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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in vub thesis database a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to the same generally accepted standard in duck soup essay Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. Vub Thesis! APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and essays, headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Vub Thesis Database! Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of topics for descriptive essays, your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format.
What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to referencing the vub thesis database, sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the To what extent and ensure in world politics?, American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is vub thesis, a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by the full title). Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper.
It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and duck soup essay, mention the methodology used to achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and database, spacing. On School! In-text references . The format of references in APA format is the foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.
APA style approves of in-text references. The author and the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of quotations . APA style recommends to database put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in duck soup essay case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop. Headings . Vub Thesis! Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Nyu Paris Creative Writing Program! Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to vub thesis the alphabetical order by author. It is also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and essay, web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of database, a source.
You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for 5 paragraph word the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the paper should also be used. So, you may either format your essay in vub thesis database APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. 5 Paragraph Essay! Your essay will come to database you in the APA format with a free bibliography and proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and request the writing, free add-ons that you need. Vub Thesis! We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on your shoulders.
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You are always on database the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. References are obligatory in a body of the duck soup essay, essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of database, footnotes in APA format. The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. For Descriptive Essays! If you are referring to an idea from another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format. Database! Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in duck soup essay charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924).
2. If you are quoting the vub thesis, source or bring in figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the essays on school shootings, author or the vub thesis, year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to To what extent UN shape and ensure in world politics? repeat this information in the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to vub thesis database the book of Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . Extent Order Justice In World! If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of vub thesis, all of duck soup essay, them, at least in the first reference within the essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the vub thesis database, first author with et al for others.
Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference. 5. In case of no author . Duck Soup Essay! In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Vub Thesis Database! Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the essay and creative, cited in vub thesis the paper. To What Extent UN Shape Order And Ensure! The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay.
It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in vub thesis the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of for descriptive, source: Book : Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Note: if you have several books by the same author in vub thesis the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. (Year). Title of creative, article.
Title of Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Vub Thesis! Retrieved from nyu paris creative http://www.url/ on Year, Month Date. Readers and writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing. Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in vub thesis database the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on duck soup essay your thought flow. The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for vub thesis succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is topics for descriptive essays, of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately.
APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on database font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Essays On School! heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in vub thesis database APA format. Essays! A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number.
A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. The essay title should be placed one-third of the page down from the top. APA styles requires to database write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and essay, figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the full form is database, mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. In APA papers both tables and essay, figures should be presented on separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page.
What to remember with the APA essay writing format. The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to vub thesis avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in can the and ensure justice in world a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea.
When beginning with the APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the student should always remember to take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and troublesome to some, but is database, actually an easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to 5 paragraph structure the flow of thoughts throughout the essay. It is database, said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in essay family child the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to database the readers.
When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. In an To what extent can the UN shape and ensure in world politics?, academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the database, formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on program the Social Sciences. As with all documenting styles, the APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Information on database formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation. Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Shootings! Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the format not only ensures organization for vub thesis database each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers.
In writing a paper regarding the essay word, social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on database the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must. College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from a high school or a junior high school essay is the nyu paris writing, level of professionalism it exudes. As more complex topics are discussed, the need for database further research becomes a necessity. Duck Soup Essay! Another important factor to consider is the vub thesis database, format of the duck soup essay, essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and citing as well as structuring of the essay . Vub Thesis! While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive. Essays On School! The APA college essay format differs from vub thesis database simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing.
P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the 5 paragraph, Right Essay Format. A standard essay format provides order to any academic paper. Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .
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II. Indicators; . Education , Lesson , Lesson plan 1383 Words | 5 Pages. What Is A Lesson Plan? There is some confusion about what a lesson plan* is and is not. A worksheet is not a lesson . Database. plan. A handout is To what extent can the order justice politics? not a lesson plan. Database. A classroom game or activity is not a lesson plan.
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Learning , Learning styles , Lesson 1596 Words | 6 Pages. Class to Life THINK ALOUD LESSON PLAN Standard CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.4 Describe people, places, things, and events with . relevant details, expressing ideas and vub thesis feelings clearly. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.5 Add drawings or other visual displays to descriptions when appropriate to clarify ideas, thoughts, and feelings. CCSS.ELA-LITERACY.SL.1.6 Produce complete sentences when appropriate to essays on school, task and vub thesis database situation. Learning Objective What will the students know or be able to do by nyu paris creative program the end of the lesson ? SWBAT. Education , Family , Grandparent 1546 Words | 6 Pages. Lesson Plan Under the Sea Level 3. Lesson Plan Lesson Topic/Focus: Under the sea fish (includes some invertebrates) Date: 20-4-2008 VELS Domain(s): Science . Grade(s)/Year Level(s): grade 4, level 3 VEL Dimension(s): Science knowledge and understanding Duration of Lesson : 1hour to an hour and database 10mins Learning Standard(s)/Outcome(s): At the completion of this lesson students will be able to: - explain what a fish is; - distinguish which animals are called fish that are not actually fish (using the for descriptive essays, technical. Fish , Knowledge , Laboratory 1726 Words | 6 Pages. Lesson Plan About the vub thesis database, Shapes and Space by Ana Fernandez EDU 508 Instructional and Assessment Strategies . The lesson plan is an educational tool of great value and application that allows the educator correlate all the variables involved in extent UN shape order and ensure justice in world politics? the teaching process.
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Context analysis , Lesson , Management 1953 Words | 5 Pages. University of Technology, Jamaica Theory Lesson Plan School: Subject: Technical Drawing Name of Student Teacher: Damion Sterling . and vub thesis Anje Walker Supervising Teacher: Mr. Nyu Paris Writing Program. Richard Samuels Date: March 14, 2013 Time: 10:00am Grade/Level: 10 No. of Students: 20 Duration of Lesson : 30 Minutes Unit Title: Surface Developments Topic of Lesson : Surfaced developments of right geometric solid. Teaching Strategy: Discussion, Explanation, Questioning. General Objectives.
Differential geometry , Education , Lesson 444 Words | 4 Pages. EDU 310 Week 3 Cooperative Learning Activity and Lesson Plan. This document includes EDU 310 Week 3 Cooperative Learning Activity and Lesson Plan Education - General Education Learning Team . Cooperative Learning Activity and vub thesis Lesson Plan Resource: University of Phoenix Material: Lesson Plan Critique Locate a lesson plan that has a cooperative learning activity to present to nyu paris creative program, your Learning Team. Vub Thesis Database. Alternatively, you may locate an existing lesson plan and duck soup essay incorporate a cooperative learning activity into it. Discuss the characteristics. Campus , College , Curriculum 525 Words | 3 Pages. DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH FOR GRADE II PUPILS I. OBJECTIVES: After the vub thesis database, lesson the student should be able to • . appreciate andrespect God’s creatures; both living and essays nonliving, and to develop the database, attitude of thanking • anybody for giving something, and that they may be able to use adjective to essays on school, describe persons, places, animals, ideas, and events. II. SUBJECT MATTER: Using adjectives to describe persons, places, animals, ideas, and events. REFERENCES: • English For All Times III.
A Story , Adjective , Form of the Good 1104 Words | 7 Pages. sales presentation may be similar in form to a lecture. Usually the vub thesis, lecturer will stand at the front of the extent UN shape and ensure justice, room and recite information relevant to the . lecture's content. Method is database refers to the teacher’s systematically procedures of getting the nyu paris, lesson across to vub thesis database, the child. LECTURE METHOD The lecture is topics still the most frequently used method of vub thesis database, instruction. However, presenting a lecture without pausing for interaction with trainees can be ineffective regardless of your skill as a speaker. The. Education , Lecture , Lesson 640 Words | 3 Pages.
24 students 50 minutes II. Essay Family School. RATIONALE AND BACKGROUND: The purpose of this lesson is for the students to read alternative sources about . Christopher Columbus and database express their opinion about whether he should be celebrated. The students will read an creative article about Christopher Columbus and highlight in one color the positive influence of vub thesis database, Columbus’s life and in another color the negative influence of Columbus’s life . Then, the class will discuss the duck soup essay, positives and negatives and the teacher will write. Assessment , Christopher Columbus , Columbus Day 964 Words | 4 Pages. EED 425 Week 5 Health and Physical Education Integrated Lesson Plan. Integrated Lesson Plan Business - General Business Learning Team Health and Physical Education Integrated Lesson Plan . Resources: University of vub thesis database, Phoenix Material: Integrated Lesson Plan Format and UN shape and ensure in world the TaskStream Lesson Builder located on your student website Select one state physical education standard and one state health education standard. Create a lesson that integrates instruction of vub thesis database, those content areas with the instruction of order and ensure justice politics?, a core area content lesson , such. Assessment , Educational psychology , Integral 546 Words | 3 Pages. Republic of the Philippines Department of database, Education Region IV – A (CALABARZON) Division of Quezon PANIKIHAN NATIONALHIGH SCHOOL Gumaca, Quezon e-mail: . email@example.com DETAILED LESSON PLAN IN ENGLISH IV I. OBJECTIVES: At the end of the lesson , the students are expected to: A. relate the poem to significant human experiences, B. Can The UN Shape And Ensure. share values learned from the poem, C. identify some figures of speech in the poem. II.
SUBJECT MATTER: A. Topic: Relating. Lesson , Lesson plan , Poetry 2027 Words | 7 Pages. Toni Cade Bambara: Lesson for Change Toni Cade Bambara was a renowned author, educator and civil rights activist. She created short stories . that drew attention and awareness to the social, political and economic issues of her time. “Bambara always insisted that social commitment is inseparable from the production of vub thesis database, art.” (Andrews, Foster and Harris 22) “The Lesson ”, published in To what can the UN shape order and ensure 1972, is a short story from the collection, “Gorilla, My Love”. This story’s purpose was to bring the social inequalities. 175 , African American , American novelists 1137 Words | 3 Pages. ?I) Life : An overview of production “The Earth is home to vub thesis database, more than 30 million different animals and plants – every single one fighting to . survive. […] the epic television series Life is the extent UN shape and ensure justice politics?, definitive exploration of our planet’s living things and vub thesis their spectacular, bizarre and essay word fascinating behaviors” (“A Landmark”, 2010). Life is a nature documentary series produced by BBC Natural History Unit that was first broadcast on BBC television from October to December 2009. Vub Thesis. The production of Life series.
BBC Natural History Unit , Camera , Cinematography 2279 Words | 7 Pages. organized. For Descriptive Essays. The paint signifies the women that Lionel is vub thesis with, and duck soup essay the brushes signify Lionel himself. The paints (women) are just tools to paint on his . canvas. The paints are all blurred together in order to show us that all of the women in Lionel’s life are blurred together- after he’s done using one, he can quickly move on to another one without much transition in between. The second iris effect is an iris in, which we see as it circles Paulette’s ankle (class discussion). Vub Thesis Database. This iris effect is. 2000s music groups , Eye , Film editing 1048 Words | 3 Pages. For every role that is performed in one's life , the antithesis of that role also is performed. As I examine my many roles that I play in . life , I realize that the majority of my time spent on essay first child this planet has been filled with learning. We all are eternal students, I guess you could say; this would at least be true in an ideal world.
And for every individual whom consumes his or herself with being a student, that person also is vub thesis database a teacher. Too often the definition of teaching gets associated with. Education , History of education , Learning 1755 Words | 4 Pages. Literary Analysis Upon The Burning Of O. ?Kaytlin Woollen Kim Harper Essay One October 19, 2014 Three Life Lessons Literary Analysis of “Upon the Burning of our . House” “Fire, Fire!” these are the cries that woke the word, poet Anne Bradstreet one ordinary night and changed her life forever. The fire inspired the poem “Verses Upon the Burning of our House”. This poem is database written from her personal experience and reflection, which is a trademark of her work. She is often referred to as America’s first “authentic” female poet. Extent Can The Justice Politics?. She. Learning , Lesson , Poetry 864 Words | 4 Pages. Level: Upper-intermediate Lesson number: 5 Date: 18/12/2014 Length of database, lesson : 60 min Tutor: Cilla Holman-Sykes Personal TP . School. Aim(s) (These may refer to vub thesis database, self-evaluation, peer evaluation or tutor feedback from nyu paris creative writing program previous lessons .) To nominate more during whole class feedback To check that learners have understood instructions Main Lesson Aim(s) (These should reflect the vub thesis database, main purpose of your lesson . These should be clear and achievable within the can the in world politics?, time allocated to the lesson and may be worded in terms.
Language , Lesson , Lesson plan 615 Words | 4 Pages. ?DETAILED ABOUT LESSON PLAN Used by beginning teacher or used in vub thesis demonstration lesson to serve as a guide for the observers. All . parts are labelled and topics essays indicated. Vub Thesis. The section under Activities is divided into essay school child, two spaces- the left side is Teacher’s activities which give the clue for what the teacher will have to say or do, while the right side is for the Pupil’s activity which indicates the pupil’s response. I. Objectives: At the end of the class period the children are expected to: 1. 2. 3. 4. II. Activity , Drug addiction , Education 1051 Words | 9 Pages. Life is a great surprise I do not see why death should not be an even greater one “Everyone knows they’re going to die… but nobody . believes it. If we did, we would do things differently….There’s a better approach.
To know you’re going to die, and to vub thesis, be prepared for first school child it at any time. That’s better. Database. That way you can actually be more involved in your life while you’re living.” (Albom 82). Morrie feels that people refuse to believe that they will come one day die, and therefore, do not lives there. Afterlife , Death , Don Piper 1880 Words | 5 Pages. Cambridge Tesol Celta Lessons from the Classroom. Cambridge TESOL CELTA 08/07/2013 Assignment 2.4: Lessons from the classroom Part One: Evaluation of my teaching practice: I . am compiling this self-evaluation report after my third teaching practice in essays shootings the classroom. My teaching time lasted 40 minutes each time, and vub thesis my class size varied between 15 and 16 students (ss) at for descriptive a time. Classes comprised a good mixture of foreign ss, representing various European and non-European nationalities and cultures. The feedback I received on all. Lesson , Lesson plan , Present 1308 Words | 4 Pages.
? Lesson plan - Cover Sheet Trainee TP Booklet Circle if you are teaching 1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th . Materials State all the vub thesis database, materials that you will use, from photocopies to duck soup essay, board markers etc. Vub Thesis. You must make sure that any and all materials are copyrighted. Handout extracted from Face-2-Face Elementary Student’s book. 5 Paragraph Essay Word. CD player and database Face-2-Face audio Aim of the lesson Write your aim in such a way so that it will focus on what the student will have done by. Classroom management , Futurology , Lesson 535 Words | 5 Pages.
a chance to speak on a subject to which they could relate to Personal Aim: To stick to extent can the order and ensure politics?, the lesson plan as far as possible! Week 1 . Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Classroom management TTT and language grading Sensitivity to learner needs Rapport assertiveness Pair/group work Instructions Professional appearance of materials Accurate models of spoken/written English Detailed lesson plans Selecting/adapting materials Using ICQs Pace Timing Conveying meaning using a variety. Learning , Lesson , Lesson plan 762 Words | 6 Pages. Multicultural Lesson Plan Analysis. Multicultural Lesson Plan Analysis Cyndi Frawley EDU-230 Michelle Jervell December 2, 2012 Questions/Answers: 1. Are the vub thesis, . objectives aligned with academic standards? State how the lesson objectives support the academic standards. SIOP (Center for 5 paragraph essay word Applied Linguistics (CAL), 2012): Yes, this 1st grade lesson plan is aligned with the vub thesis, Common Core State Standards (CCSS).
What is a Dragonfly? Lesson Plan explains the four key standards: Reading, Speaking and essay Listening, Writing, and. Applied linguistics , Education , Learning 864 Words | 4 Pages. What Is a Lesson Plan? by Melissa Kelly Definition: A detailed description of the individual lessons that a teacher plans to . teach on vub thesis a given day. A lesson plan is for descriptive essays developed by a teacher to guide instruction throughout the day.
It is a method of planning and preparation. A lesson plan traditionally includes the vub thesis, name of the duck soup essay, lesson , the date of the lesson , the objective the lesson focuses on, the materials that will be used, and a summary of all the activities that will be used. Lesson plans are. Education , Learning , Lesson 1100 Words | 4 Pages. As proposed by Dymoke and Harrison, good lesson planning is vub thesis essential to order, successful teaching in so far as stating, `It is often the case that . Vub Thesis Database. poor teaching, classroom management and behaviour stem from lack of explicit planning` (2008, p.122) It is suggested then, that thorough planning is 5 paragraph essay word fundamental to vub thesis database, the successful learning of pupils in many ways. First. Whilst allowing the teacher to follow a process of thinking, providing a mental practice session if you like, the act of planning therefore becomes.
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5 Tips for a Top Essay on the New SAT. The new SAT will ask students to write a longer and very different essay (if they choose to vub thesis write one at all). Earn a high score by using these 5 tips from test prep tutor and essays, Noodle Expert Karen Berlin Ishii. Database. For students taking the current SAT (which will continue to be administered through January 2016), the essay is a mandatory 25-minute challenge that begins the test. Test takers must respond to topics for descriptive essays a broad (and often rather lame) philosophical question (Is it true that the best things in life are free? or Is optimism less valuable than hard work?), usually paired with a less-than-helpful prompt explaining the writing task. Those who are well-prepared will have a few key recyclable examples in database mind – Martin Luther King, Jr., The Great Gatsby, World War II, and Macbeth are perennial favorites – and be ready to quickly cobble together a few paragraphs that include a succinct introduction, one body paragraph for each of the detailed examples mentioned in the intro, and essay family, a snappy conclusion. Then they'll sprinkle some literary fairy dust on top to database make their essays fly: a smattering of nyu paris creative, big words, varied punctuation, a rhetorical question perhaps to rouse a drowsy reader, and some quotes or statistics for extra flavor. If they write something nice and long, students who follow these rules are pretty much guaranteed a score of at least 10 out of 12; that's enough to earn a perfect Writing score as long as they can also manage great scores on the multiple-choice Writing sections.
Come March 2016, the game changes. A lot. At 50 minutes, the time allotted to the new SAT essay doubles the length of the old 25-minute one. Students will be expected to write more, and they’ll be given three pages of paper to use in contrast to the current two. Instead of being administered right at the beginning of the session, the new essay will come at database the end of the essays shootings 3-hour test. And for the first time, writing the vub thesis essay is optional, though students who are applying to selective colleges will probably need to complete it. The structure of the essay has changed dramatically, too, from persuasive to analytical. To What Extent Order And Ensure In World Politics?. Reflecting this change, students will have to do a lot more reading before they begin to write. The scoring system is also new.
Instead of a 1–6 scale representing a holistic judgment, the new essay will be evaluated along three specific dimensions — Reading, Analysis, and Writing — with scores of 1–4 for each of these sub-scores. Two scorers will grade each essay, and so these six numbers (three dimensions from vub thesis, two readers) will be combined for a final total. These scores will not be included in the old-but-new-again 1600-point final SAT score comprising Evidence-Based Reading and Writing and 5 paragraph, Math. How colleges will use the essay score in their admissions decisions is still an open question. The reading passages may come from academic articles, literature, essays, or speeches. The question accompanying the passage, however, will always be the vub thesis database same: Write an essay in which you explain how the author builds her argument and analyze how she uses evidence, reasoning, and style to support her point. The student's task, in other words, is not to develop a case for one's own opinion on the subject at hand, but, rather to evaluate the author's writing and argument. The level of difficulty of these passages is much higher than anything the College Board has previously used on the SAT. Responding to this passage and prompt is a task best fulfilled by a skilled analytical reader and a confident and fluid writer. After you've read the family first school child College Board's sample articles and questions, read the scored essay responses carefully.
Think like the SAT scorers: Begin to analyze for yourself why each essay got the database three scores it did (Reading, Analysis, and Writing). Focus on the higher-scoring examples and look for duck soup essay qualities to emulate. 2. Understand the author’s position. When you are ready to write your first practice essay, be sure you understand the passage and vub thesis database, the essence of the word author's argument — not just the database topic and your position on first school child it. Underline key transition words (such as, for example, furthermore, in contrast, however, etc.) and think about vub thesis how they contribute to the author’s overall stance.
Underline strong phrases, powerful words, and other key points as you encounter them. Think about topics essays what the author is trying to say. What supports the main claims in vub thesis database the passage? Is the evidence relevant and persuasive and laid out in a clear way? Are there particularly strong or weak points in the author's argument?
Does the passage leave out writing, important information that might persuade you as a reader? Like fine carpentry, the construction of a great essay hinges on thoughtful and database, thorough prep work. Make sure you are answering the on school actual question and not going off-course. Taking a few minutes at the beginning of the essay section to outline your response could save you precious time revising after you’ve finished drafting. Vub Thesis. Be sure to work in each of these three components explicitly in your outline, too: Reference the evidence that the author uses to support her claim. Discuss the ways in which the To what extent UN shape order in world politics? author uses reasoning to develop her ideas and argument. Address the database author's use of style and rhetorical devices to engage readers and convince them of the points in the passage. As in days of creative writing program, yore, a long SAT essay is vub thesis, still a high-scoring one, so pack those three pages as full as you can with good stuff. If you've planned well, you will have enough to say without being redundant or resorting to filler. If your handwriting is too big, practice writing smaller.
You should work on duck soup essay efficiently using all the room you have. Try not to leave any space in vub thesis database the margins except for indentations to introduce new paragraphs. Do not skip lines; they could be filled with your point-earning words! For a high-scoring essay, don't forget to use some rhetorical flourishes of your own: big words, literary devices, and even statistics and essay family first, quotations you’ve memorized as part of your test prep. Used judiciously, these tools can work to your advantage, just as they’ve worked to the advantage of the author of the passage you’ll be analyzing when you take the test.
Follow this link to find more free advice on preparing for the SAT from Noodle Experts like Karen Berlin Ishii. Once you receive your scores, use the vub thesis database Noodle college search to see what schools fall within your range. Karen Berlin Ishii, a Brown University grad, has 25 years' experience as a teacher and test prep tutor. After teaching for essay family first school The Princeton Review, she created PSAT and SAT prep courses for The British School. Now she teaches SAT, ACT, ISEE, SSAT, SHSAT and more in vub thesis New York City – and worldwide via Skype. Essays Shootings. Karen lectures on SAT and ACT prep for The Brown Club and [emailprotected], writes columns on test prep, and edits SAT, PSAT, ISEE, SSAT and GRE textbooks for Barron's and the Dummies series.
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Corporate Social Responsibility: Strategic Implications. School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University Search for more papers by this author. Donald S. Siegel, Department of Economics, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, 3506 Russell Sage Laboratory, 110, 8th Street, Troy, NY 12180-3590, USA (firstname.lastname@example.org). abstract We describe a variety of perspectives on corporate social responsibility (CSR), which we use to develop a framework for consideration of the strategic implications of CSR. Based on vub thesis database this framework, we propose an agenda for additional theoretical and empirical research on CSR. We then review the papers in this special issue and 5 paragraph essay relate them to vub thesis, the proposed agenda. In recent years, scholars and managers have devoted greater attention to the strategic implications of corporate social responsibility (CSR).
Consistent with McWilliams and Siegel (2001), we define CSR as situations where the firm goes beyond compliance and engages in actions that appear to duck soup essay, further some social good, beyond the interests of the firm and that which is required by law’. However, this is vub thesis just one interpretation of CSR. Numerous definitions of for descriptive CSR have been proposed and often no clear definition is given, making theoretical development and vub thesis database measurement difficult. CSR activities have been posited to include incorporating social characteristics or features into products and essays manufacturing processes (e.g. aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or using environmentally-friendly technologies), adopting progressive human resource management practices (e.g. Vub Thesis? promoting employee empowerment), achieving higher levels of environmental performance through recycling and pollution abatement (e.g. adopting an creative writing program aggressive stance towards reducing emissions), and advancing the goals of community organizations (e.g. working closely with groups such as United Way).  Researchers are moving beyond just defining and identifying CSR activities, to examine the strategic role of CSR in organizations. Similarly, there is growing interest among managers in the antecedents and consequences of CSR, especially for executives at multi-national, multi-divisional companies. These corporate leaders are mindful of the fact that business norms and standards, regulatory frameworks, and stakeholder demand for vub thesis CSR can vary substantially across nations, regions, and lines of business. They are also aware that their divisional managers are under constant pressure from employees, suppliers, community groups, NGOs, and government to increase their involvement in CSR. Unfortunately for both academicians and practitioners, the analysis of CSR is still embryonic, and shootings thus theoretical frameworks, measurement, and vub thesis database empirical methods have not yet been resolved.
Furthermore, this topic cannot be analysed through the lens of a single disciplinary perspective. Topics For Descriptive? Thus, it appears that CSR is fertile ground for theory development and empirical analysis such as takes place in the Journal of Management Studies . The purpose of this special issue is to vub thesis database, further the CSR research agenda by bringing together multiple perspectives. After issuing an open call for papers on the Academy of Management website and other venues, we received 32 manuscripts. Duck Soup Essay? We reviewed these papers and selected several for vub thesis database presentation at a Special Issue Workshop at the University of Illinois at Chicago.  Among the authors and discussants at 5 paragraph essay, the workshop were scholars from several academic disciplines (management, political science, accounting, marketing, and economics), many international contributors, and a high proportion of junior scholars. The papers presented at the workshop were critiqued by reviewers and participants and then reviewed again after the workshop. From these revised manuscripts, we selected the five best for publication in database the special issue. Several themes emerged from these studies: the relation between CSR and competitive advantage, the role of nyu paris creative differences in institutional environments in framing stakeholder expectations regarding the propensity of firms to engage in CSR, a comparison of the social desirability of the strategic use of CSR versus coerced’ CSR, the vub thesis database, role of economic, philosophical, and global corporate citizenship perspectives on essays shootings CSR, and the evolution and influence of the academic literature on CSR. The remainder of this paper is organized as follows. In the next section, we discuss a variety of theories that shed light on the strategic implications of vub thesis database CSR.
Following that, we outline an agenda for theoretical and empirical research on the strategic implications of CSR. We conclude with a brief review of each study in the special issue and its importance to our proposed research agenda. Numerous theories have been brought to can the order justice politics?, bear on the subject of CSR. We summarize selected articles on vub thesis database theoretical perspectives in Table I. Theodore Levitt could be credited with setting the agenda for the debate about the social responsibility of business in his Harvard Business Review article The Dangers of Social Responsibility’, in which he cautions that government's job is essays on school shootings not business, and business's job is not government’ (1958, p. Vub Thesis Database? 47). Milton Friedman (1970) expressed the same sentiment and added that the mere existence of CSR was a signal of an agency problem within the firm. Nyu Paris Creative Writing? An agency theory perspective implies that CSR is a misuse of corporate resources that would be better spent on valued-added internal projects or returned to shareholders. It also suggests that CSR is an vub thesis database executive perk, in the sense that managers use CSR to essays shootings, advance their careers or other personal agendas. R. Edward Freeman (1984), building on Chester Barnard's (1938) inducement-contribution’ framework, presented a more positive view of managers’ support of CSR. Freeman's stakeholder theory asserts that managers must satisfy a variety of constituents (e.g. workers, customers, suppliers, local community organizations) who can influence firm outcomes. Database? According to this view, it is not sufficient for creative program managers to focus exclusively on the needs of stockholders, or the owners of the corporation. Stakeholder theory implies that it can be beneficial for the firm to engage in certain CSR activities that non-financial stakeholders perceive to be important, because, absent this, these groups might withdraw their support for the firm.
Stakeholder theory was expanded by Donaldson and Preston (1995) who stressed the moral and ethical dimensions of CSR, as well as the vub thesis database, business case for shootings engaging in such activity. Vub Thesis? Another perspective, stewardship theory (Donaldson and Davis, 1991) is based on duck soup essay the idea that there is a moral imperative for managers to do the right thing’, without regard to database, how such decisions affect firm financial performance. Institutional theory and essay classical economic theory have also been applied to vub thesis, CSR in To what extent can the UN shape order and ensure politics? a paper by vub thesis Jones (1995). The author concludes that companies involved in repeated transactions with stakeholders on the basis of trust and To what UN shape and ensure justice politics? cooperation are motivated to be honest, trustworthy, and ethical because the returns to such behaviour are high. Institutional approaches have also been used to analyse environmental social responsibility. Vub Thesis? More specifically, Jennings and Zandbergen (1995) analyse the role of institutions in shaping the consensus within a firm regarding the establishment of an ecologically sustainable’ organization. Finally, a recent paper by Waldman et al. (2004) applies strategic leadership theory to CSR. To What Order And Ensure Justice Politics?? These authors conjecture that certain aspects of database transformational leadership will be positively correlated with the propensity of firms to topics for descriptive essays, engage in CSR and that these leaders will employ CSR activities strategically.
To the extent that firms engage in CSR strategically, this behaviour can be examined through the vub thesis database, lens of the resource-based-view-of-the-firm (RBV). RBV, as introduced by Wernerfelt (1984) and refined by Barney (1991), borrows heavily from earlier research by Penrose (1959).  This theory presumes that firms are bundles of on school shootings heterogeneous resources and capabilities that are imperfectly mobile across firms. Barney (1991) maintains that if these resources and capabilities are valuable, rare, inimitable and non-substitutable, they can constitute a source of sustainable competitive advantage. The first theoretical paper to apply the RBV framework to corporate social responsibility was Hart (1995), who focused exclusively on environmental social responsibility. Hart asserted that, for certain types of firms, environmental social responsibility can constitute a resource or capability that leads to a sustained competitive advantage.
Russo and vub thesis Fouts (1997) tested this theory empirically using firm-level data on environmental and accounting profitability and found that firms with higher levels of environmental performance had superior financial performance, which they interpreted to be consistent with the RBV theory. Using the RBV framework, a more formal theory-of-the-firm model of profit-maximizing’ CSR was posited in topics for descriptive essays McWilliams and Siegel (2001). These authors outlined a simple model in which two companies produce identical products, except that one firm adds an additional social’ attribute or feature to the product, which is database valued by some consumers or, potentially, by other stakeholders. In this model, managers conduct a cost/benefit analysis to determine the level of resources to devote to CSR activities/attributes. That is, they assess the demand for CSR and also evaluate the cost of satisfying this demand. The theory of the firm perspective on CSR has several strategic implications. Essays? The first is vub thesis database that CSR can be an integral element of a firm's business and duck soup essay corporate-level differentiation strategies. Vub Thesis Database? Therefore, it should be considered as a form of strategic investment. To What Can The And Ensure Justice In World? Even when it is not directly tied to database, a product feature or production process, CSR can be viewed as a form of reputation building or maintenance. A second strategic implication of a theory of the firm perspective is that one can apply the RBV logic to CSR, in the sense that it is family first child possible to generate a set of predictions regarding patterns of investment in CSR across firms and industries.
For example, we expect to observe a positive correlation between CSR and both RD and advertising (McWilliams and database Siegel, 2000), an assertion that we will explain below. Expanding on this theory of the firm perspective, we can shed further light on the strategic implications of CSR. In particular, we wish to focus on issues relating to industry evolution, market structure, firm dynamics, and the role of asymmetric information in the context of CSR. We first note that in the context of essay school using CSR to differentiate products, it is important to distinguish between two types of product differentiation. Vub Thesis? The first is vertical differentiation which occurs when most consumers prefer one product to another. Other things being equal, most consumers prefer a more fuel-efficient vehicle. Essay First School Child? In the context of vub thesis database CSR, such a situation could occur when it is clear in the mind of consumers that the product with a CSR characteristic is for descriptive better than the product without such a characteristic.
For example, a hybrid’ version of a Honda Accord generates less pollution than a standard Honda Accord. Thus, it is clear to most consumers that the hybrid car is vub thesis better than the standard model. Some consumers are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, given that the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to them. This type of differentiation can strengthen or maintain the reputation of the firm which adds value in addition to allowing the firm to meet a particular market demand (Fombrun and Shanley, 1990). In contrast, horizontal differentiation occurs when only some consumers prefer a particular product, but the preference is essays based on taste, rather than quality. For example, some consumers choose a particular vehicle because of the colour. This type of differentiation does not contribute to vub thesis, the reputation of the word, firm and does not allow the firm to vub thesis database, charge a premium price. Horizontal differentiation also operates for different brands. For Descriptive? For example, some consumers prefer Coke to Pepsi, while others have the opposite view. In contrast to the ease of valuing CSR attributes, consumers often find it difficult to determine if a firm's internal operations meet their moral and political standards for database social responsibility.
The level of asymmetric information regarding internal operations can be mediated by the firm itself or by activists. For instance, companies such as McDonalds, Motorola, and on school shootings Nike publish annual reports on social responsibility. One can view this activity as a form of advertising, especially for more general types of CSR. While such reports may be useful, some consumers perceive this information as biased, since it is vub thesis filtered through senior management. Fedderson and Gilligan (2001) assert that activists can play an important role in addressing this concern, by supplying consumers with information they can rely on to choose socially responsible firms. The relationship between CSR and advertising is an interesting one, which bears further reflection. Topics Essays? Several stylized facts relating to industry evolution and database the nature of advertising are useful to school, consider. The first is that we expect levels of investment in CSR to be higher for established firms in more mature industries, since the extent of production differentiation will be greater in such sectors and consumers will, in general, have more sophisticated tastes and knowledge regarding products and firms. It is clear that such companies are likely to derive greater benefits from the vub thesis, use of 5 paragraph word CSR for reputation enhancement/protection. A second point is that if some forms of CSR do indeed constitute advertising, then it is important to distinguish between persuasive CSR advertising and informative CSR advertising. Persuasive CSR advertising attempts to positively influence consumer tastes for products with CSR attributes.
It follows that this type of advertising need not be firm-specific. Informative CSR advertising merely provides information about the database, CSR characteristics or CSR managerial practices of the firm. Following Milgrom and Roberts (1986), one could also view a high level of CSR advertising (either persuasive on informative CSR advertising) as a signal of for descriptive essays product or firm quality. Another critical issue concerns the vub thesis database, nature of the market structure of the firm's industry. A key conclusion of the essay family first child, McWilliams and Siegel (2001) paper was that, in equilibrium, firms that engage in CSR will earn the same rate of vub thesis profit as firms that do not engage in CSR.
We refer to this finding as the neutrality result. This finding was misinterpreted by Piga (2002) as implying that CSR can only occur in monopolistically competitive industries, since some oligopoly models of vertically differentiated markets predict that (in equilibrium) firms selling the higher quality product (in our case, the firm that sells a good with a CSR characteristic) reap abnormal’ profits. Essay Word? A monopolistically competitive industry consists of numerous firms, some product differentiation, and relative free entry. Some examples of vub thesis such sectors are restaurants and retail establishments. On the other hand, oligopolies are characterized by a consolidated industry structure, considerable entry barriers, and substantial product differentiation (e.g. Duck Soup Essay? autos, computers). We believe that the neutrality result holds under both oligopoly and monopolistic competition. This is implied for monopolistic competition because sectors with such a structure are characterized by both horizontal and vertical differentiation, a fragmented industry structure, and very low entry barriers. Under this scenario, it is impossible for firms to use CSR to outperform rivals. Vub Thesis Database? Examples of firms in monopolistically competitive industries that engage in CSR include restaurants, hotels, companies selling organic produce, and different types of retail establishments. The neutrality result likely holds for monopolistic markets as well.
That is nyu paris creative writing program because, while some oligopoly models predict that firms producing a higher quality product earn abnormal’ returns, these findings hinge on the assumption that costs are constant and independent of quality. Vub Thesis? These assumptions were not invoked in extent order the McWilliams and Siegel (2001) model. Vub Thesis? Furthermore, recent economic models of CSR (Baron, 2001; Fedderson and Gilligan, 2001) identify an important countervailing force on the ability of companies to engage in strategic CSR in oligopolistic industries: activists who target leading firms (e.g. the attack on Nike's Asian production). This countervailing force makes it difficult for oligopolistic firms to achieve a competitive advantage through the strategic use of CSR. The question of whether firms can use CSR to essay, achieve a sustainable competitive advantage is another important question. A paper by Reinhardt (1998) finds that a firm engaging in a CSR-based strategy can only generate an abnormal return if it can prevent competitors from imitating its strategy. In competitive markets this is unlikely, since CSR is highly transparent, with little causal ambiguity. Other theoretical studies (Dutta et al., 1995; Hoppe and Lehmann-Grube, 2001) show that any early mover advantages that might be gained by offering higher quality products (recall that CSR is modelled as a quality improvement’ in McWilliams and Siegel, 2001) are eroded when competitive strategies are observable.
However, CSR may be used in the context of political strategies that result in regulatory barriers to imitation. Vub Thesis Database? One such strategy would be for duck soup essay firms to use government regulation to impose CSR on rivals who do not employ an appropriate technology, thus raising the costs of those rivals relative to the initiating firm. Marvel (1977) provided an example of this in the British textile industry in the early 1800s. The first child labour law was passed in Great Britain after the mill owners who employed modern technology banded together and lobbied for restrictions on child labour, which was used more by the older, smaller mills. McWilliams et al. (2002) applied the vub thesis, RBV framework to demonstrate how US firms can use political strategies based on extent order justice CSR to raise regulatory barriers that prevent foreign competitors from using substitute (e.g. low labour cost) technology. This discussion focused primarily on understanding CSR from an applied perspective. However, it begins to point to a broader and deeper set of research issues that have yet to be resolved. RESEARCH AGENDA ON THE STRATEGIC IMPLICATIONS OF CSR. There are numerous unresolved theoretical and empirical issues relating to the strategic implications of vub thesis CSR.
These include defining CSR, identifying institutional differences in CSR across countries, determining the motivations for CSR, describing CSR strategies, modelling the effects of CSR on shootings the firm and stakeholder groups, determining the effects of leadership and corporate culture on CSR activity, assessing the effect of CSR on the firm and vub thesis stakeholder groups, measuring the demand for CSR, measuring the creative writing program, costs of CSR and vub thesis database assessing the current knowledge base. Theoretical Issues To Be Resolved. As noted in our introduction, there is a no strong consensus on a definition for CSR. CSR has been used as a synonym for business ethics, defined as tantamount to corporate philanthropy, and considered strictly as relating to environmental policy. CSR has also been confused with corporate social performance and corporate citizenship. The lack of consistency in the use of the term CSR makes it difficult to compare results across studies, hampering our ability to understand the implications of CSR activity. 5 Paragraph Word? As other issues are resolved, we hope that they lead to the emergence of an vub thesis database agreed-upon definition of CSR.
Having a good definition of CSR, with a common terminology, would aid us in modelling the role of organizational culture and leadership in determining the importance of CSR within an organization. Researchers could analyse how changes in corporate control, particularly through merger or acquisition, affect the type and essays on school level of CSR activity within firms. Alternatively, changes in top management (CEO or team) might be examined to determine whether leadership style and characteristics are more important than corporate control/culture for predicting CSR activity. Understanding the vub thesis database, role of leadership could be extended to understanding the decision making process and how decisions about CSR activity are affected by demands from multiple stakeholders. Asymmetric information makes it difficult to study the antecedents and consequences of CSR.
Managers may perceive that many external stakeholders view CSR activity more favourably if it is divorced from any discussion of the bottom line. With this in mind, managers may not reveal the more practical motivations (such as product promotion, labour cost control and reputation building) behind their CSR activities, especially in corporate publications such as annual reports. This lack of candid information has made it difficult to essay, distinguish and discuss the different motivations for CSR, which may be private or social. The use of CSR to capture value is vub thesis database referred to as strategic CSR by Baron (2001) who points out that it is the motivation for the action that identifies socially, as opposed to essays, privately, responsible action’. That is, if the vub thesis database, motivation is to serve society, at 5 paragraph word, the cost of profits, the action is vub thesis socially responsible, but if the motivation is to serve the bottom line, then the action is privately responsible. For privately responsible actions, there may well be social benefits that exceed the cost of the action to the firm. However, this does not change the motivation, unless these social benefits are of value to managers. For example, providing day care may lower the number of juvenile crimes in a community, but the firm might provide the day care only because it increases the availability of workers and nyu paris creative program lowers the cost of absenteeism. This is reminiscent of the consideration of positive externalities associated with innovative activity. An externality is vub thesis defined as the impact of an economic agent's actions on the well-being of a bystander. Pollution is a classic example of a negative externality, while innovation (whose benefits cannot be entirely appropriated by its creator) is family a classic example of a positive externality.
While the private returns to innovation (or those that accrue to the company) may be high, the social returns to vub thesis database, innovation (through the creation of new or improved products and processes) may be even greater. Researchers need to topics, use more direct methods, such as interviews and surveys, to tease out’ less self-serving information about the motivations for CSR activity and vub thesis database improve the precision of measurement of the private and social returns to CSR. In addition to family first child, understanding the motivation for the provision of social benefits, we need to understand how the provision of these goods, through strategic CSR, affects society. An example of strategic CSR is when a firm links the provision of a public good to the sale of their (private) products (e.g. eco-labelling). Database? Bagnoli and duck soup essay Watts (2003) model this behaviour and find that the propensity of firms to engage in strategic CSR depends on two factors: the intensity of competition in the market and the extent to which consumers are willing to vub thesis, pay a premium for social responsibility. The authors conclude that there is an inverse relation between intensity of duck soup essay competition and provision of CSR. That is, in more competitive markets, less of the public good will be provided through strategic CSR. Conversely, in vub thesis less competitive markets, more of the public good will be provided. This is easy to understand, since more competition results in lower margins and, therefore, less ability to provide additional (social) attributes or activity. Conversely, less competition leads to the potential for higher margins and more ability to provide additional attributes or activity.
An analysis of the provision of essays public goods by database private firms is a welcome addition to the management literature on 5 paragraph essay word CSR, which has been primarily concerned with answering the following question: do firms do well by doing good’? Showing that a firm does well by doing good is often referred to as making the business case for CSR. While understanding the relation between firm performance and social performance is of primary importance in vub thesis database the management literature, a more thorough understanding of the shootings, CSR phenomenon requires that we take account of other stakeholders as well. These stakeholders include: customers, employees, governments, suppliers, taxpayers, community groups, and underrepresented groups. Our understanding of CSR should be extended to an examination of the strategic use of CSR activities. Fombrun and Shanley (1990) established that investing in CSR attributes and activities may be important elements of product differentiation and reputation building. Vub Thesis? McWilliams and Siegel (2001) suggest that CSR activities be included in strategy formulation and that the level of resources devoted to CSR be determined through cost/benefit analysis. Analysis of the strategic implications of CSR is hampered by cross-country/cultural differences in the institutions that regulate market activity, including business, labour and social agencies. Institutional differences lead to different expectations and different returns to activity.
For firms operating in multiple countries/cultures this complicates the process of determining which activities to engage in and how much to invest. As the knowledge base of CSR develops world-wide, we will be better able to analyse and advise on CSR. In summary, the CSR literature suffers from definitional questions that limit the future research. Distinguishing among strategic CSR, altruistic CSR, and for descriptive even coerced CSR (e.g. Husted and database De Jesus Salazar, 2006) constitutes a significant theoretical breakthrough. To What Extent Can The And Ensure Justice In World Politics?? However, until theory and research can adequately agree upon what, specifically, constitutes CSR, research will continue to vub thesis, provide a lack of consistent results.
It is to this empirical research that we next turn our attention. Problems with measurement of the costs and benefits of CSR activities continue to for descriptive, cloud our understanding of the strategic implications of CSR. Vub Thesis Database? A major impediment to essay word, empirical research is the continuing confusion over definition that we mentioned above. It is impossible to vub thesis, measure what we cannot define and, as long as we use different definitions, we will get empirical results that cannot reliably be compared. Table II presents selected empirical studies of CSR. Most of these papers focus on the relation between CSR and firm performance. Early studies used either the event study methodology (which is based on analysis of short-run changes in stock prices as a proxy for firm performance in the aftermath of a CSR-related event) or regression analysis (which uses an accounting measure of profitability, such as return on assets, as the dependent variable in a regression model that explains’ firm performance). These studies usually attempted to answer the question: do firms do well by doing good? The reported results have ranged from showing a negative relation between CSR and duck soup essay firm performance, to showing no relation, to showing a positive relation (e.g. the results of divesting from South Africa shown in vub thesis Table II). Can The Order And Ensure In World Politics?? There is little consistency in these findings.
This may be a result of inconsistency in defining CSR, inconsistency in database defining firm performance, inconsistency in samples, imprecision and inconsistency in research design, misspecification of can the UN shape and ensure in world politics? models, changes over time, or some more fundamental variance in the samples that are being analysed. McWilliams and Siegel (1997) critiqued the use of the event study methodology to measure the vub thesis database, consequences of CSR. The authors reported that the findings of event studies of CSR appearing in top management journals were unreliable, due to serious flaws in the research design and creative implementation of the event study methodology (see also McWilliams et al., 1999). They also cautioned that the use of stock price as a metric for database performance is topics for descriptive not appropriate for database studying CSR. That is because CSR is a firm level measure and many socially responsibility activities occur at the plant level or the product level. Nyu Paris Creative Writing? Another concern is that an analysis of stock price effects only relates to financial stakeholders and database it is essays clear that non-financial stakeholders are also affected by CSR activities. McWilliams and vub thesis database Siegel (2000) challenged the conventional regression model used to assess the relationship between corporate social performance (CSP), which is often used as a synonym for topics essays CSR, and firm performance. They noted that the typical regression equation estimated was misspecified because it did not include two key variables: the level of RD spending and advertising expenditure. Both of these variables have been shown to be determinants of vub thesis database firm performance and, because all three (RD, advertising, and CSP) are elements of a differentiation strategy, they hypothesized that RD and essay child advertising would be correlated with a measure of CSP. Vub Thesis? The results of McWilliams and Siegel's estimation of the correctly-specified, expanded equation demonstrated that the three explanatory variables were correlated. Thus, the model that excluded RD and advertising variables was misspecified.
Most notably, they showed that when RD and advertising were included in the model, CSP was not a significant determinant of firm performance, as had been reported in duck soup essay several widely-cited studies. Consistent with Baron's (2001) distinction between altruistic CSR and strategic CSR, Hillman and Keim (2001) conjecture that empirical tests of the vub thesis, relation between CSR and firm performance should disaggregate CSR activities into those that are strategic (stakeholder management) and those that are altruistic (social issue participation). Based on estimation of a disaggregated model, they report that there is a positive relation between firm performance (measured using market value added) and strategic CSR and a negative relation between altruistic CSR and firm performance. McWilliams and duck soup essay Siegel (2001) provide a framework for analysing CSR within the context of the theory of the firm. Vub Thesis Database? Based on this framework, they develop hypotheses regarding the nyu paris creative writing program, provision of CSR attributes across industries and market structures. They hypothesize that the provision of CSR will depend on database RD spending, advertising intensity, the extent of product differentiation, the percentage of government sales, consumer income, the tightness of the 5 paragraph, labour market, and the stage of the vub thesis database, industry life cycle’ (2001, p. Duck Soup Essay? 125). All of these should be tested empirically to see if the vub thesis database, results support the hypotheses. McWilliams and Siegel conclude that there is some level of CSR that will maximize profits while satisfying the essays shootings, demand for CSR from multiple stakeholders. The ideal level of vub thesis database CSR can be determined by cost-benefit analysis’ (2001, p. 125). While costs of providing CSR attributes may be easy for managers to determine, consumer demand (benefit) may not be. Consumer demand for CSR could be difficult to measure because CSR attributes are among many attributes of a product.
For example, a particular shampoo may have the CSR attribute that it is not tested on animals’. But, it also has a particular scent, colour, consistency, and package. On School Shootings? This makes it difficult to separate out the demand for the CSR attribute. A method for assessing how much consumers are willing to pay for a given product characteristic or feature is hedonic pricing. Hedonic pricing involves using data on actual purchases, in order to vub thesis database, determine the implicit price’ of a particular attribute. For example, new homes have many attributes, one of 5 paragraph which might be central air conditioning. Examining a large number of new home sales, with and without central air conditioning, but holding other attributes constant, it would be possible to determine how much consumers are willing to vub thesis, pay for the central air conditioning. Similarly, to determine the demand’ for not tested on duck soup essay animals’, researchers can compare sale data on vub thesis many shampoos, with and on school without the CSR attribute and database can determine how much consumers will pay for that attribute.
This information could then be used in a cost/benefit analysis of the CSR attribute. To illustrate, we return to the example of hybrid cars, which are highly fuel efficient. Duck Soup Essay? Given the high price of gasoline, it is clear that some consumers will be attracted to these automobiles because they want to save money on fuel. Others may choose to purchase a Honda hybrid, as opposed to GM hybrid, because Honda has a superior reputation for quality. Still others are willing to pay a price premium for the hybrid car, strictly because the social characteristic of less pollution is valuable’ to vub thesis, them. The beauty of the hedonic method is that it allows us tease out the value to the consumer of each of duck soup essay these three factors (fuel efficiency, quality differential, and the social characteristic of less pollution). The hedonic method is vub thesis database based on the notion that the (logarithm of the) price of a good or service is related to on school, its characteristics or features as follows: where #x25b; is a random error term and vub thesis Z is a vector of k characteristics or attributes. These attributes are typically sources of private satisfaction, such as the speed of duck soup essay a computer or the horsepower of an auto engine. The researcher typically estimates a regression, in vub thesis order to determine the values of the β coefficients.
The β coefficients provide estimates of how much customers are willing to pay for a given attribute. Some characteristics may also have social dimensions, such as aerosol products with no fluorocarbons or environmentally-friendly lighting. A major advantage of hedonics, relative to other methods (e.g. focus groups), is that it is based on observed, not hypothetical data. Hedonics have been used by government agencies and other researchers to price’ individual attributes of computers, autos, housing, land, and family first dowries. They are also increasingly being used for more abstract non-market environmental goods’, such as views, clean air, and open space. These estimates can have important managerial and policy implications, since they help managers estimate demand for social characteristics and can also be used in database national price/cost of living statistics.
The theoretical and empirical issues discussed above provide an important foundation for understanding the contributions of the articles in duck soup essay this special issue. These papers shed light on vub thesis database the definitional issues that plague this research, and nyu paris creative writing program demonstrate, both theoretically and vub thesis database empirically, how making clear, specific definitions can result in deeper understanding and guide more rigorous research in CSR. The article by Alfie Marcus and 5 paragraph essay word Marc Anderson (2006) poses an vub thesis interesting research question, especially in 5 paragraph light of our previous discussion of the strategic implications of CSR. The authors ask whether a firm's dynamic capability’ influences its competence in CSR. To address this question, they provide a novel and interesting application of the RBV framework to the case of CSR.
In the vub thesis database, theoretical section of the duck soup essay, paper, the authors make two important points. The first is that they distinguish between business and social competencies. They also consider a general dynamic capability’, a term coined by Ghemawat (2001), which describes such activities as enhancing the absorptive capacity of the firm, benchmarking, and experimentation. The authors examine their research question using a detailed firm-level survey in the US retail food industry. Specifically, they surveyed 806 grocery stores/chains with operations in North America as of 1997. The results indicate that a general dynamic capability has a positive influence on a firm's competence in supply chain management, which is vub thesis a key business competence in this industry. However, a general dynamic capability does not appear to have any influence on a firm's competence in environmental management, which is nyu paris creative writing program a key social’ competence in this industry. The authors conclude that their findings suggest that the factors driving competitive advantage are different than those that influence CSR. Jonathan Doh and Terrence Guay (2006) assess the role of differences in the institutional environments of Europe and the USA in explaining expectations regarding the propensity of firms to be socially responsible. As such, the paper is an interesting synthesis of neo-institutional and stakeholder theory. It is a qualitative analysis, consisting of vub thesis database three case studies.
Specifically, the authors assess the roles that US and To what and ensure justice politics? European non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have played in influencing CSR policies in database three areas: the trade and regulation of genetically-modified organisms (GMOs), pharmaceutical pricing and distribution policies, and duck soup essay international environmental agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol Treaty. The case studies reveal the role of institutional differences in database these two regions in influencing government policy, corporate strategy and NGO activism related to CSR. Specifically, the authors find that these factors play an essays important role in determining how CSR is perceived and implemented in the USA and Europe. Database? A key implication of the nyu paris writing program, Doh and database Guay study is nyu paris writing that any cross-country comparison of the propensity of firms to database, engage in CSR should take into account these institutional differences. In the next article, Bryan Husted and Jos de Jesus Salazar pose another interesting research question: is it better for firms to act strategically with respect to extent can the order justice politics?, CSR than to be coerced into making such investments? More generally, the authors analyse the conditions under which firms can maximize profit and enhance social performance. As such, they take the theory of the firm perspective on database CSR seriously, since they conduct a cost/benefit analysis of social responsibility. This technique was proposed by McWilliams and topics for descriptive essays Siegel (2001). Husted and vub thesis De Jesus Salazar model this cost/benefit analysis under three scenarios concerning the firm's desire to engage in CSR: altruism, coerced egoism’, and the strategic use of CSR. Altruism describes the case when firms sincerely want to topics for descriptive essays, be socially responsible, without regard to how such activities affect the bottom line. Coerced egoism occurs when firms act in a socially responsible manner only vub thesis when they are compelled by regulation (and other factors) to do so.
The strategic use of CSR is defined as instances where there are clear benefits to the firm for engaging in CSR. The authors employ standard microeconomic analysis to determine the duck soup essay, optimal level of vub thesis social output that results under each of these cases. They demonstrate that both society and firms are better off when firms use CSR strategically than when they are coerced into making such investments. This is a conclusion that would make Adam Smith smile. In the next paper, Duane Windsor (2006) examines different perspectives on CSR. As noted earlier, CSR is still an embryonic concept in the academic literature. To What Extent Order And Ensure Justice In World Politics?? Windsor's essay is a tour-de-force on the evolution on three opposing perspectives on CSR: economic, philosophical, and vub thesis database global corporate citizenship. Duck Soup Essay? As he defines it, the economic viewpoint focuses on the firm's ability to use CSR as a tool to create wealth, implies minimal government intervention to promote CSR, and advocates that the firm adopt prevailing business ethics. On the other hand, the vub thesis database, philosophical perspective results in moral reflection on CSR and should lead to higher levels of To what extent UN shape justice CSR and other forms of altruism. He also notes that this view supports active government intervention to promote CSR, as well as policy initiatives that strengthen stakeholder rights.
The global corporate citizenship perspective seems to fall somewhere in between the economic and philosophical views, although this perspective can be used instrumentally to enhance market opportunities and vub thesis the firm's moral reputation. First? The author concludes by discussing the implications of vub thesis database each of these perspectives for CSR scholarship. This special issue concludes with an article by 5 paragraph word Andy Lockett, Jeremy Moon, and Wayne Visser (2006), which assesses the status of CSR research in the management literature. Specifically, they assess the focus and nature of CSR research and the use of the vub thesis, accumulated knowledge in management and family first school related fields. Vub Thesis? The authors also attempt to determine the key intellectual influences on nyu paris the field of CSR and whether CSR research has a dominant paradigm. Their empirical analysis is based on data on CSR-related publications and citation analysis over the period 19922002.
The authors identified CSR-related articles in the following journals: Academy of Management Journal , Academy of vub thesis database Management Review , Administrative Science Quarterly , Journal of Management , Organization Science , Strategic Management Journal , Journal of Management Studies , Harvard Business Review , Sloan Management Review , and California Management Review . They analysed both the articles cited in these CSR-related papers and the citations that CSR-related articles generated in other journals. They found that the field’ is in duck soup essay a continuing state of emergence’, a term coined by Thomas Kuhn (1962). That is, based on its overall profile in vub thesis database these leading management journals and the citations these articles generate, CSR lacks a dominant paradigm. This is an obvious call to action for concerned researchers. It is this state of emergence that we hope to advance with this special issue.
The papers here exemplify the variety of 5 paragraph essay word perspectives that have been brought to bear on CSR. They also demonstrate an increasing ability to clearly define the construct of CSR (albeit not necessarily all agreeing on the definition) and build strong theoretical arguments and high-quality empirical studies that will provide an effective springboard for future research in CSR. We thank participants at the April 2004 University of Illinois at Chicago/International Centre for Corporate Social Responsibility Workshop on Corporate Social Responsibility, Ann Buchholtz, Steve Floyd, Mark Shanley, and Mike Wright for their insightful comments on a previous version of this paper. The second author also gratefully acknowledges financial support from the School of Humanities and Social Sciences and vub thesis database the Lally School of Management and Technology at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute. For the benefit of non-US readers, the United Way is a global network of non-profit, philanthropic organizations. In the USA, many employees (especially those working for large organizations) donate a small fraction of their salaries to topics for descriptive essays, United Way, which is then distributed to a specific charity (or charities) that is vub thesis part of the network. The workshop was jointly sponsored by the College of Business Administration at the University of Illinois at Chicago and the International Centre for creative Corporate Social Responsibility (ICCSR) at the University of Nottingham in the United Kingdom. See Kor and Mahoney (2004), Lockett and Thompson (2004), and Rugman and Verbeke (2004) for an excellent series of database articles on Edith Penrose and the resource-based view of strategic management. Issue online: 10 January 2006 Version of record online: 10 January 2006.
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