are writing about which makes it hard to help you. However, for africa, example, if you are writing a paper arguing to people that only like modern music that classical music is born made essay worth listening to, you could start by talking about what you agree with about modern music and essay africa, acknowledge why people of your generation might prefer to listen to college paper paper it. Aids Africa! Then you could explain why they would actually enjoy classical music if they gave it a try or explain how they could grow to example of a appreciate that kind of essay aids music. I need help on my regerian Argument eassy on culture. I dont now how to of a start it, Does anyone knows how.thanks. Preston Heard 8 months ago. These are great topics for the upcoming research essays.

I will definitely be using one of them. Thank you for this resource! Aaron Gibson 8 months ago. Excited for your class this semester! Matt Hartman 8 months ago. This article along with many of the other articles you have written will be very helpful this semester! I'm looking forward to essay aids your class! Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from essay for great gatsby United States.

Look for essay africa, my articles about how to entrepreneurs made essay write argument or position essays for lots of aids africa ideas on how to introduce essays and find sources. Luckily, Google Scholar has lots of excellent peer-reviewed essays that are good sources, but you can also find many good sources that come from government, Universities or published journals that post online (look for .gov, .edu or a journal that also appears in print). One easy way to start your introduction is to tell a story about a student who is thesis motivation generally shy (or maybe bullied) but gets excited (and more included by essay aids, others) when they are able to share about their own culture during a multiculturalism unit. I am doing an essay Apa essay on should schools be required to teach multiculturalism any idea on essay, how I should start my intro and what sources I should use? Virginia Kearney 11 months ago from essay United States. Bebe--You don't tell me whether your paper is a research paper or not, but I've written many articles on how to write different sorts of essays. You can use the search engine on HubPages to find them, or look at the links that usually appear when you pull up one of my articles. Search Argument essays or How to Write a Position Essay or just type in VirginiaLynne.

To start a paper on essay africa, your topic, I think I would use a story in the introduction showing a miscommunication when people don't talk face to face. Hey . Can you please help me in my position paper . I dont how to start . My topic is cellphone,texts and sins, emails are not as good as talking face to face . It is from essay yours sample :) thank you. Essay Gatsby! I think that is essay africa video gaming good or bad is file a great topic to choose. Virginia Kearney 19 months ago from United States. Essay Aids Africa! Yes Alsaifl, I think that What is beauty? could be a topic. You are right that your answer would be a definition claim. Essay! Jumanah Alsaif 19 months ago. Is the topics What is true beauty? (definition) a good topic for a position paper? I was thinking of writing how the definition of beauty is different for each individual. Brittany Adams 14 2 years ago.

Thank you so much for posting! This helps a lot with my writing! Tariq Ali Khan 2 years ago. Excellent work buddy! Thank you so much ! Kristen Howe 2 years ago from Northeast Ohio.

Great topics for a variety of essays for everyone who needs to africa be inspired. Voted up for paper term term term, useful! That Tom Hanks video is hilarious. Essay Aids Africa! These ideas are very thought-provoking and inspiring! Virginia Kearney 2 years ago from United States.

Cindy A. For Great Gatsby! So glad I was able to give you some good information! Unbelievable. Essay Aids! You have helped me enormously. Thank you so much. File! Thank you for these great topics. VJG 2 years ago from Texas.

This would be an interesting article for school students. They always seem to aids africa struggle for essay ideas. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi Safa--Here are the essay thesis gatsby, main steps: 1. Choose a question you are going to write about. Then think about what your answer to the question is going to be.

2. Decide what you want your reader to think, do or believe after they read your essay. That is your thesis (the answer to your question). 3. Decide who you want to persuade to believe this (that is aids your reader or audience). Think about what that reader already knows and believes about your topic. Sins! That will help you develop your arguments. The reader should not be someone who already believes what you do. If they do, you aren't really arguing are you? 4. Think of at least 3 reasons why your reader should believe your thesis. Those reasons will be the main body part of essay africa your essay. The Hidden! 5. Think of examples or evidence which supports each of essay aids those reasons.

That is what you will use to support those three reasons. Essay! 6. Africa! What objections will your reader have? Write those out and also your answers to those objections. This will be a paragraph after your reasons. 7. For your conclusion think of what good will come if your reader believes you. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Hi katha- if you look at entrepreneurs born made essay, the bottom right blue box I have the essay, links to motivation sample essays.

These are student essays so they are published by my students under their own names here on essay, hubpages. Maybe I should move these up on the page so you can find them more easily. Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Samarah--Yes I think that vaccinating children is a very good topic. You can also narrow that to particular types of for great gatsby vaccinations that are new like the chickenpox vaccine or the HPV. Essay! Another possible argument on this topic is whether or not it is the hidden sins true that vaccines are the main reason for better health in people today than in aids africa the past. Is the essay, right to vaccinate children a good topic?

Virginia Kearney 3 years ago from United States. Africa! I think you can do something related to obesity or how different types of food are good or bad for your health. Or you can talk about GMO foods or organic or locally grown produce. Virginia Kearney 5 years ago from United States. Xstatic--I love the fact that you do have a position on everything--I like to of a good essay look at aids, all sides of things and paper paper term, that is great as an instructor teaching positions, because I can play the essay aids, devils advocate, but sometimes I do need to just nail down my own point of view! Jim Higgins 5 years ago from thesis in work motivation Eugene, Oregon. A great how to for position papers. I have not written one for essay africa, years, though I have a position on thesis in work, almost everything.

Useful Hub and aids africa, well done as usual. Copyright 2017 HubPages Inc. and see attached, respective owners. Other product and company names shown may be trademarks of their respective owners. HubPages ® is a registered Service Mark of HubPages, Inc. HubPages and essay, Hubbers (authors) may earn revenue on this page based on affiliate relationships and advertisements with partners including Amazon, Google, and born essay, others.

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Intro & Conclusion to Final Essay | African Development Portrayed in

Essays, Novels and the Question of ‘Experience’ It is easy to forget today that the essay and the novel were both forged in the publishing crucible of the periodical, and that for much of the eighteenth century the essay aids, two genres were very closely associated. As Gigante indicates in The Great Age of the English Essay , both early novelists and essayists inhabited ‘a pseudo-fictional space somewhere between a public sphere marked by cultural change and a more private, self-enclosed world’ (xv). They filtered many of their philosophical ruminations and social commentary through the medium of a narrative character, such as Steele’s ‘Isaac Bickerstaff’, Addison’s ‘Mr Spectator’, James Boswell’s ‘Hypochondriack’, or Samuel Johnson’s ‘Idler’. Again, like the born essay, novel, the periodical essay blurred the boundaries between factual reporting and make-believe (the preface of Daniel Defoe’s celebrated proto-novel, Robinson Crusoe (1719), for essay aids africa, example, presents Crusoe’s tale as ‘a just History of Fact,’ without ‘any Appearance of paper paper term Fiction in it’). It was only later, in the nineteenth century, as the novel became more overtly fictional and the critical essay more straightforwardly critical and reflective, that the two genres begin to diverge.

One reason behind this early intimacy between the essay and the novel is an ambiguity within the eighteenth-century understanding of ‘experience,’ which remained broad enough to accommodate notions of activity as well as receptivity. Essay Aids. Indeed, until the eighteenth century, the words ‘experience’ and ‘experiment’ are so closely connected that they are used more or less synonymously to mean the act of practical, tentative trial. John Bender, in his essay, ‘Novel Knowledge: Judgement, Experience, Experiment’ notes that, while the good, English term ‘experience’ and the French ‘experience’ are distinct (in that only the latter is africa, fully synonymous with ‘experiment’), experience and experiment ‘intertwine so richly, as in Hume’s discussions of judgement and probability in his Treatise of Human Nature, that they become elements in one conceptual domain’.[1] Samuel Johnson’s Dictionary further testifies to this continued intimacy, defining the noun ‘experience’ as ‘1. Practice; frequent trial’ and ‘2. Knowledge gained by trial and practice.’[2] This practical and social conception of experience spurred essayists and novelists to experiment with ‘experience’, and with the entrepreneurs, fictions of belief that made experience possible. As Locke’s philosophy of ideas developed throughout the eighteenth century, however, this picture gradually changes. Africa. As Bender notes, experimentalism was itself an extension of one branch of Francis Bacon’s model of essay for great knowledge, according to which knowledge was seen to occur ‘when general principles were determined through controlled analysis of particulars as they emerged from the essay africa, planned and specialised form of experience called the experiment.’[3] As the century progressed, experience as experiment became more methodical, more subject to scientific and entrepreneurs logical procedures determined by a Lockean, psychologised rendering of Bacon’s epistemology. This in turn triggered the emergence of an aids, alternative field of in work experience, one that was more holistic, anti-procedural, and based in psychological elements such as pure sensation, feeling, and emotion–topics that would be explored in the sentimental fiction of the late eighteenth century, in novels such as Henry Mackenzie’s The Man of Feeling (1771). Efforts by Romantic poets such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and Percy Bysshe Shelley to reunite experience by essay combining scientific experimentalism and ‘feeling’ merely revealed the extent to which these two different conceptions had become polarized by the early nineteenth century.

As this division hardened, the paths of the novel (devoted to fictional recreation of experience) and the reflective essay (dedicated to the scientific understanding of experience) continued to diverge. [1] John Bender, ‘Novel Knowledge: Judgement, Experience, Experiment,’ Fictions of Knowledge: Fact, Evidence, Doubt , eds. Motivation. Yota Batsaki, et al. Africa. (Palgrave Macmillan, 2012) 135. [2] Samuel Johnson, A Dictionary of the English Language , 4 th ed., vol 1 (London, 1777). [3] Bender, ‘Novel Knowledge’ 136. The Great Age of the English Essay. Recently, I’ve been rereading Denise Gigante’s wonderful anthology of eighteenth-century and Romantic-era periodical essays, The Great Age of the English Essay (Yale University Press, 2008). Gigante’s authoritative editorial introduction to file, the volume is scholarly and yet lively and readable, and I’d recommend it to anyone with an aids, interest in the subject.

The period of 1700-1830 was undoubtedly a Golden Age for the essay in the hidden sins essay, English literature. As Gigante notes, periodicals such as Richard Steele’s The Tatler (1710-11) and Joseph Addison’s The Spectator (1712-15) broke away from the conventions of their Restoration precursors, which had generally served as forums for bawdy gossip and scandal. Instead, the new periodical ‘set out to address a polite, mixed audience of middle-class readers’ (xxi). Essay Aids. The fundamental aim of the essay in the age of ‘Enlightenment’ was to instigate and foster intelligent conversation among a growing section of thesis in work motivation literate, urbane, middle-class readers who had little access to the levers of political power other than through the medium of literature and critical debate. Associated with this development is the africa, emergence in the early eighteenth century of the concept of the ‘Republic of Letters,’ access to see attached file, which depended more upon education and learning than upon class or even gender. It is this ‘Republic’ of polite letters that the philosopher and social theorist Jurgen Habermas (in his seminal The Structural Transformation of the Public Sphere [1962]) labelled as the ‘Public Sphere.’ Focused largely in the clubs and coffee-houses of the aids africa, capital, the Public Sphere was an intellectual space in which merchants and entrepreneurs born made aristocrats met on relatively equal terms to engage in essay, debate upon any topic of interest.

In the first number of The Spectator , Mr Spectator describes himself as an eavesdropper on the hidden these very conversations: There is no place of general resort, wherein I do not often make my appearance; sometimes I am seen thrusting my head into a round of politicians and Will’s, and aids listening with great attention to thesis in work motivation, the narratives that are made in those little circular audiences. Sometimes I smoke a pipe at Child ‘s; and essay aids africa whilst I seem attentive to the hidden essay, nothing but the Post-Man , over-hear the conversation at every table in africa, the room. I appear on Sunday nights at St. James ‘s Coffee-House, and sometimes join the little committee of politicians in the inner room, as one who comes there to sins, hear and improve. My face is very well known at africa, the Graecian , the Cocoa-Tree , and in sins, the theatres both of africa Drury-Lane and the Hay-Market . As Habermas points out, the birth of the modern periodical essay coincides with the advent of this modern notion of the ‘public’ as a sphere of sins open, critical debate. In fact, this is essay aids, more than just a coincidence: the periodical essay becomes both the embodiment of, and a medium for, bourgeois ideology.

Early essays were instrumental in forging a identity for an emerging British middle-class, one defined around notions of tolerance, civic virtue, practical wisdom and (above all) free debate. Consequently, the newly formed ‘Public Sphere’ comes to be defined through the very activities detailed and celebrated by the essayists: debate, criticism, conversation, toleration. Motivation. Habermas observes that in the Tatler , the Spectator , and aids the Guardian ‘the public held up a mirror to itself; it did not yet come to a self-understanding through the college paper paper paper term, detour of a reflection on works of philosophy and literature, art and science, but through entering itself into “literature” as an object.’ Accordingly, ‘[t]he public that read and debated this sort of thing read and debated about aids africa, itself.’ (43) One of the great attractions of the good essay, ‘essay’ (a word that is etymologically linked to the words ‘trial’ and ‘attempt’) is the way in which it relieves writers of the wearisome business of having to justify their efforts or explain what they are broadly ‘about’. The essay bypasses the preludium and cuts straight to the main action. Essay Aids. Rather than setting out from the see attached file, start of a topic, it plunges straight into the middle. One of the essay, great English essayists, Charles Lamb, recognised this aspect of the essay’s character. Indeed, in one his best-known essays, ‘The Old Margate Hoy’ (1823), he introduces a figure who uncannily resembles the essayist himself. Thesis For Great Gatsby. Recounting a sea trip upon the eponymous vessel during a miserable holiday to the south coast of England, Lamb describes one of essay africa his fellow passengers in the following terms:

He was a dark, Spanish complexioned young man, remarkably handsome, with an officer-like assurance, and an insuppressible volubility of assertion. He was, in fact, the greatest liar I had met with then, or since. He was none of your hesitating, half story-tellers (a most painful description of mortals) who go on sounding your belief, and only giving you as much as they see you can swallow at a time–the nibbling pickpockets of your patience–but one who committed downright, daylight depredations upon his neighbour’s faith. Essay Thesis. He did not stand shivering upon essay africa the brink, but was a hearty thorough-paced liar, and plunged at once into the depths of your credulity. Charles Lamb, ‘The Old Margate Hoy,’ ( The Works of Charles and Mary Lamb , ed. E.V. Thesis In Work Motivation. Lucas, vol. 2 (London, Methuen Co., 1903) 178) Rather than causing offence or annoyance, the tall tales of the ‘Spanish complexioned young man’ (such as how he had served as Aid-de-camp to essay aids africa, a Persian prince, seen a phoenix in Egypt and sailed through the legs of the Colossus at Rhodes) offer a welcome respite from the tedium of the boat trip.

As Lamb puts it, ‘[h]is dreaming fancies had transported us beyond the “ignorant present.”‘ ( Works 179) Similarly, Lamb’s method as an essayist is to play a delicate game with the good faith of his reader. Entrepreneurs Made. Instead of attempting to earn credit through argument and persuasion, he immediately adopts a posture of familiarity. Lamb wrote most of his essays for the London Magazine under the pen-name and the persona of ‘Elia.’ Like the liar which his very name evokes, ‘Elia’ dives straight into his reader’s confidence. It’s interesting to note that by doing so, however, he does not forfeit our trust. In the essay genre, as on essay africa the deck of the old ‘Margate Hoy’, there is an implicit recognition that the normal rules of the hidden sins social intercourse are suspended. One might take this further, and essay aids argue that what the essay as a genre suggests is that the thesis motivation, ‘leap of aids faith,’ or act of trust is fundamental to all human communication. It’s tempting to think of language is a medium for expressing what we have already thought. In reality, however, we never get to construct our thoughts in a kind of intellectual dry dock; instead, like the see attached, essayist, we must first dive into conversation, and essay then build our vessel at of a good, sea.

The problem of how to begin is an unavoidable one for any writer. There are few things as daunting as the icy wastes of an empty page. At some point or other, one must launch oneself onto essay africa the great white wall of the blank screen (or, for those of us who still use them, the sheet of paper) and begin a slow, faltering descent in black script into what it is one has to say. To begin anything from such a position is to take a leap of faith. There is no way of knowing, at the beginning, whether such a leap will turn out to have been in any way worthwhile. In fact, I’m already experiencing a number of quite justifiable doubts about the one I’m taking here. The essay genre, the history and theory of which will (I hope) become the main focus of ‘Periodical’, offers a unique and radical solution to this perennial problem of beginning. Unlike many other genres, the entrepreneurs made essay, essay does not observe the essay africa, usual niceties of starting a conversation with its reader.

It does not salute you or introduce itself, it does not wipe its feet carefully on paper term term term the doormat of your attention, shaking your hand and carefully preparing you for the thoughts that it is about to impart. Instead, the essay dispenses with introductions. It accosts the reader with an entirely unwarranted but seductive air of intimacy. This template was set by the father of the africa, modern essay, Michel de Montaigne. In his Essais (1580), Montaigne claimed to file, write for nobody but himself. Aids Africa. As he writes in his essay ‘Of Practice’ (1573-74): ‘What I write here is not my teaching, but my study; it is not a lesson for paper paper term term, others, but for me’ ( The Complete Essays of Michel de Montaigne , ed. Donald M. Aids Africa. Frame (Stanford University Press, 1958) 272). See Attached File. By claiming to write for himself alone, Montaigne granted himself a license to be more open, and consequently more intimate with his reader:

What I chiefly portray is my cogitations, a shapeless subject that does not lend itself to expression in actions. […] I expose myself entire: my portrait is a cadaver on which the veins, the muscles, and the tendons appear at essay aids, a glance, each part in its place. ( Complete Essays 247) This attitude also enabled Montaigne to follow his thoughts wherever they tended and regardless of their ‘shapeless’ content. The Essais are often confessional and consciously unmethodical. Their titles reflect topics (‘Parley Time is Dangerous,’ ‘Of Moderation,’ ‘Of the Parsimony of the Ancients’) that follow no obvious plan or programme but which reflect the contingent nature of Montaigne’s interests at any particular time. Indeed, in many ways they are the in work motivation, ancestors of the modern blog, the aids africa, writer of which has inherited many of the qualities of Montaigne’s essayist.

The reader can rest assured that the author of this blog will not be peeling back his skin, a la Montaigne, to sins essay, expose the veins, muscles and tendons of his inner life. What I hope to do, however, is to start an unmethodical conversation about that most unmethodical and essay africa conversational of literary genres: the essay.