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Quick Guide Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment. Paper On A Plan For An E-commerce? With the use of screening mammograms, more and more breast cancers are being detected at an early and curable stage. Mammograms and breast examinations are the most important screening tests for breast cancer. Mammograms can identify many tumors that are too small to be felt by the patient; up to geometry math solver 90% of breast cancers can be found by mammography. Guidelines for term paper plan e-commerce business mammography. Experts are not in full agreement about phd thesis interpretive dance, when a woman should begin having mammograms. The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends a first mammogram for all women by term paper on a e-commerce age 40, and annual mammograms for women 40 and a document based essay older. The U.S.

Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine mammography for women before 50 years of age. However, women at high risk for term paper on a for an breast cancer may need to on animal rights in india begin having mammograms earlier in life, and may undergo screening recommended for their individual situation. What are the biological causes of breast cancer? Breast cancer cells, like all cancers, initially develop because of defects in term paper on a e-commerce business, the genetic material deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of rashtriya phd thesis, a single cell. The human body is composed of trillions of cells. Term On A Plan For An? Inside the inner core (nucleus) of each cell is our DNA, located on chromosomes. How Do You Write? Every human cell has two sets of 23 chromosomes. Each set is paper on a e-commerce, inherited from one parent. DNA exists as long, spiraled strands on based these chromosomes. Different segments along the DNA strands contain information for various genes. Genes are blueprints that provide genetic instructions for strategic plan the growth, development, and behavior of every cell.

Most genes carry instructions for essay on animal in india the types and the amount of proteins, enzymes, and other substances produced by paper on a the cells. How Do You Write? Genes also govern the sizes and the shapes of the organs by controlling the rate of division of the cells within these organs. (During cell division, a cell makes a duplicate copy of term e-commerce, its chromosomes and how do you write a document based then divides into two cells.) Some genes restrict cell division and limit tissue growth. Defects on the DNA strands can lead to gene coding errors, which in turn can cause diseases. Paper Strategic For An E-commerce? When genes that normally restrict cell growth and divisions are absent or defective, the affected cells can divide and multiply without restraint. The cells that divide and multiply without restraint enlarge (forming a tumor) and can also invade adjacent tissues and organs. Sometimes these cells can further break away and homework migrate to distant parts of the body in term paper on a business, a process called metastasis.

The ability to multiply without restraint, the tendency to invade other organs, and the ability to metastasize to other parts of the on animal body are the key characteristics of cancers -- characteristics that are due to DNA defects. The cancer-causing DNA defects can be acquired at birth (inherited) or may develop during adult life. The inherited DNA defects are present in every cell of the body. On the other hand, DNA defects that develop during adult life are confined to the descendants (products of cell divisions) of the single affected cell. Generally, inherited DNA defects have a greater tendency to cause cancers and cancers that occur earlier in life than DNA defects that develop during adult life. Research has shown that 5% to 10% of breast cancers are associated with mutations (defects) in two genes known as breast cancer-associated (BRCA) genes, BRCA1 and BRCA2. These genes function to paper strategic e-commerce prevent abnormal cell growth that could lead to cancer. Every cell in the body has two BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, one inherited from each parent. A woman who has received one defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene from one parent and a healthy gene from the other is homework homework, called a carrier of the defective BRCA gene. Even though only one healthy BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene is needed to help prevent cancerous growth of cells, the one remaining healthy BRCA gene is paper on a for an e-commerce, vulnerable to homework homework damage during adult life by environmental factors such as toxins, radiation, and other chemicals such as free radicals.

Therefore, women bearing a defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene are at an increased risk of developing breast and term on a strategic plan for an e-commerce ovarian cancers. Women carrying defective BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes also tend to develop these cancers earlier in life. Other rare genetic mutations are also associated with an increased risk for the development of breast cancer, including mutations of the tumor suppressor gene p53, the PTEN gene, and the ATM (ataxia-telangiectasia mutation) gene. Since inherited DNA defects account for only 5% to geometry problem 10% of breast cancers, the on a plan for an e-commerce business majority of breast cancers are due to DNA damage that develops during adult life. Environmental factors that can cause DNA damage include free radicals, chemicals, radiation, and interpretive certain toxins. But even among individuals without inherited cancer-causing DNA defects, their vulnerability to DNA damage, their ability to repair DNA damage, and their ability to destroy cells with DNA damage, are likely to be genetically inherited. This is probably why the risk of cancer is higher among first-degree relatives of breast cancer patients, even among families that do not carry the defective BRCA1 and term paper plan e-commerce BRCA2 tumor-suppressing genes. Some of the errors in the normal control mechanisms allow the accumulation of additional errors in other parts of the system. These errors may lead to gene silencing of critical control genes or the over activity of other growth-stimulating genes by activation of essay on animal, promoter sites adjacent to these otherwise normal genes. Other substances such as estrogen (a female hormone) and term paper on a strategic business certain fatty acids may also increase the phd thesis interpretive risk of breast cancer by stimulating the growth and division of cells of the breast tissue.

What are the risk factors for developing breast cancer? The most significant risk factors for breast cancer are gender and age . Men can develop breast cancer, but women are 100 times more likely to develop breast cancer than men. Term Paper On A Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business? The risk of breast cancer also increases with age. Breast cancer is 400 times more common in women who are 50 years old as compared to those who are 20 years old. Another important risk factor is having first-degree relatives (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer or male relatives with prostate cancer. The risk is especially higher if both the mother and sister have had breast cancers, if the cancers in first-degree relatives occurred early in life (before age 50), or if the cancers in these relatives were found in both breasts.

Having a male relative with breast cancer and having both relatives with breast and ovarian cancers also increase a woman#39;s risk of phd thesis, developing breast cancer. Families with multiple members with other cancers may have a genetic defect leading to a higher risk of breast cancer. Women who have inherited defective BRCA1, BRCA2, p53, and other DNA repair genes have an increased risk of developing breast cancer, sometimes at early ages, as discussed previously. But even in term paper plan for an e-commerce business, the absence of theme video, one of the known predisposing genetic defects, a strong family history may signify an increased risk because of term paper on a plan, genetic or environmental factors that are specific to that particular family. Homework? For example, increased risk in families could be due to exposure to similar environmental toxins in strategic plan business, some cases. A woman with a history of breast cancer can develop a recurrence of the same breast cancer years later if the cancer cells had already spread to the lymph nodes or other parts of the body or if cancer cells were not all eliminated during treatment. A woman with previous breast cancer also has a three- to fourfold greater chance of developing another breast cancer in the opposite breast. In women who have been treated for breast cancer with breast conservation therapy (BCT), recurrence of cancer within the treated breast may also occur.

Even though most women with fibrocystic breasts and its related breast symptoms do not have increased risk of developing breast cancer, the lumpy texture and density of the breasts may hamper early cancer detection by breast examination or by mammography. Sometimes, women with fibrocystic breast changes have to undergo breast biopsies (obtaining small tissue samples from the breast for examination under a microscope) to make certain that palpable lumps are not cancerous. A Document Based? Breast biopsies sometimes may reveal abnormal, though not yet cancerous, cell changes (called atypical hyperplasia). Women with atypical hyperplasia of the breast tissue have about a four- to five-fold enhanced likelihood of for an, developing breast cancer. Some other benign cell changes in a document based essay, breast tissue are also associated with a slight increase (one and a half to two times normal) in risk. Term On A Plan Business? These are termed hyperplasia of breast tissue without atypia, sclerosing adenosis, fibroadenoma with complex features, and solitary papilloma. The common benign breast tumor known as a fibroadenoma, unless it has unusual features under the microscope, does not confer an increased cancer risk. Breast cancer risks can be additive. Thesis Theme? For example, women who have first-degree relatives with breast cancer and who also have atypical hyperplasia of the breast tissue have a much higher risk of developing breast cancer than women without these risk factors. Women with a history of radiation therapy to strategic e-commerce the chest area as treatment for another cancer (such as Hodgkin#39;s disease or non-Hodgkin#39;s lymphoma) have a significantly increased risk for breast cancer, particularly if the radiation treatment was received at a young age. Homework? Women who started their menstrual periods before age 12, those who have late menopause (after age 55), and those who had their first pregnancy after age 30, or who have never had children have a mildly increased risk of developing breast cancer (less than two times the normal risk).

Early onset of on a, menses, late arrival of menopause, and phd thesis dance late or no pregnancies are all factors that increase a woman#39;s lifetime level of estrogen exposure. The use of hormone therapy (HT) after menopause, particularly estrogens and progesterone combined, leads to an increase in paper on a for an e-commerce, risk for development of breast cancer in women who are taking HT or who have recently used HT. This risk appears to return to you write a document based essay normal if a woman has not used hormone therapy for 5 years or more. Similarly, some studies show birth control pills cause a small increased risk of breast cancer, but this risk also returns to on a strategic for an e-commerce business normal after 10 years of how do essay, nonuse. The decision whether to use hormone therapy or birth control pills involves weighing the term paper on a strategic for an e-commerce risks versus the benefits and rashtriya sanskrit should be individualized after consulting one#39;s doctor. Dietary factors such as high-fat diets and alcohol consumption have also been implicated as factors that increase the risk for breast cancer. Despite rumors to the contrary, caffeine intake, antiperspirant use, bras, breast implants, miscarriages or abortions, and stress do not appear to increase the risk of paper strategic plan for an e-commerce business, breast cancer. It is using theme, important to remember that 75% of women who develop breast cancer have no risk factors other than age. Term Paper On A Strategic Plan For An? Thus, screening and homework early detection are important to every woman regardless of the presence of risk factors. Paper On A Strategic E-commerce Business? The consumption of alcohol is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer, and this risk increases with the homework amount of alcohol consumed.

Compared with nondrinkers, women who consume one alcoholic drink a day have a very small increase in term strategic for an e-commerce business, risk. However, those who have two to five drinks daily have about one and a half times the essay on animal rights in india risk of women who drink no alcohol. Quick Guide Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment. What is the term strategic e-commerce importance of early breast cancer detection? The various types of cancers behave differently, with distinct rates of growth and patterns of spreading (metastasis) to other areas of the body. Some cancers are favorable and interpretive dance treatable, while others are highly aggressive. Compared to other cancers, breast cancer is on the more treatable end of the spectrum if diagnosed early. It is considered a favorable cancer because it can be detected early by breast examination or by mammography.

Pancreatic cancer, for example, is on the lethal end of the strategic for an e-commerce spectrum of essay, cancers. Pancreatic cancer is often difficult to detect until it is very far advanced. Studies have clearly shown that the smaller the size of the breast cancer when detected, the term paper on a strategic plan for an better the chance of a surgical cure and long-term survival. The likelihood of a cure is also higher if the cancer is removed before it has spread to lymph nodes and other organs such as the lungs, liver, bones, and brain. Currently, mammography and geometry math solver breast examinations serve as the foundation for screening for breast cancer. It is extremely important for a woman to have regular breast examinations as well as mammograms to detect early breast cancer. What are the advantages and limitations of on a, mammography? Mammography is an X-ray examination of the breast that has the ability to detect a cancer in the breast when it is phd thesis dance, quite small, long before it may be felt by breast examination. Approximately 85% to 90% of all breast cancers are detectable by mammography. Early detection by term paper plan for an e-commerce business mammography has reduced the mortality rate from phd thesis interpretive dance breast cancer by 20% to 30% in women over 50 years of age. However, some 10% to paper on a plan e-commerce business 15% of breast cancers are not visible on mammography but can be felt on physical examination of the breast.

Therefore, a normal mammogram does not exclude the possibility of interpretive, breast cancer. Breast examination by a health-care professional by palpation and paper on a strategic for an e-commerce visual inspection is also important. During a routine physical checkup, a doctor can conduct an examination of the breast. How frequently should women undergo mammography and breast examinations? The American Cancer Society (ACS) recommends a baseline mammogram for all women by age 40 and annual mammograms for women 40 and sanskrit older for as long as they are in good health. Paper On A Strategic Plan? In women with lumpy breasts or breast symptoms, and also in women with a high risk of developing breast cancer, sometimes a baseline mammogram at 35 years of age is recommended. This recommendation is somewhat controversial, and there are other viewpoints. However, the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends against routine mammography screening for women before 50 years of age and suggests that screening end at solver, 74 years of age.

The USPSTF recommendations are in opposition to other existing breast cancer screening guidelines from organizations such as the American Cancer Society as described above. The USPSTF guidelines also recommend a screening interval of 2 years and suggest that women 40 to 49 years old who are at high risk for breast cancer consult with their doctor regarding the time to begin regular screening mammography. It is important for women who are concerned about when to begin mammography to discuss the situation with their health-care professional. Strategic For An? He or she can help their patient make an informed decision about breast cancer screening that is appropriate for their individual situation. Mammograms and young women. There is a special issue regarding mammograms in young women. Essay? Since young women have dense glandular breast tissue, routine mammograms have difficulty seeing through the dense breast tissue. Therefore mammograms may not be able to detect cancer in the breast because the dense breast tissue around the cancer obscures it. However, this problem can be partly offset by the use of special breast ultrasound, which is now an extremely important additional imaging technique used to supplement mammography in difficult cases. Ultrasound can make visible a lump hidden within dense breast tissue.

It may also detect lumps and early breast cancers when mammograms fail to identify a problem. Ultrasound can also help doctors locate specific areas in the breast for biopsy (obtain small samples of tissue to study under a microscope). Sometimes doctors also suggest the use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) screening (see below) in younger women with dense breast tissue. Term Paper For An E-commerce? Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanning. Recent research has shown that MRI scanning may be a useful screening tool for breast cancer in math solver, certain high-risk populations. In 2004, a team of Dutch researchers published a study of over 1,900 women at high risk for breast cancer in the New England Journal of paper on a strategic plan e-commerce, Medicine . These women underwent breast cancer screening that included physical exams every 6 months along with yearly mammograms and MRI scans of the breasts. While conventional mammography did detect many cancers at an early stage, some tumors were identified by MRI that were not detected by mammography. Overall, MRI led to the identification of 32 tumors, of which 22 were not seen on the corresponding mammogram. Likewise, some tumors appeared on in india mammograms that were not visible on the MRI scan. Mammography detected a total of 18 tumors, of which eight were not identified by MRI. The routine use of MRI, however, has many limitations.

While it enabled the detection of some tumors in high-risk women, it also detected more noncancerous lesions (false-positives), which lead to many more follow-up examinations and paper on a strategic e-commerce business potentially unnecessary surgeries. In fact, MRI led to twice as many unnecessary examinations and three times as many unneeded surgical biopsies of the breast than screening by mammography alone. MRI is also approximately 10 times more costly (average cost $1,000 to essay rights in india $1,500) than mammography. Because of term paper on a for an e-commerce business, these limitations, experts believe that screening with MRI is impractical for phd thesis women who do not have an elevated risk of developing breast cancer. However, its benefits appear to outweigh its limitations in certain high-risk populations. The American Cancer Society recommends that women at high risk for breast cancer (greater than 20% lifetime risk) should get an MRI and a mammogram every year. Women at moderately increased risk (15% to on a strategic for an 20% lifetime risk) should talk with their doctors about the benefits and limitations of adding MRI screening. Homework? Women at term on a strategic plan for an business, high risk for developing breast cancer include those who. have a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation, indicative of a strong inherited risk of breast cancer; have a first-degree relative with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation but have not been tested for the mutation; received chest radiation -- to treat Hodgkin#39;s disease or other cancers, for example -- between 10 and 30 years of phd thesis interpretive, age; or have Li-Fraumeni syndrome, Cowden syndrome, or Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndrome, or have first-degree relatives with one of these syndromes.

Women with significant risk factors may want to discuss their screening program with their physician to better determine whether MRI may be useful in their own case. It is important to note that MRI should not be considered a substitute for plan for an e-commerce regular mammography, and mammography is the only screening tool for which a reduction in mortality (death rate) from geometry problem solver breast cancer has been proven. Term On A Plan E-commerce Business? Breast self-examination and phd thesis dance breast examinations by a doctor. Both the American Cancer Society and the USPSTF do not call for on a for an e-commerce business regular self-examination of the breasts in their guidelines. The ACS states that breast self-exam is a document, optional, while the USPSTF states that doctors should not teach women to do breast self-examination. Term Paper On A E-commerce? The ACS further recommends a clinical breast exam (CBE) by interpretive a health-care professional about every 3 years for women in their 20s and 30s and every year for women 40 years of age and over. Term Paper Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business? Quick Guide Breast Cancer Diagnosis and Treatment.

What is the risk of radiation with repeated mammography screening over homework, the years? With modern mammography equipment, the amount of term paper strategic business, radiation exposure is extremely small. Although there is no level of using thesis theme, radiation without some theoretical risk, there is no evidence of increased breast cancer risks from mammography performed in the recommended manner. Furthermore, the benefits of early detection far outweigh these theoretical concerns. How helpful are BRCA1 and BRCA2 genetic tests in identifying women at strategic plan e-commerce, risk? In special circumstances, genetic tests can be very helpful both in identifying exceptionally high-risk patients and reducing the level of concern for others. We also now know that the presence of one of these genetic defects does not cause cancer in every patient. Before genetic tests are conducted, individuals being tested must have thorough counseling. Rashtriya Sansthan Phd Thesis? A clear understanding of the limitations of the paper on a strategic for an e-commerce business tests and the problems they may pose must precede the sanskrit sansthan testing. Paper Plan Business? The patient must know the meaning of the rights possible results, whichever way they may turn out, before testing. They should also have settled on a plan for each possible outcome of the test results.

Often, the term paper on a strategic for an e-commerce business best way to evaluate a potential genetic risk is to test a relative who has already been diagnosed with breast cancer. If the relative#39;s genetic testing (which must cover a large number of possible mutations) proves negative, then there is no need to perform genetic testing on the concerned individual. On Animal? But the concerned individual should still undergo close monitoring with breast examinations and mammograms. If the test is positive on the relative, then that specific mutation is the only one that needs to be checked in the concerned individual and the other family members. What is the link between estrogen and breast cancer? Estrogen is term strategic for an e-commerce, a female hormone that is produced by the ovaries.

During the reproductive years, a woman#39;s body is exposed to high levels of estrogen. After menopause, the on animal rights in india production of estrogen by term on a strategic e-commerce business the ovaries decreases. Estrogen is sometimes prescribed to treat some of the geometry math problem solver problems often associated with menopause, such as hot flashes, night sweats, sleeplessness, and term for an e-commerce business vaginal dryness. Estrogen has the additional benefit of prevention of bone thinning (osteoporosis). However, results from a large clinical trial of postmenopausal women receiving hormone therapy (HT) released in 2002 showed that the overall risks of dance, estrogen plus progestin therapy outweighed the benefits of hormone therapy. Combined hormone therapy with estrogen and progestin was shown to increase the risk of heart disease, stroke, and blood clots. High levels of estrogen over long periods also increase the risk of developing breast and term paper on a plan e-commerce business uterine cancer. Estrogen stimulates the cells of the breast and the uterine lining to grow and divide.

Breast cells that are actively dividing are believed to have a greater chance of DNA damage as well as a higher number of cells that already have DNA damage. A higher number of rights in india, cells with DNA damage elevate the risk of term plan for an, cancer development. Homework? Women who have an early onset of their menstrual period (or menses) and late menopause are more likely to paper strategic plan develop breast cancer than women with late menses onset and early menopause. This difference is believed to be attributable to the longer period of essay rights in india, estrogen exposure in the first group. Term Strategic Business? What are breast cancer prevention treatments? Selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) and its effect of estrogen on breast cell growth. A selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) is a chemical that is theme, designed to act like estrogen in certain tissue such as the term on a strategic plan for an e-commerce bones and not like estrogen in dance, other tissue such as the breast. The use of SERMs takes advantage of the on a for an business benefits of you write based essay, estrogen while trying to avoid the risks associated with estrogen. Two SERMs, tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and raloxifene (Evista), have been used as preventive treatment. The advantages and term paper disadvantages of each are discussed in more detail below. Tamoxifen is the first SERM to receive approval by the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in the treatment of breast cancer.

Some breast cancer cells are estrogen sensitive, meaning they possess so-called estrogen receptors and need estrogen to grow and divide. But estrogen has to bind to the receptors of these cancer cells in order to homework stimulate them. Binding of estrogen to the receptors is paper business, analogous to fitting a key into a lock. Geometry Problem Solver? Tamoxifen blocks the term on a plan e-commerce action of estrogen on the cancer cells by occupying the receptors (the locks), thus preventing estrogen (the keys) from fitting into the receptors. Blocking estrogen from the estrogen-sensitive cancer cells stops the interpretive dance growth and multiplication of these cells.

Tamoxifen (in higher than usual doses) may also possess other properties that cause the death of breast cancer cells that are not estrogen sensitive. Tamoxifen has been used to treat both advanced and strategic plan e-commerce early stage breast cancers. This drug has also proven valuable to women who have had cancer in one breast in reducing the chances of developing cancer in the second breast. Even though tamoxifen behaves like an anti-estrogen agent in breast tissue, it acts like a weak estrogen in the bones. Thus, tamoxifen may have some benefit in preventing osteoporosis fractures in postmenopausal women. Tamoxifen also decreases cysts and lumps in the breasts, especially among younger women. Fewer cysts and lumps make early detection by breast examinations and using thesis video mammograms easier. Term Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business? This use of the drug would only be in extreme situations and is not an interpretive approved use. Term Plan For An Business? Primary prevention of breast cancer with tamoxifen. The term primary prevention means trying to reduce the rashtriya sanskrit phd thesis risks of developing breast cancer in women without a prior history of breast cancer. Strategic For An? Tamoxifen not only theme, blocks the action of estrogen on estrogen-sensitive cancer cells, but it also blocks estrogen from acting on cells that are not cancerous.

Therefore, by reducing the growth and division of normal breast cells, tamoxifen decreases the population of paper on a strategic plan e-commerce business, cells that can develop cancer-causing DNA damage. In the National Surgical Adjuvant Breast and Bowel Project (NSABP) P-1, more than 13,000 women considered at a document essay, high risk for term paper strategic plan for an developing breast cancer were given either tamoxifen or a placebo for sansthan 5 years. The women receiving tamoxifen developed 49% fewer breast cancers than women receiving the placebo. A further study, the International Breast Cancer Intervention Study (IBIS-I) in Europe, also confirmed a reduction in the rate of breast cancer development in high-risk women. The United States FDA has approved the use of tamoxifen for primary prevention in women at high risk for developing breast cancer.

There is no evidence to suggest that tamoxifen can reduce breast cancer incidence in strategic e-commerce business, women considered to have a normal risk for the development of breast cancer. Risks and side effects of tamoxifen. The risk of tamoxifen is the development of uterine cancer. Although the overall risk of developing uterine cancer is small (probably less than 1%), in how do you write based essay, the NSABP-P1 trial, more women on tamoxifen developed uterine cancer than women taking the paper on a strategic for an placebo. Additionally, women over 50 years of age on tamoxifen have a slightly heightened chance of developing blood clots in the veins of the lower extremities. These blood clots can occasionally break off and travel to cause blockage of blood vessels in the lungs (a process called pulmonary embolism). Symptoms of pulmonary embolism include shortness of breath, chest pain, and sometimes shock.

Some studies have also reported an increased risk of stroke in rights in india, patients taking tamoxifen. Term Strategic For An? The other side effects of tamoxifen include weight gain, hot flashes, irregular periods, vaginal dryness or discharge, and a slightly enhanced risk of cataracts. Many of these side effects also depend on homework the age group being studied. Raloxifene (Evista) is the second SERM to be approved by the FDA. It has been approved for treating and preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Data suggest that raloxifene, like tamoxifen, can reduce the term paper strategic plan e-commerce business chance of developing breast cancer in high-risk postmenopausal women. Unlike tamoxifen, raloxifene does not stimulate cells of the uterus and is not believed to increase the risk of uterine cancer. Studies that examined the rashtriya effects of both tamoxifen and strategic for an business raloxifene (including the sansthan phd thesis STAR trial, which studied over 19,000 postmenopausal women at high risk for developing breast cancer) showed that both drugs lowered the incidence of breast cancer in a similar manner. While both tamoxifen and raloxifene increased a woman#39;s risk of blood clots, the term strategic plan for an observed increase was smaller with raloxifene. Raloxifene was also associated with a lower risk of uterine cancer and hysterectomy for noncancerous reasons than tamoxifen.

However, data suggest that raloxifene is as effective in preventing the development of early, noninvasive cancers as tamoxifen. Sanskrit? Data are not available on strategic e-commerce business the effects of raloxifene in premenopausal women, and it is a potential teratogen, meaning that it may cause harm to the developing fetus. Therefore, raloxifene is limited to use by postmenopausal women and not used in women of childbearing age. Other medications, known collectively as aromatase inhibitors, are also used to block the effects of phd thesis interpretive, estrogen. Examples of aromatase inhibitors include anastrozole (Arimidex), and exemestane (Aromasin). Their main activity is to inhibit (block) the action of a particular enzyme (aromatase) that creates estrogen from other normally circulating hormones.

Tamoxifen and aromatase inhibitors, therefore, act differently and term on a plan e-commerce business have different side effects. Aromatase inhibitor medications are an option for postmenopausal women at high risk of developing breast cancer. Surgical measures to prevent breast cancer. Preventive or prophylactic mastectomy is the surgical removal of one or both breasts in problem, women who have moderate to high risk of developing breast cancer. Studies have shown that this technique reduces a woman#39;s chance of developing breast cancer by up to 90%. Since small amounts of breast tissue can remain on the chest wall, in the underarm, or even in the abdomen following a mastectomy, it is impossible to term paper plan for an e-commerce business completely prevent development of breast cancer by prophylactic mastectomy.

Women often choose to have surgical reconstruction of the breasts at homework, the time of surgery. It is very important for a woman considering preventive mastectomy to have a frank discussion with her physician concerning her cancer risk, other available treatments, and the potential complications and term paper on a plan e-commerce implications of the homework homework surgery before making a decision. Prophylactic or preventive oophorectomy, or removal of the ovaries, has also been performed in women receiving preventive mastectomies in term paper on a plan for an, order to reduce estrogen levels. Are there other breast cancer prevention measures? Antioxidants are chemicals that prevent a type of chemical reaction called oxidation. Oxidation is a major source of free radical formation. Antioxidants also mop up the free radicals that are formed.

Free radicals are electrically charged chemicals that can attack and damage proteins and DNA, thereby altering genetic information. If enough damage occurs to the DNA segments of sanskrit phd thesis, a cell that controls cell division and growth, cancer can develop from that single cell. Free radicals can be formed by the normal metabolic activity in the body. However, there is no evidence that dietary intake of term paper plan business, antioxidants affects breast cancer risk. Early epidemiological studies suggested that high-fat diets might be associated with increased risks of breast cancer. But this relationship has not been confirmed, and results of studies have been mixed. Furthermore, it is rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis, clear that some fats may be protective rather than harmful.

There are, however, some theoretical concerns about eating overcooked meats and fats. On A Strategic E-commerce? Diet and lifestyle measures to reduce breast cancer risk. Theoretically, there are dietary and lifestyle measures that can decrease free-radical formation and reduce the risk of developing breast and other types of cancer. These measures include. diets rich in vegetables and fruits; diets low in fats, and red and rashtriya sanskrit phd thesis overcooked meats; reasonable intake of antioxidants, such as vitamins E and C; and regular exercise and weight control. Evidence that these measures reduce the chances of developing breast cancer is largely based on term on a epidemiological data. Epidemiological evidence is derived from comparing two large populations with similar characteristics that have different diets or levels of exercise.

Epidemiological evidence can only be suggestive, not conclusive. In fact, concrete proof that diet and exercise actually reduce the risk of developing breast cancer will be difficult to attain, and there is no evidence that any breast cancer prevention diet exists. When firm scientific data is lacking and is unlikely to be available for the foreseeable future, the doctor has to rashtriya sansthan phd thesis weigh the risks of his/her recommendations against the potential benefits. On A Plan For An E-commerce? Long-term risk and benefit considerations are especially important in advising young, healthy women about preventing a disease that they may or may not develop. How Do You Write Based? In the term strategic business case of diets low in sanskrit, fat and overcooked meats, diets high in paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business, vegetables and fruits, avoiding smoking, and rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis regular exercise, there is enough known benefit and very little known risk, which makes it easy for paper strategic for an doctors to recommend them to using thesis video their patients. Doctors are also comfortable with recommending one multivitamin a day. However, there is no clinical evidence that taking megadoses of vitamins are of any benefit. Megadoses of certain vitamins can have adverse side effects. There is epidemiological data which show that women who exercise regularly have a lower incidence of breast cancer than women who do not exercise.

The reason for such a benefit is unknown, but it may be related to the fact that obese individuals have higher levels of term on a plan e-commerce business, estrogen in the body than people who are not obese. The higher levels of estrogen may increase the geometry problem risk of breast cancer in obese women. There are two important aspects in breast cancer prevention: early detection and e-commerce risk reduction. Screening may identify early noninvasive cancers and allow treatment before they become invasive or identify invasive cancers at using thesis theme video, an early treatable stage. But screening does not, per se, prevent cancer. Term Paper For An E-commerce? Breast cancer prevention really must be understood as risk reduction.

In extremely high-risk patients, such as those who have BRCA mutations, risk reduction may involve prophylactic surgical removal of the breasts and ovaries. For the average patient, lifestyle modifications (diet, exercise, weight loss) may be easily recommended and math problem have many other benefits. Term On A Strategic Plan For An? For patients who have an increased risk based on other factors, the use of hormone-blocking agents, in addition to the usual lifestyle recommendations, may also be considered. Essay On Animal In India? There is paper on a business, no absolute or definitive way to prevent breast cancer. Homework? Routine screening and early detection remain the most effective ways to reduce breast cancer deaths. But screening does not prevent breast cancer from occurring. Medications are an option for decreasing the likelihood of breast cancer in some women at high risk for developing breast cancer. There is no evidence to suggest that these medications should be used in paper on a plan for an, women withat average risk. Rashtriya? Reduction of risk factors can help reduce the paper strategic plan for an e-commerce risk of developing breast cancer: Maintain a healthy weight.

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Sensory ability in the narwhal tooth organ system. Correspondence to: Martin T. Nweeia, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, Department of Restorative Dentistry and Biomaterial Sciences, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA. E-mail: Martin_nweeia@hsdm.harvard.edu. Delta Dental of Wisconsin, P.O. Box 828, Stevens Point, WI Search for more papers by this author. Orthopaedic Research Center, Boston Children's Hospital, 300 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Department of term for an business Orthopaedic Surgery, Harvard Medical School, 25 Shattuck Street, Boston, MA Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of solver Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota, 321 19th Ave. S., Minneapolis, MN Search for more papers by this author. Arctic Research Division, Fisheries and for an business, Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, MB, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and how do based essay, Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author. Freshwater Institute, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, 501 University Crescent, Winnipeg, Canada Search for more papers by this author.

Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for more papers by this author. Department of Vertebrate Zoology, Smithsonian Institution, 1000 Jefferson Drive SW, Washington, DC Search for term plan e-commerce, more papers by this author. Arctic Research Center, Institute of Bioscience, Aarhus University, Frederiksborgvej, Roskilde, Denmark Search for more papers by this author. National Institute of essay rights in india Standards and Technology, ADAF Paffenbarger Research Center, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD Search for term on a strategic plan e-commerce, more papers by this author. Veterinary Services, Calgary Zoo, 1300 Zoo Rd. NE, Calgary, AB, Canada Search for how do you write a document based, more papers by this author. Catalyst Laboratory for Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by this author. Department of Developmental Biology, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Catalyst Laboratory for term strategic plan e-commerce, Innovative Translational Technologies, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, 188 Longwood Ave., Boston, MA Search for more papers by using video, this author. First published: 18 March 2014 Full publication history DOI: 10.1002/ar.22886 View/save citation Cited by (CrossRef): 6 articles Check for updates.

Animal Care : Animal Protocol, 04384. Office of Research Subject Protection, Harvard Medical School. The erupted tusk of the narwhal exhibits sensory ability. The hypothesized sensory pathway begins with ocean water entering through cementum channels to a network of patent dentinal tubules extending from the dentinocementum junction to the inner pulpal wall. Circumpulpal sensory structures then signal pulpal nerves terminating near the base of the term strategic for an business, tusk. The maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve then transmits this sensory information to the brain. Homework! This sensory pathway was first described in published results of patent dentinal tubules, and evidence from dissection of e-commerce tusk nerve connection via the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to sanskrit phd thesis, the brain. New evidence presented here indicates that the patent dentinal tubules communicate with open channels through a porous cementum from the ocean environment. On A E-commerce! The ability of pulpal tissue to react to external stimuli is supported by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers in the pulp and using, gene expression of pulpal sensory nerve tissue. E-commerce Business! Final confirmation of sensory ability is demonstrated by significant changes in heart rate when alternating solutions of high-salt and sansthan, fresh water are exposed to the external tusk surface.

Additional supporting information for function includes new observations of dentinal tubule networks evident in unerupted tusks, female erupted tusks, and vestigial teeth. Term Paper For An Business! New findings of sexual foraging divergence documented by stable isotope and fatty acid results add to the discussion of the functional significance of the narwhal tusk. The combined evidence suggests multiple tusk functions may have driven the tooth organ system's evolutionary development and persistence. Homework Homework! Anat Rec, 297:599617, 2014. 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

The functional significance of the erupted narwhal tusk has been the subject of conjecture and theory since the writings of term strategic e-commerce Albertus Magnus in 1495 (Magnus, 1495). It has been thought to serve as an acoustic probe (Best, 1981; Reeves and Mitchell, 1981), possibly associated with sound transmission (Ford and Fisher, 1978; Best, unpublished B.Sc. Thesis, University of British Columbia, 1972); a thermal regulator (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977); a swimming rudder (Kingsley and Ramsay, 1988); a breathing organ; a spear for hunting or finding food (Vibe, 1950; Harrison and King, 1965; Ellis, 1980; Bruemmer, 1993); an aggressive weapon in interspecific fighting (Brown, 1868; Beddard, 1900; Lowe, 1906; Geist et al., 1960) or self-defense against predators (Buckland, 1882; Gray, 1889: Freuchen, 1935); and a tool used for breaking the ice (Scoresby, 1820; Tomlin, 1967), digging (Freuchen, 1935; Pederson, 1960; Newman, 1971), or resting on ice (Porsild, 1918). Many studies describe the tusk as a secondary sexual characteristic used in aggressive encounters or intraspecific display (Lowe, 1906; Norman and how do you write a document based essay, Fraser, 1949; Miller, 1955; Silverman, 1979) associated with tusk fracture and head scarring (Porsild, 1922; Silverman and term paper business, Dunbar, 1980), and to establish social hierarchy amongst males (Scoresby, 1820; Hartwig, 1874; Mansfield et al., 1975; Silverman and using theme, Dunbar, 1980; Gerson and Hickie, 1985). Examining the term on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business, narwhal tooth organ system through a multidisciplinary approach that combines studies of anatomy, morphology, histology, neurophysiology, genetics, and phd thesis dance, diet gives a more comprehensive view of paper on a plan for an business its functional significance and highlights sensory ability as an added functional attribute. Narwhal teeth have unusual anatomical features. Among them are (1) a sinistral spiral morphology (Worm, 1655; Scoresby, 1823); (2) an extreme degree of video tooth asymmetry in males, with a single left tusk expression and term paper strategic, embedded right tusk (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (3) an extreme expression of sexual dimorphism, with the male having an erupted left canine tusk reaching 2.6 m and the female commonly with right and left embedded tusks, often less than 33 cm (Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (4) a unique form of tooth asymmetry in geometry problem, a double-tusked expression, since the morphology of the spiral remains sinistral for both left and right antemeres, and the left tusk is on a for an business often slightly longer than the right (Worm, 1655; Sonnini and Buffon, 1804; Home, 1813); (5) a horizontal direction of eruption in homework homework, both erupted and unerupted tusk forms (Linné et al., 1792: Egede and Wood, 1818); and (6) perforation of the tooth through the upper lip (Hampe, 1737; Brisson, 1756; Crantz, 1767; Donndorff, 1792).

Though narwhal teeth share many anatomical characteristics with other tusked animals including a lack of enamel (Ishiyama, 1987), the presence of term paper plan for an cementum, dentin, pulpal tissue and their associated structures (Seltzer and interpretive dance, Bender, 2002; Berkovitz et al., 2002), and the presence of the term paper on a strategic for an business, maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve associated with tooth innervation (Nweeia et al., 2009), they have many distinguishing features. Among them are a cementum layer overlying over theme, the erupted canine (Nweeia et al., 2012) tusk, a patent network of dentinal tubules through the term paper strategic e-commerce business, full thickness of dentin (Nweeia et al., 2009; Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and pulpal soft tissues, extending the phd thesis interpretive dance, full length of the tooth, diminishing only in term strategic for an e-commerce, diameter with age (Pederson, 1931; Dow and Hollenberg, 1977; Nweeia et al., 2009). Essay On Animal Rights! Initial scanning electron micrographs of the erupted male narwhal tusk reveal patent dentinal tubules that extend the term paper on a strategic for an business, full thickness of the dentin and correspond to lumina on the tusk surface. The tubules radiating outward from the dentin-pulpal wall are similar to on animal in india, those of humans and other mammals in diameter, though the spacing is three to five times wider. Limited scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been completed for other odontocetes, but suggests dentinal tubules are well occluded within the erupted portion of the dentinal layer for on a strategic business, most odontocetes (Boyde, 1980). In cases where the dentinal tubules are patent through the geometry problem solver, full dentinal layer, such as the paper on a strategic, sperm whale ( Physeter macrocephalus ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), they are covered by theme, an enamel layer (Loch et al., 2012). Dentinal tubules have been described for term paper on a plan e-commerce, other marine mammals, including the rough-toothed dolphin ( Steno bredanensis ) (Miyazaki, 1977), pantropical spotted dolphin ( Stenella attenuata ) (Myrick, 1980), grey seal ( Halichoerus grypus ) (Hewer, 1964), hooded seal ( Cystophora cristata ) (Mohr, 1966) harbor porpoise ( Phoecoena phoecoena ) (Perrin and theme video, Myrick, 1980), short-beaked dolphin ( Delphinus delphis ) (Gurevich et al., 1980), bottlenose dolphin ( Tursiops truncatus ), and pilot whale ( Globicephala melaena ) (Boyde, 1980; Locke, 2008), and the walrus ( Odobenus rosmarus ), hippopotamus ( Hippopotamus amphibious ), and killer whale ( Orcinus orca ) (Locke, 2008). Open tubules are associated with sensory ability in term on a business, mammals (Cuenin et al., 1991; Johnson and Brännström, 1974; Panapoulos et al., 1983), though normally expressed only in pathologic conditions for homework, most other mammals. Studies of on a e-commerce nerve-associated tissue in the pulp of odontocete teeth are limited, though helpful in problem solver, understanding function (Holland, 1994). Strategic Plan For An! Sensory innervation of mammalian teeth includes small myelinated A fibers and a majority of math problem solver unmyelinated C sensory fibers (Seltzer and Bender, 2002).

The A fibers are associated with dentin and the odontoblastic layer (Kimberly and term on a plan for an business, Byers, 1988; Ikeda et al., 1997), while the C fibers are more uniform, though more densely populated in peripulpal areas and geometry, along blood vessels (Wakisaka et al., 1987; Hildebrand et al., 1995). Both A and C fibers contain the neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide, or CGRP (Silverman and Kruger, 1987; Fristad et al., 1994). In addition, C fibers contain the term plan, neuropeptide substance P (Casasco et al., 1990; Wakisaka, 1990). The presence of sensory-associated genes in essay in india, the pulp is an indicator for sensory function in mammalian teeth. Though there is a lack of genomic information for the narwhal, techniques are available to measure the gene expression profiles using a universal array platform to de novo sequencing that are informative to identify sensory-associated genes associated with the pulp (Velculescu et al., 1995; Unneberg, 2003; Roth et al., 2004). Other techniques using sequenced genomes of paper plan for an e-commerce marine mammals similar to the narwhal as well as humans are also useful.

Evolutionary patterns of how do you write a document based essay mammalian tooth anatomy and plan for an e-commerce, morphology are driven by diet (Anapol and Lee, 1994; Jernvall et al. 1996; Teaford and Ungar, 2000; Evans et al., 2007; Thewissen et al., 2007; Lucas et al., 2008). Homework Homework! Thus, comparing the foraging habits of male and paper strategic for an, female narwhals can potentially provide useful information about the erupted male tusk. Geometry Math Solver! Previous dietary studies comparing male and female narwhals from the Baffin Bay population have found no difference in stomach contents between the sexes (Finley and Gibb, 1982; Laidre and paper on a for an business, Heide-Jørgensen, 2005); however, smaller sample size of female narwhals has limited these analyses, and rashtriya sansthan phd thesis, stomach contents can be biased since they only paper strategic e-commerce provide information on essay on animal in india, the most recent meal from a specific foraging area. Stable isotope and on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business, fatty acid analyses provide long-term integrated dietary information to how do a document essay, investigate if dietary differences exist between male and term paper for an e-commerce, female narwhals in the Baffin Bay population. Both techniques investigate chemical signals in animal tissues which have incorporated isotopic and fatty acid values from their prey over various time frames, depending on math problem, the tissue. The nitrogen stable isotope (δ 15 N) provides information on an organism's trophic level, while the carbon stable isotope (δ 13 C) provides information on the animal's spatial foraging location, benthic versus pelagic or inshore versus offshore (Peterson and Fry, 1987; Crawford et al., 2008; Newsome et al., 2010). Fatty acids are transferred relatively unmodified from prey tissues to predator tissues, and thus can also be used to determine and compare diet among groups of paper on a for an organisms (Iverson et al., 2004). Both analyses have been successfully used to essay on animal rights, investigate diet in term for an e-commerce, marine mammals (Iverson et al., 2004; Newsome et al., 2010) including walruses ( Odobenus rosmarus ) (Dehn et al., 2007), bowhead ( Balaena mysticetus ), and gray ( Eschrichtius robustus ) whales, and the narwhal's closest relative, the beluga whale ( Delphinapterus leucas ) (Horstmann-Dehn et al., 2012). When the dance, two analyses are used together and provide complementary results they can verify and paper strategic for an e-commerce, confirm dietary interpretations, as was done in determining the primary prey for the beluga whale as arctic cod (Loseto et al., 2008, 2009) and for the bottlenose whale as Gonatus (Hooker et al., 2001).

Brännström's theory of dental sensitivity is the most widely accepted mammalian model to essay rights in india, explain this sensory ability and function for teeth. Changes to the interstitial fluid flow within dentinal tubules changes the conformation of odontoblastic cells connected to term on a strategic plan for an business, a pulpal nerve plexus which sends signals of sensory perception to the brain (Brännström, 1966). Thesis Theme! This theory explains the known ability of teeth to sense environmental stimuli, and supports the evolutionary descriptions of tooth precursors as sensory organs (Lumsden, 1987). Human and other mammalian teeth are known to be capable of sensing external stimuli (Anderson, 1968; Haegerstam, 1976; Byers and Dong, 1983; Byers, 1984; Balam et al., 2005) such as temperature (Yamada et al., 1968; Jyväsjärvi and Kniffki, 1987; Ahn et al., 2012), pressure (Mengel et al., 1992), proprioception (Hassanali, 1997; Catania and Remple, 2002; Ozer et al., 2002), osmotic gradients, galvanic potential (Ramirez and Vanegas, 1989; Heyeraas et al., 1994), nocioception (Hu et al., 1978; Lisney, 1983; Narhi et al., 1984; Shigenaga et al., 1986; Byers et al., 1988; Iwata et al., 1998; Kawarada et al., 1999; Andrew and paper on a e-commerce business, Matthews, 2000), and percussion (Ogawa et al., 2002; Watanabe et al., 2003). Sensory nerve fibers and rashtriya sanskrit, associated nerve bundles are also found in paper strategic e-commerce business, the pulp of other toothed animals (Pischinger and Stockinger, 1968; Weissengruber et al., 2005). Sansthan Phd Thesis! This sensory ability serves many different functions, such as protecting teeth against environmental insults and responding to strategic business, age-related and pathological conditions (Hildebrand et al., 1995). How Do A Document Essay! Because narwhals expose these open tubules during normal function, they are capable of sensing one or more of these variables. The erupted male narwhal tusk exhibits sensory ability based on term paper plan for an e-commerce, physiologic response of changing heart rate associated with tusk exposure to alternating solutions of fresh and you write, salt water, and the presence of sensory nerve-associated structures. A complete model of tusk sensory function, from stimulus introduction to brain perception, is the primary objective of this investigation. In vivo testing of this model to verify physiologic response to term paper plan e-commerce business, an introduced stimulus helps to confirm sensory ability.

Demonstration of this model includes: (1) an on animal rights anatomical description of open channels in a porous cementum layer covering the erupted tusk; (2) further and more complete imaging of strategic plan for an e-commerce a dentinal tubule network in various expressions of the narwhal tooth organ system, including the male erupted tusk, male and female unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth in both sexes; (3) evidence of sensory-associated cells and tissue in the narwhal pulp and thesis theme video, circumpulpal dentin; (4) detection of sensory-associated genes and antigens in the narwhal tusk pulp; (5) published findings of term strategic plan for an business nerve connection at the base of the rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis, erupted tusk and term on a strategic plan for an business, continued connection to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve to using video, the brain; and (6) new results associating physiologic heart response in response to sensory stimuli of alternating fresh and high-salt water solutions introduced to strategic business, the tusk. An intact, erupted tusk (“A”) including pulp tissuetaken from a male narwhal in 2003, 48 km from using thesis theme, Pond Inlet, Baffin Island, in the eastern portion of Eclipse Sound, 24 km southwest of Cape Graham Moore, Bylot Island [72N 36′ 53.1″, 75W 37′ 56.4]was sawn in the field into 54 consecutive cross-sections measuring 3550 mm in paper strategic business, axial length. Overall erupted tusk length was 218.4 cm, with diameter increasing from 14.8 mm at the tip to 57.4 mm at geometry math problem solver, the base (Fig. Term Strategic! 1A). Segments were fixed in a document based essay, 70% ethanol. Segment A-12 was processed to examine neuronal structures at term paper for an e-commerce business, the pulpal-dentin interface. The midpoint of segment A-12 was located 45.7 cm from the tusk tip, with a 2.78 cm mean outer diameter and 0.87 cm mean pulp diameter. Segment A-12 was secondarily fixed in homework homework, 10% neutral buffered formalin, decalcified in EDTA, post-fixed in paper for an business, formalin, and phd thesis interpretive, paraffin embedded. Ten-micron-thick sections were mounted on SuperFrost slides for paper plan business, immunohistochemistry. (1A, top ): Sections A-12 and A-42 used in SEM dentinal tubule analysis and surface imaging of cementum, taken from an erupted male narwhal tusk; (1B, bottom ): Pulp sections used in immunohistochemistry analysis. An intact dental pulp was extracted from a narwhal tusk harvested near redundant text Kakiat Point, Arctic Bay, Baffin Island, in 2003 [72N 40′ 51.2″, 86W 41′ 16.9″].

The pulp was fixed in 70% ethanol for 2 months, then suspended in 10% neutral buffered formalin at 4C under 20 g of tension to maintain extension. Overall dimensions of the heavily vascularized dark red pulp were: length, 142.2 cm; diameters 0.3 cm (tip), 1.5 cm (mid), and 4.8 cm (base/apical tusk). The pulp base was bulbous and dance, calcified. Ten-micron-thick paraffin sections were prepared from four separate segments of the paper, pulp (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and L, 90.8 cm). Segment L represented the pulp tissue at rashtriya sanskrit, the approximate base of the erupted tusk that would be exposed to term plan business, seawater (Fig. Rashtriya Sanskrit Phd Thesis! 1B). A fetus was also collected and term on a strategic, head dissected into separate maxilla and mandible sections and stored in RNAlater ® solution (Life Technologies, Carlsbad, CA) and kept in ice until laboratory arrival. Tissue samples were brought under CITES Export Permits CA03FO1000005, CA05F01Q004, X0704-132/06, CA08F01Q0002, CA09F0W10001 and import permits 04US015415/9, 04US082589/9, 06US015415/9, US NMFS permits 932-1489-04 and 764-1703-00, and DFO transport permits A 02089, A 016505, 18469, 17378.

Examination of homework channels through a porous cementum layer and a dentinal tubule network patent through the full thickness of term on a strategic business dentin was completed after sections were prepared. Samples for SEM were sectioned using a water-cooled diamond saw, and polished with a series of abrasives through 4000 grit with silicon carbide abrasive paper using a rotating metallography table. The surfaces were then cleaned to you write a document, remove surface debris, using a mild HCl acid etch followed by term paper plan, rinsing in dilute sodium hypochlorite. The cleaned sections were then washed and using theme, dried in a vacuum desiccator and gold-sputter coated for SEM observation. Samples for cementum examination were prepared by taking cross-sections of tusk segment A-42 sawn at term for an e-commerce business, 0.9-mm thickness with a precision low-speed water-cooled saw. Surface imaging of cementum was performed at 50× objective magnification using a Keyence super resolution digital microscope model VHX-S90BE, equipped with a VH-Z20R/Z20W lens and you write, variable illumination adapter VH-K20. Reagents for immunohistochemistry of neuronal markers included calcitonin gene-related peptide antibody (anti-CGRP, ab81887, abcam), 200kD neurofilament heavy antibody (ab17126, abcam), substance P antibody (#20064, Immunostar), and isolectin IB4-AlexaFluor 488 conjugate (Molecular Probes, Invitrogen). While specific for the indicated antigens in one or more mammalian species, none of term on a strategic for an business these antibodies had previously been tested in narwhals, thereby precluding inference from negative findings. Sections were processed by microwave antigen retrieval for video, 15 min in citrate buffer solution, pH 6.0 (Antigen Unmasking Solution #H-3300 Vector Laboratories, Burlingame, CA).

Antibody localization involved peroxidase coupling and red color development with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (ABC kit and ImmPACT AEC Peroxidase Substrate kit, #SK-4206, Vector Laboratories). Primary antibodies were diluted 1/50 to 1/1000 for incubation and were omitted for negative control sections; all sections were counterstained with aqueous hematoxylin. Slides were imaged by light microscopy with a Nikon Eclipse 80i at objective magnifications of 4× to 60× (oil). Since the narwhal has not been sequenced, a query of keywords “tooth” and term on a plan e-commerce, “nerve” for interpretive dance, the Tursiops truncatus genome was performed using the Ensembl database. Term On A Strategic For An Business! The genes NGFR, DLX2, TFAP2A, and GLI3were the only ones that resulted from the sanskrit, search. Primers were created for all four using the Roche Universal Primer Design software, though the QRT-PCR assay for GLI3 failed. Another approach to identifying additional sensory genes was based on the human genome: FAM134B and WNK1 (formerly HSN2) genes have been shown to be involved in strategic e-commerce business, hereditary sensory neuropathy type II, which has a pathology for the reduction or loss of the sensory perception of rashtriya sanskrit pain, temperature and touch (Kurth, 2010). Paper On A E-commerce Business! These genes were cross-referenced to the Tursiops truncatus genome, and to using thesis video, our surprise, based on paper on a plan e-commerce, the Ensembl database search, there was a sequence similarity for these two genes.

The narwhal pulp tissue was stored in geometry problem solver, DNAgard (Biomatrica, San Diego, CA) and the control samples (muscle tissue around the blow-hole and gingiva from the inner portion of the mandible) were placed in RNAlater solution following the on a for an business, respective company protocol within 15 min of essay access to a fetus collected at plan, Kakiat Point, then all samples were stored at −20C until arrival at HC-LITT, where they were stored at how do essay, −80C. Paper On A Plan For An E-commerce Business! Sections of these pulp and homework, control samples were obtained from multiple regions and term on a plan for an e-commerce, weighed prior to homogenization. The Covaris t-PREP™ and S220 Focused-ultrasonicator (Covaris, Woburn, MA) were used to homogenize the pulp and control samples. Rashtriya Sanskrit! Prior to Adaptive Focused Acoustics™ on term on a strategic for an business, the S220 instrument, 250 μL of Qiagen Buffer RLT (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) was added to the samples. After processing, 750 μL of homework homework TRIzol LS was added to extract the RNA from the term on a strategic business, samples using the standard three-step phenol/chloroform extraction method according to the manufacturer's instructions and prior to making cDNA. Rashtriya Sanskrit Phd Thesis! cDNA was synthesized from 1.5 µg of total RNA for term on a strategic for an e-commerce business, each sample using Roche reverse transcriptase. All assays were prepared using standard conditions in a master mix solution without any effort at essay in india, assay optimization. For each data point, there were three replicates. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed based on the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively.

The Ensembl database (http://uswest.ensembl.org) was utilized to project transcripts involved in term on a strategic for an e-commerce, sensory nerve functions by using the phd thesis dance, closest relative of the narwhal whose genome had been sequenced ( Tursiops truncatus http://uswest.ensembl.org/Tursiops_truncatus/Info/Index [Database version: 71.1]) (Hubbard et al., 2002; Flicek et al., 2012). The gene accession numbers were used in designing the primers for the housekeeping genes (Spinsanti et al., 2006). The Roche Universal ProbeLibrary probes and target-specific PCR primers were selected using the ProbeFinder Assay Design software (https://qpcr.probefinder.com/organism.jsp, “Other organism” selection) (Rozen and Skaletsky, 2002; Kuo et al., 2006). Please refer to term paper strategic for an business, Table 1 for primer sequences. The primers were used to confirm relative changes in mRNA levels by phd thesis interpretive, QRT-PCR using the Roche 480 LightCycler. Reactions were performed in term paper plan for an e-commerce business, microliter reaction volumes for interpretive, six genes, using 1 μL of cDNA under the following conditions: 95C for 10 min, followed by 45 cycles of 95C for 10 s and 60C for 30 s (Kuo et al., 2006). Expression data for term paper on a for an business, the sensory genes were normalized relative to the housekeeping genes (Murphy et al., 2003; Khimani et al., 2005). Raw data were obtained and analyzed using the homework, SBI software (System BioSciences, Mountain View, CA). The comparative C T method (ΔΔ C t) was chosen to further calculate the relative expressions between the different groups. Carbon (δ 13 C) and nitrogen (δ 15 N) stable isotope analyses were performed on male ( n  = 91) and female ( n  = 91) narwhal skin samples collected by Inuit hunters in term plan for an business, the Canadian High Arctic from 1982 to 2009. Narwhal skin subsections of approximately 0.5 g were freeze-dried, lipid-extracted, and analyzed at essay rights in india, the University of Windsor for stable isotopes.

Burning of term paper strategic plan for an e-commerce business fossil fuels emits anthropogenic CO 2 that is depleted in 13 C, resulting in increasingly depleted C animal tissue signals over the industrial period: this pattern is known as the Suess effect (Sonnerup et al., 1999). Carbon values were corrected to account for this depletion by calculating the atmospheric carbon value ( C atm ) in 1982 (the oldest sample included in the analysis) using δ 13 C atm  = −6.429 to you write a document based, 0.0060 exp (0.0217[ t −1740]), where t is the year (Feng, 1998). Atmospheric δ 13 C atm was calculated for each year samples were collected, and the difference between that value and the 1982 δ 13 C atm was subtracted from the measured δ 13 C to obtain a corrected carbon value. For the analysis of fatty acids, blubber samples from female ( n  = 56) and male ( n  = 56) narwhals harvested near the community of Pond Inlet, Nunavut, Canada were used. On A Strategic Plan! Lipids were extracted from essay on animal rights in india, narwhal blubber samples for fatty acid analysis using the modified Folch procedure (Folch et al., 1957; Budge et al., 2006) and term paper on a e-commerce, converted to fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan! FAME were analyzed using the Agilent Technologies 7890A GC system. T-tests were used to plan, test for geometry math problem, differences in δ 13 C and δ 15 N between male and female narwhals.

Fatty acid values were converted to percentages, divided by the mean of the sample, and log-transformed (Kenkel, 2006). On A Strategic For An E-commerce Business! A principal component analysis, which included 33 dietary fatty acids (Iverson et al., 2004), was followed by a multivariate ANOVA on how do you write a document essay, the first five principal components (cumulatively describing over 70% of the data) to term paper plan e-commerce business, determine if males and females differed significantly in using, their fatty acid values. All statistical analyses were conducted using JMP 7.0.1. Alternating high-salt (41 ppt) and term paper on a plan business, fresh-water solutions were used as stimuli to test the homework, physiologic response of the paper plan for an, narwhal tusk to environmental sensory stimuli. Using Thesis Video! Selection of the stimulus was based on paper for an e-commerce, the potential relevance and sansthan, importance of salt ions to paper for an business, the narwhal's ocean environment. A tusk jacket was constructed from a 10.2 cm diameter by 45.0 cm length clear acrylic tube with a 0.64 cm wall thickness, which was cut in half longitudinally and hinged on one seam to using theme, facilitate immediate closure at the other seam.

At each end a 5.7 cm wide by term on a plan for an, 3.8 cm thick piece of open-celled foam was glued to rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis, the inner surface of the tube, with an overall diameter of 10.2 cm and an inner open diameter of 2.8 cm, to form a centering gasket around the tusk at the tube ends. A one-way hose valve was fastened to term on a strategic for an business, the center of the tusk jacket, and Versilic Formulation SPX-70 I.B. tubing connected the jacket to an MSR 6-L Dromedary solution storage bag. Interpretive! Quick-connect valves allowed easy exchange of solution storage bags filled with fresh-water or high-salt solutions. The Midmark Holter IQ electrocardiograph (ECG) with a five-lead montage and eight-second data averaging was used for the six male narwhal samples tested in Tremblay Sound (TS) near the base of the term paper strategic plan e-commerce, Alpha River outside Pond Inlet [72N 21′ 38″, 81W 05′ 59″], two each in homework homework, years 2010, 2011, and term paper on a, 2012. Heart rate response was selected as a physiologic indicator, since sudden increases in salt ion concentrations would presumably be interpreted by narwhals as a sign that ice entrapment was threatening. Thus, during the introduction of high-salt solutions narwhal heart rate was expected to how do, rise due to physiologic response to rapid ice formation; conversely, heart rate was expected to fall during the introduction of paper on a plan for an e-commerce fresh water, as this stimulus is associated with the waters of summer inlets where ice is melting and there are fresh-water run-offs. The narwhals were captured from sansthan, land-based camps using an anchored net set perpendicular to the shore, and strategic e-commerce business, after capture brought to shore using standard techniques established for tagging (Dietz et al., 2001, 2008). Video! After the narwhals were stabilized, subdermal electrodes were inserted in a five-lead montage. Electrode leads for term paper on a strategic e-commerce business, ECG data collection were Grass Technologies subdermal Model F-E7 right-angled, 10 mm, 30-gage monopolar needles with 244 cm lead wires. IQ Manager software with real-time signal collection was used with the Holter IQ. Problem! Eight-second interval averages were used in the final analysis.

Solutions of 41 ppt salt-water were made by adding Instant Ocean™ saltwater synthetic salt crystals to inlet brackish sea water (1822 ppt); salt concentration was confirmed using the Omega CDH-287 meter. Fresh-water solutions were gathered from term on a strategic business, nearby glacial run-off streams that were used as drinking water. McCormick red and green food coloring dyes were added (10 drops/gallon) to identify the two different solutions, and to verify the clearing of one solution in the tusk jacket and essay rights in india, displacement by term strategic for an, the alternating solution. The two dye colors were interchanged between high-salt and fresh-water solutions to eliminate the possibility of food coloring sensitivity as another variable detected by the tusk, or color dispersion observed by the animal. The ECG was turned on after electrode attachment. After a few minutes of how do you write based essay heart monitoring, the term on a strategic for an, tusk jacket was attached at or near the base of the geometry, tusk, and alternating solutions of high-salt and term plan e-commerce business, fresh water were injected into the tusk jacket. Temperature of these stored solutions was kept at ambient sea water level by how do you write a document based essay, keeping them in Dromedary™ bags submerged in nearby seawater. Time periods for the solution injections were varied between animals to account for any effect on changes in heart rate response linked to capture time. Heart rate was monitored continuously during the paper for an e-commerce business, solution exchange and how do you write essay, dwell times until all experiments were completed. The Midmark Holter IQ™ instrument allowed real-time heart rate data to be stored and later segmented into paper for an business, 8-s averaging for the sample of six male narwhals.

The data recording was electronically marked at the beginning of each stimulus period to provide an accurate association of recorded heart rate to stimulus. Rights! The five-lead montage provided a manageable configuration of electrodes for field use, and very few interruptions in term strategic plan for an e-commerce, data were experienced due to phd thesis interpretive, displacement of the subdermal electrodes. An ideal heart beat wave form was identified to correlate with data recording and analysis (Fig. 2). Animal health and safety is always the primary concern, and all experiments cease and the animal is released at the first sign of overt stress when indicated by the monitoring veterinarian. Fortunately, none of the animals exhibited problems requiring early release, and most experiments, tagging, and specimen collections were completed within 30 min.

Experiments and research were conducted under Canadian Department of term paper strategic plan e-commerce business Fisheries and Oceans' Animal Care Committee permits FWI-ACC-20082009-007 and FWI-ACC-2008-2009-008 and Animal Use Protocol permits FWI-ACC-2009-024, FWI-ACC-2010-008, FWI-ACC-2011-016, and FWI-ACC-2012-009. Research protocol was established in the United States under the sansthan, Harvard Medical Area Standing Committee on Animals, Animal Experimentation Protocol 04384. The Hunters and on a strategic plan for an business, Trappers Organization (HTO) in geometry math problem solver, Pond Inlet, Nunavut voted to approve these research protocols in TS. A generalized least squares split-plot nested analysis was chosen to account for the unbalanced experimental design where there was variation in the length of the term paper plan e-commerce business, stimulus periods, and math solver, there was a reasonable likelihood that residuals would correlate between stimuli within each individual animal. Statistical analysis on the six animals captured at TS was done with whales and water treatments as the primary fixed factors and term strategic plan e-commerce, split-plots nested within whales and how do you write based essay, water treatments, to determine parameter estimates and the significance levels of the fixed factors and factor interactions, fitting the model: µ  +  W i  +  T j  + (WT) ij k  +  ε ijkl  +  γ (ij). This model included both split-plot and random error to account for the unbalanced experimental design where treatment intervals were not equal in length or number.

The model also accounted for paper on a plan business, the assumption that residuals would be correlated within each individual animal. No attempt was made to identify or exclude outliers in thesis theme, the data, although a few data points appeared to be potential outliers. Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) simultaneous confidence intervals were generated at 95% to evaluate the sizes of the differences among the whales' mean heart rates. A Student's t 95% confidence interval estimate was constructed to evaluate the size of the difference between treatment mean heart rates. Statistical analyses were conducted using JMP Pro 10.0.0. Results confirmed multiple indicators that support the hypothesis of a sensory pathway in the erupted narwhal tusk. Scanning electron micrographs of patent dentinal tubule networks provide evidence of the pathway for paper strategic plan e-commerce business, sensory conduction in homework homework, multiple forms of narwhal tooth expression, including both male and female erupted tusks, unerupted tusks, and vestigial teeth (Fig. 3). Narwhal electrocardiogram wave components from TS sample Whale 3. P wave = atrial depolarization. PR interval = time interval between onset of atrial depolarization and onset of ventricular depolarization. Term On A Strategic E-commerce Business! QRS complex = depolarization of ventricles, consisting of the Q, R, and S waves.

QT interval = time interval between onset of ventricular depolarization and end of ventricular repolarization. RR interval = time interval between 2 QRS complexes. T wave = ventricular repolarization. ST segment plus = ventricular myocardial depolarization. U wave = relaxation of ventricles.

Organized and open channels were observed in essay, tusk cross-sections, providing direct communication between the outer cementum surface of the tusk and the dentin-cementum interface (Fig. 4). The average channel diameter is 31 ± 14 (S.D.) μm, and the open areas comprise about 0.5% of the cementum. This sinusoidal channel network appears to surround bundles of Sharpey's fibers, and represents a possible pathway for sea water conduction through the cementum layer to the underlying dentin. Scanning electron micrographs at 1000× showing dentinal tubule orifices for term for an business, ( A ) male unerupted tusk and ( B ) female erupted tusk and at 500× showing polished dentin sections of ( C ) adult male tusk (inner third polished and homework, etched), ( D ) adult female tusk and ( E ) unerupted tusk. Term Paper On A! (Orientation of micrographs B-D, pulpal surface to the left and outer surface to the right). Scale bars = 10 microns.

Putative nerve fibers in interpretive dance, narwhal pulp and dentin were identified by immunohistochemical detection of neuronal markers. Paper Strategic Plan! CGRP and substance P are neuropeptides expressed by neurons in dental pulp with important roles in phd thesis dance, physiology and pathology (Caviedes-Bucheli et al., 2006). CGRP+ fibers were found localized to term strategic e-commerce business, peripheral pulp (Fig. 5), and while few were surrounded by connective tissue or adjacent to homework, vessels, most were typically within 100 μm of the pulp margin. This outermost pulpal region borders the odontoblast layer. Antibody to 200 kD neurofilament heavy chain, another neuronal marker reported in human dental pulp (Henry et al., 2012), failed to localize to any structures in strategic for an e-commerce, narwhal pulp (not shown). Organized channels traverse the full thickness of homework narwhal cementum. Scale bars = 500 microns. Left panel: numerous channels (white arrows) averaging 31 ± 14 µm in diameter are observed throughout the cementum layer in this cross-section of term on a strategic plan for an business tusk specimen A-42 (see Fig. 1). The sinusoidal channel shape results in a segmented appearance in the image plane.

The outer surface of the theme, tusk (black arrow) is 6.3 mm from the cementum-dentin boundary at the right margin of this panel. Term Paper On A Plan For An Business! Right panel: rotated image showing the cementum-dentin boundary where the fluid-filled dentinal tubules are in close proximity to the channels. Sharpey's fibers (S) that anchored the erupting tusk to alveolar bone during development appear as dark, hypomineralized collagen bundles. Substance P was clearly present in the peripheral pulp (Fig. 5). We observed extensive tracts of red substance P+ granules with diameters of 0.52 μm (Fig. 6, panels A, B, D). Rights In India! Substance P+ granules were found in four pulp segments representing the term strategic for an e-commerce, major linear dimensions of the pulp from tip to base of the erupted tusk (C, 1.7 cm from pulp tip; F, 15.8 cm; I, 51.4 cm; and how do you write a document based, L, 90.8 cm). In all pulp segments (where cross-sectional dimensions ranged from 0.4 to on a for an e-commerce, 15 mm), the substance P+ neurons were largely restricted to the outermost 200 μm of circumpulpal tissue in essay on animal rights, closest proximity to strategic for an business, the odontoblast cell bodies. Dance! Consistent staining of term on a for an e-commerce business small discrete loci always at the pulp periphery and in how do you write based essay, the exact same positions through consecutive serial sections help to confirm the accuracy and strategic plan for an, precision of the technique. The granule distribution and size is suggestive of parallel, oriented dendrites or peripheral processes of sensory neurons, which are similar to the boutons en passant (beads on geometry problem, a string) morphology of term strategic substance P+ neurons in the CNS (Behan et al., 1993).

The substance P+ granules provide strong evidence of peripheral innervation with potential for nociceptive transmission of excitatory impulses to the CNS. Problem! Other roles could involve substance P-mediated regulation of pulpal blood flow and extravasation and term e-commerce business, other responses to inflammation. Substance P, a peptide product of the Tachykinin 1/TAC1 gene, acts on homework, its receptor NK1R (Tachykinin receptor 1/TACR1) expressed by neurons and endothelial cells. Substance P released from pulpal sensory nerves during experimental tooth pain is implicated in nociceptive pain transmission (Avellán et al., 2008) as well as inflammatory responses to paper plan for an business, pain, including increased pulpal blood flow (Kim, 1990). CGRP immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers (white arrows) in peripheral zone of essay rights in india narwhal pulp adjacent to circumpulpal dentin. Panel APulp Segment F; panel BSegment L, upper left arrow is margin of paper on a strategic plan e-commerce large artery with smooth muscle wall; panel CSegment F; panel DSegment L. Control sections with primary antibody omitted showed no red reaction product. Scale bars = 20 microns. We examined substance P expression in the layers of dance odontoblasts, predentin, and dentin immediately adjacent to the peripheral pulp tissue. Odontoblasts were not evident at the pulp surface (Figs. 4A and paper on a strategic e-commerce, 6B) because they remained attached to the circumpulpal dentin when the intact pulp was forcibly withdrawn from the tusk.

Sections from Segment A-12 of a tusk containing its pulp faithfully preserved this interface (Fig. 6DF). There is geometry problem solver evidence of substance P+ nerve fiber adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies, and further evidence of substance P+ fibers in close proximity to odontoblastic processes in the zone of dentinal tubules (Fig. 6EF). This anatomical association supports the possibility of odontoblast-initiated sensory transmission in the narwhal tusk. Substance P immunostaining (red color) of putative nerve fibers in narwhal pulp and term plan for an business, dentin. Panel A, pulp segment L showing abundant red SP+ granules at pulp periphery (arrow); panel B, segment I showing linear arrays of SP+ granules near pulp periphery (arrows); panel C, segment C showing small cluster (arrow) of red SP+ granules at a document based, pulp periphery; panel D, segment I showing SP+ nerve fiber (arrow) adjacent to large artery with smooth muscle wall (sm); panel E, tusk segment A12 showing SP+ nerve (n) in peripheral pulp adjacent to odontoblast cell bodies (o) and dentin (d) with characteristic dentinal tubules (t); panel F, tusk segment A12 showing linear arrays of SP+ granules (arrows) in odontoblast (o) layer of dentin approximately 200 microns from the peripheral pulp. Scale bars = 100 microns (A, B, D, E) and strategic plan for an business, 10 microns (C, F). Top : Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to muscle tissue. Bottom: Fold-change of sensory genes when compared to mandibular soft tissue.

All the genes were normalized using the phd thesis, housekeeping genes (GAPDH, RPL4, RPS18, and YWHAZ). The gene expression profiles for sensory genes were calculated based on fold-change. DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, and strategic plan for an, TFAP2A genes were highly expressed in the pulpal tissue when compared to homework homework, both muscle and mandibular soft tissues (Fig. 7). When compared with pulpal tissue, the fold-change ranged from 1.64 (for FAM134B) to 21.03 (for DLX2), and three of the genes that had a fold-change greater than 16.5 when compared to muscle were highly expressed. Term Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business! Since the mandibular soft tissue might contain sensory nerves the sanskrit sansthan, gene expression profiles were not as significant, and these genes had fold-changes greater than 2.5. The gene expression profile of WNK1 was marginally higher in term paper plan e-commerce business, pulpal tissue compared to muscle tissue, and slightly down-regulated when compared to mandibular soft tissue (Hubbard et al., 2002; Kurth, 2010; Flicek et al., 2012). On the other hand, NGF was the only gene that was down-regulated compared with both muscle and mandibular soft tissue; thus, the expression was higher in both muscle and mandibular soft tissue than in geometry math problem solver, the pulp. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope values and for an business, dietary fatty acid percentages are both biomarkers that provide an indication of diet. Biomarkers were significantly different between male and female narwhals from the you write based, Baffin Bay (High Arctic) population, suggesting the sexes may have different foraging habits.

Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope data were normally distributed, as described by normal quantile plots, and term on a for an e-commerce business, variances were homogenous (Levene's test: Carbon, F 1, 432  = 0.433, P  = 0. 51; Nitrogen, F 1, 432  = 0.28, P  = 0.60). Rashtriya! Male narwhals ( n  = 278) had significantly higher δ 13 C ( t -test: t  = 4.82, P   0.0001) and δ 15 N ( t -test: t  = 3.5, P  = 0.0004) values compared to paper strategic business, female narwhals ( n  = 156). A multivariate ANOVA on the first five fatty acid principal components found there was also a significant difference between male and problem solver, female narwhals (MANOVA: F 5, 106  = 2.42, P  = 0.041, n  = 56). This significant difference between stable isotope and fatty acid values for male and female narwhals supported divergent sexual foraging habits.

A plot of the actual versus predicted heart rates indicated that there may have been a few observations that were outliers, but these observations were not eliminated from the data set of six male narwhals from TS (Table 2) since they had little impact on paper plan for an e-commerce, the overall analysis. A summary of fit of the actual and predicted heart rates resulted in an R 2 value of 0.87. A test of the fixed effects indicated that the difference among the whales was statistically significant ( P   0.0001) and that the treatment difference (high-salt versus fresh-water exposure) was significant ( P  = 0.0008); however, there was no significant two-way interaction between the on animal, whales and on a strategic plan e-commerce business, treatment ( P  = 0.36). A plot of the residuals showed a random pattern around zero, indicating that the how do you write, assumption of equal variances was likely met. The Tukey HSD set of confidence intervals of the differences (Table 3, bottom) indicated that there was no difference in the estimated mean heart rates between whales 1 and term plan, 2, whales 1 and 3, and essay on animal, whales 2, 5 and term paper strategic plan, 6 at the 95% confidence level. Whale 4 was significantly different from all others. The least squares means differences in Student's t test of the salt and homework, fresh-water treatment conditions (Table 3, top) resulted in an overall mean estimated heart rate of 60.42 bpm for the 41 ppt salt-water stimulus and an estimated 52.56 bpm for the fresh-water stimulus (Table 4), and these were significantly different ( P  = 0.0008). The estimated difference between the two means, with 95% confidence, was 7.86 bpm. The least squares means analysis of the whale-treatment interaction had a P -value of 0.36, indicating that all such confidence intervals of term on a plan business mean differences would overlap. These results demonstrated a significant and repeatable difference in on animal in india, heart rate, with higher heart rate being associated with the term strategic e-commerce, 41 ppt salt-water exposure and based, lower heart rate with the fresh-water exposure (Fig. On A Strategic Plan Business! 8).

This change in you write based, heart rate occurred in all six animals, though there were differences in the heart rates measured between the paper e-commerce business, different animals. The magnitude of change for solver, the salt stimulus mean was between 3.7 and 12.0 beats per minute. Mean heart rate measured for term paper plan for an, each of the homework homework, six male narwhals while the tusk is stimulated with either 41 ppt salt water or fresh water. Sensory model of the erupted male narwhal tusk showing, from bottom left, the introduction of strategic for an e-commerce business water gradients penetrating cementum channels connected to patent dentinal tubules through the full thickness of the dentinal layer, connecting to odontoblastic processes and cells at the base of the tubules and at the periphery of the pulp, which stimulate nerve tissue connecting the geometry math solver, base of tusk tissue to the maxillary branch of the fifth cranial nerve to the brain. Also pictured at term paper on a strategic plan for an, the bottom right are pulp peripheral nerve-associated substance P and CGRP. Human and other mammalian teeth have sensory function and exhibit a highly adapted ability to sense variables including temperature, ion concentration gradients, physical pressure during loading, and proprioceptive position. Math Problem Solver! It is therefore reasonable to expect that this function of term paper on a strategic plan for an dentition is also found in the narwhal.

Anatomic form and homework, physiologic field results are consistent with Brännström's hydrodynamic theory of on a business teeth, the phd thesis, most widely accepted theory of sensory and pain perception associated with exposed dentinal tubules (Brännström, 1966, 1967). Paper On A For An! The theory hypothesizes that interstitial fluid within these tubules can be influenced by variables of temperature, pressure, hydration status, and electrochemical and homework, osmotic gradients. Solutions introduced at the tusk surface have the effect of penetrating a porous cementum outer layer through a series of open and organized channels that create fluid flow within the dentinal tubules, outward during the exposure to high-salt solutions and inward after exposure to fresh water. Mechanical effects on odontoblastic processes within these tubules, and term on a plan for an, close associations of odontoblasts with nerve endings in the outer layer of pulpal tissue (Fig. 9), are involved in the initiation of sensory perception.

Direct exposure to the environment of the patent dentinal tubule network in narwhals is unusual. In contrast, the beluga ( Delphinapterus leucas )the closest relative to the narwhalexhibits the homework homework, more characteristic occluded dentinal tubules within the dentin layer, preventing any fluid conduction from the term paper on a strategic for an e-commerce business, enamel-covered tooth surface to rashtriya sanskrit phd thesis, the ocean environment (Sergeant, 1959 and 1973). Primer sequences used in QRT-PCR experiments lists the Roche Universal Probe number and term paper on a strategic e-commerce business, corresponding forward, reverse and amplicon sequences for math, the Universal Probe Library reactions. The sensory and housekeeping genes were designed using the Tursiops truncatus and Stenella coeruleoalba genomes, respectively. Tubules are present in all mammalian dentin and serve to supply the paper plan e-commerce, physiologic fluids that maintain the integrity of homework collagen that forms the collagen fibril network within dentin (Pashley, 1996; Kinney et al., 2003). It is well known that in human root-canal-treated teeth, where the pulpal tissue has been removed and thus the internal supply of physiologic fluid, the dentin becomes more brittle and loses elasticity over time (Jameson et al., 1993; Papa et al., 1994). This same physiologic function of maintaining collagen toughness within narwhal dentin would be even more critical at the high bending stresses experienced within a tusk. Tensile stresses are greatest near the paper strategic plan e-commerce, base and on the surface of a cantilevered beam, such as a narwhal tusk. Tissues with very high fracture toughness, such as the highly fibrous and collagenous dentin of the tusk, are best designed to respond to these stresses without fracturing. This tubular tusk structure of toughened dentin is you write a document a wonderful example of evolutionary engineering, where environmental demands have resulted in optimized organ design.

This explains the paper plan e-commerce business, high density of tubules observed and the fact that narwhal tusks maintain a pulpal vascular network for nearly their entire length. The unique feature of narwhal tusk dentin, however, is the frequent and normal communication of using thesis theme these tubules with the exposed surface of the tusk. In other mammalian teeth, surface layers of enamel or cementum occlude tubules, and occluded tubules frequently occur within the dentin layer, so that exposure of tubules only occurs as a result of strategic damage or pathology. The narwhal tusk has no surface enamel layer (Ishiyama, 1987), and homework, the cementum observed on the surface is highly porous with a network of open and organized channels surrounding abundant Sharpey's fiber bundles of hypomineralized collagen, thus providing the term paper plan for an e-commerce, patent communication needed to geometry math solver, sense surface stimuli. Dissection and imaging of male and female narwhal heads reveal connection of the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve from the brain to the tusk. Term Strategic! This connection is supported by intracranial dissections, tusk alveolar examination, and visible pathways of homework nerve conduction observed by dissection and radiographic imaging (Tyler, 2006; Nweeia et al., 2009). Narwhal pulp has been reported to have features similar to other mammals (Dow and Hollenberg, 1977).

Nerve-associated tissue discovered in narwhal pulpal tissue (Figs. Strategic E-commerce! 4 and problem solver, 5) also provides evidence that the Brännström hydrodynamic theory of sensory function could apply to term strategic e-commerce, the narwhal tusk. Transmission of dental sensory or nociceptive (pain) signals to the CNS involves Aδ and C-type fibers. Rapid, sharp pain is associated with Aδ fibers, while dull, radiating pain typically involves C-type fibers, depending on the type of stimulus. The Aδ fibers account for based, the sensitivity of dentin, whereas C-type fibers are activated only if external stimuli reach the pulp proper (Narhi et al., 1992).

Hydrodynamic sensory perception in the narwhal tusk is supported by strategic plan, our findings of extensive innervation and expression of substance P, a known nociceptive neurotransmitter, in homework, the peripheral region of the pulp. The close apposition of odontoblasts and substance P+ fibers is consistent with odontoblast-dependent sensory transmission initiated by fluid flow in dentinal tubules. Recent reports of mechano-sensitive ion channels such as TRPV14 and TREK-1 in odontoblast membranes, and PC1 and PC2 associated with the odontoblast primary cilia (Magloire et al., 2009, 2010), provide possible additional mechanisms for odontoblast-mediated sensory transmission. Significant presence and detection of a set of paper strategic sensory-related genes in how do a document based, the pulp (including DLX2, FAM134B, NGFR, TFAP2A, and NGF), either highly expressed or less expressed relative to control samples of muscle and term strategic, mandibular soft tissue, suggest a genetic basis for sensory function. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Stable isotope values in large mammal tissues can reflect the previous year's diet (Sponheimer et al., 2006), whereas fatty acids in blubber have turnover rates on the order of 1.53 months (Nordstrom et al., 2008). The majority of our samples were collected in July and dance, August.

Thus, fatty acid signatures would reflect dietary habits during the term paper for an business, late spring to early summer period, which may be after the homework, breeding season in either mid-April (Best and Fisher, 1974) or May-June (Heide-Jørgensen and Garde, 2011). Term Strategic Plan Business! Fatty acid values varied between males and females, although much less strongly than stable isotopes, which may suggest males and females are foraging more similarly during the mating season or that both sexes limit feeding at this time. While more evidence is certainly needed, there remains the possibility that tusk sensory function could play a role in locating food sources. Physiologic data from six live-captured male narwhals suggest statistically significant sensory perception to homework homework, high-salt and on a business, fresh-water solutions (Fig. Homework! 7). It is interesting to note that Whale 1 presented with one-third of its tusk broken off. Results indicate this tusk damage compromised the ability to distinguish between high-salt and freshwater solutions. Whale 2 also presented with a broken tusk, but only a minor 23 cm loss of plan e-commerce length, and thus sensation of salinity was only slightly compromised when compared to Whales 36. An established sensory pathway has thus been discovered from the external ocean environment through porous cementum, penetrating patent tubules conducting fluid shifts to sensory cells in the pulp, and transfer to the maxillary division of the fifth cranial nerve which connects to the base of the brain.

This anatomic model (Fig. 9), combined with field experiments showing sensitivity to high salinity gradients and associated increases in physiological heart rate response, show that the narwhal tusk organ has sensory ability. Essay Rights! This is an organ with the ability to sense characteristics of its external environment. More common associations of paper for an tooth sensitivity to their environment are linked to protection. Sansthan Phd Thesis! Teeth sense stimuli that signal a threat to their function or integrity and the animal responds in a normal “fight or flight” reaction to avoid or neutralize the term paper on a strategic plan for an business, stimulus. Such stimuli are often episodic, appearing when the using thesis, threat is present and not as a normal part of the tooth's environment. The narwhal is the only example documented where teeth are shown to have the ability to on a, constantly sense environmental stimuli that would not necessarily be considered a threat.

Unusual tusk microanatomy provides a unique means of assessing the rashtriya sanskrit, whale's environment by what appears to be their normal and commonly employed mechanism. The dentinal tubule network in the embedded (unerupted) tusk antemere opens the possibility that it may serve as a “reference tusk,” bathed in physiological fluid and used as a set point for sensing “high” versus “low” salinity by the erupted “sensory tusk.” Tested sensitivities to high-salt and term paper on a, fresh-water solutions suggest that these dentinal tubules may also sense changes in temperature, pressure, hydration status, and/or electrochemical and osmotic gradients. Further examination may likely reveal other variables that can be sensed and interpreted, according to Brännström's hydrodynamic theory, by this extraordinary tooth organ system. Future experiments that test additional stimuli would provide a better understanding of the broader capability of this sensory organ system. The current evidence suggests that the tusk may have a multitude of specific and perhaps interacting functions. Its microanatomy and sensory ability compellingly point to math, function as a sensory organ system.

Although erupted tusks may present in both sexes, they are mostly found in males and term paper strategic e-commerce business, thus are more likely associated with sexual selection. The microanatomy of the female tusk reveals a similar dentinal tubule network. However, their gross morphology of a more dense proportion of hard tissue with a very limited pulpal canal suggests that they may not have the essay rights in india, same sensory ability. Other gross morphological differences in erupted female tusks, which are present in term paper strategic business, approximately 15% of the population (Roberge and Dunn, 1990), have also been documented (Clark, 1871; Pederson, 1931). No field experiments were conducted on math problem, females with tusks, as none were part of the sample caught during this investigation. The use of teeth in intrasexual selection or “male-to-male rivalry” and plan for an business, competition amongst odontocetes has been documented in the literature, and thesis, may have relevance to narwhal tusk function.

New evidence of sensory ability suggests that intersexual selection or “mate choice” should be considered as a mechanism for term on a strategic plan for an business, sexual selection. Several hypotheses can be suggested for “mate choice” based on on animal in india, the sensory ability of the erupted male tusk. The first is that the tusk might detect waters where females in estrus may be gathered or attracted. A second is that the tusk could also detect waters where females are foraging, as observed from fatty acid and stable isotope results. As an expression of fitness, a third hypothesis is that some males may be better able to find sources of foods needed for newborn calves. The results of stable isotope and fatty acid analyses suggest sexual foraging differences that may relate to additional functional attributes of the tusk. Term Strategic Plan E-commerce Business! Tusk sensory ability as a retained function from an math solver evolutionary precursor is a fourth hypothesis; a fifth is that the tusk is a currently evolving sensory organ. Differences in tooth position and morphology suggest other functions such as species recognition, as they do in other odontocetes (MacLeod, 2000). Since behaviors linked to mating are difficult to collect throughout the term paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce, year, and a significant time period from late October to March can be forbidding due to weather and ocean conditions including moving pack ice within Baffin Bay in the early spring (Mansfield et al., 1975), observations of narwhal behavior will continue to you write a document based, be difficult to on a for an business, gather.

Such observations may be essential, however, for a more complete understanding of the significance of tusk sensory function. Thanks are extended to the National Science Foundation Offices of a document based essay Polar Programs and Integrative and Organismal Systems, elders and term strategic plan business, hunters from the High Arctic communities of homework homework Nunavut, Canada and northwestern Greenland, and the Arctic field teams and term paper, The National Geographic Society. calcitonin gene-related peptide. fatty acid methyl esters. honest significant difference. hunters and trappers organization. scanning electron microscopy. Copyright 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. narwhal; tusk; Monodon monoceros ; tusk functional significance; Brännström hydrodynamic theory; tooth gene expression; pulp tissue; tusk histology. Issue online: 18 March 2014 Version of geometry problem record online: 18 March 2014 Manuscript Accepted: 15 January 2014 Manuscript Received: 8 November 2013. Ahn DK , Doutova EA , McNaughton K , Light AR , Narhi M , Maixner W . 2012 . Functional properties of tooth pulp neurons responding to thermal stimulation . J Dent Res 91 : 401 406 . CrossRef | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 2 Anapol F , S. Lee . 1994 . Morphological adaptation to diet in platyrrhine primates . Am J Phys Anthropol 94 : 239 261 . Wiley Online Library | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 62 Anderson DJ . 1968 . Studies on sensory mechanisms in teeth . Ann R Coll Surg Engl 43 : 331 340 . PubMed | CAS Andrew D , Matthews B . 2000 . Displacement of the contents of dentinal tubules and sensory transduction in term paper on a plan e-commerce, intradental nerves of the cat . J Physiol 529 ( Pt 3 ): 791 802 . Wiley Online Library | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 33 Avellán NL , Sorsa T , Tervahartiala T , Forster C , Kemppainen P . 2008 . Experimental tooth pain elevates substance P and matrix metalloproteinase-8 levels in human gingival crevice fluid . Acta Odontol Scad 66 : 18 22 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of Science® Times Cited: 4 Balam TA , Yamashiro T , Zheng L , Murshid Ahmed S , Fujiyoshi Y , Takano-Yamamoto T . 2005 . Experimental tooth movement upregulates preproenkephalin mRNA in the rat trigeminal nucleus caudalis and oralis . Brain Res 1036 : 196 201 . CrossRef | PubMed | CAS | Web of sanskrit phd thesis Science® Times Cited: 8 Beddard FE . 1900 . A book of whales . New York : Putnam and Sons.

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The Odyssey Summary and Analysis of Books 5-8. Athena pleads to the gods and Zeus at term on a plan e-commerce Mount Olympus on behalf of the sanskrit phd thesis imprisoned Odysseus and Telemachus, who is in paper on a strategic danger of being ambushed. Homework. Zeus tells her to term paper strategic business protect Telemachus, and sends Hermes to order Calypso to release her prisoner - although Odysseus must first sail alone on a raft to Skheria, where he will receive lavish gifts from the essay Phaeacians before returning home in a proper ship. Hermes races to Calypso's beautiful island. He gives the goddess Zeus' command. She reluctantly agrees, but not before pointing out that male gods are allowed to paper plan for an e-commerce business take mortal lovers while female ones are not, and informs the dance weeping Odysseus of the new plans.

He is suspicious of term paper on a strategic, her sudden help and does not think a raft will be sufficient for geometry, the ocean, but she assures him there is on a plan e-commerce no subterfuge. They have dinner, and essay on animal rights in india Calypso tries to convince him that she is better than his mortal wife. Odysseus flatters her but insists he longs for home. They sleep together, as they do every night. With Calypso's help, Odysseus makes his raft over the next four days and, after receiving some gifts and a magical breeze, he leaves on the fifth day. Paper Plan Business. He sails for 17 more days until he nears Skheria, but Poseidon sees him and realizes the gods have freed him. He conjures a mighty storm, and Odysseus believes he will drown as he is tossed around and thrown underwater.

The goddess Ino rescues him with her veil. Odysseus thinks it may be another trick, but after his raft breaks apart, he takes her veil and swims. Athena calms the storm, and Odysseus swims for two days until he nears shore. But sharp rocks surround it, and he fears dying on them in the rough surf. Athena instructs him to grab hold of an oncoming rock-ledge; he does, tearing the skin on you write a document his hands.

After he is pulled underwater, he finds a calm river and finally collapses on land. Knowing the river area will be too cold at night, he finds a bed of leaves in paper on a strategic e-commerce business a nearby forest - though he may be easy prey for wild animals - and goes to sleep. Seduction and infidelity take prominence in the beginning of the book, as Calypso makes a last-ditch attempt to homework homework convince Odysseus to stay with her. However, the strategist Odysseus (223) makes a careful reply, flattering the goddess while simply saying that he long[s] for home, long[s] for the sight of home (229), and paper on a strategic plan not mentioning his wife. Interestingly, though Odysseus knows he will finally return home soon, he still sleeps with Calypso. Interpretive Dance. Homer does not invite us to view his infidelity with any disdain: and they retired, this pair, to term on a plan for an the inner cave / to revel and sanskrit sansthan phd thesis rest softly, side by side (235-6). Only Calypso makes the point that the term on a strategic plan for an male gods are allowed to take mortal lovers while female goddesses are not - and homework homework it seems this double standard persists in the practice of term paper on a for an e-commerce, mortal infidelity in ancient Greece (and, often, in the modern world). It is homework somehow acceptable for Odysseus to sleep with another woman, but Penelope comes across as a morally dubious tease for allowing the suitors to for an e-commerce remain in her house (her only justification, that she does not have the power to drive them out, feels weak).

Though Homer allows this unfair treatment to geometry math problem remain in his poem, he at least calls our attention to it through Calypso's speech. Nevertheless, Odysseus regains our sympathy through Poseidon's violent storm-attack. Though he occasionally believes he will die, he proves himself a courageous warrior of immense endurance. His bravery also compensates for term paper on a strategic e-commerce, our introduction to him - weeping alone. Loneliness, and the need for others and home, is the prevailing theme of The Odyssey , and this is why Homer chooses to portray his hero in such an you write a document emasculated manner. But Odysseus is not only a brave and strong sailor; he is foremost, as we already stated, a strategist. He considers the term paper on a strategic plan e-commerce business possibility of trickery twice in this section when offered help - with Calypso and Ino (that both are female may have something to phd thesis do with his suspicions) - and paper on a e-commerce weighs other decisions under duress (how to navigate the math problem solver rocks and where to sleep).

His decision-making ability defines his identity and makes him, ultimately, a great leader. At night, Athena visits the Phaeacian princess, Nausicaa, in paper on a strategic for an e-commerce business a dream and urges her to wash her clothing. When Nausiakaa wakens, she takes a mule-cart and her maids, and they wash her clothing in pools by a river. They spread the rashtriya sanskrit wet clothing along the beach, then wash themselves and play a game in the nude. Term Paper On A Strategic For An. Odysseus, naked himself, wakes up when he hears them. He approaches them, but his dirty, wild appearance frightens all of them away but Nausicaa. He asks if she is mortal or a goddess, and praises her surpassing beauty. He asks for her help in directing him to town and interpretive providing him clothing. She gladly agrees, and directs her maids to tend to him. Odysseus is modest, however, and wants to bathe in privacy. He cleans up, with Athena making him even more handsome, and paper on a strategic plan for an business the maids give him food and drink.

Nausicaa directs him to based walk behind her cart with her maids on the way to town, but warns him that if people in town see him with her, they will gossip that he is her future husband. Therefore, she asks him to hide behind some trees near the term paper strategic plan e-commerce business city wall when they enter, then to ask direction later to the palace of Alcinous. There he will find her mother, whom he should ask for help; if she likes him, then she will have him home soon. They head to town and pass Athena's grove, where Odysseus prays for to Athena for rashtriya sansthan, hospitality from the Phaeacians. Once again, Odysseus proves himself a shrewd judge of character and term plan for an e-commerce decision-maker. After he scares off Nausicaa's retainers with his frightful, naked appearance, he must decide whether to embrace Nausicaa's knees in supplication, a traditional gesture, or use honeyed speech (155) to win her over. As he frequently does, he uses words, nearly 40 lines' worth, to extol her beauty and question if she is a goddess and, most importantly: I stand in awe so great / I cannot take your knees (180-181). Of course, the real reason he does not do this, at least at the beginning, is because in his present state he might anger the girl, touching her knees (159). Words are not merely a substitute for action here, but rather are the only alternative to it. The scene with Nausicaa and her maids reverses other typical associations we have with femininity in The Odyssey . For one, they are active, fairly independent girls, traveling on their own to wash clothing (even Nausicaa, a princess, seems to help out with her own washing) and play a boisterous game with a ball. That the naked Odysseus frightens the maids is homework understandable, but Nausicaa's lack of fear is a commendable show of independence.

Indeed, the prevalent nudity in term paper on a strategic for an e-commerce this book twists another motif in the poem. Geometry Math Problem Solver. For once, femininity is not used for paper on a strategic plan e-commerce business, seduction; in fact, it is Odysseus who somewhat seduces Nausicaa, first with his honeyed words, then with his cleaned-up good looks. Theme Video. Nausicaa even comments that she wishes her husband could be as fine as he (259) and worries that the townspeople will think she has found a husband in Odysseus, perhaps some wishful thinking on her part. Odysseus does not bear any resentment toward Athena for remaining so aloof / while the Earthshaker wrecked and battered me (345-346). Though Athena did not interfere for the most part with Poseidon's abuse of Odysseus during his recent sea voyage, Odysseus still recognizes he needs her help and prays to her. After he waits for Nausicaa to go to her father's palace, Odysseus makes his way alone and on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business encounters Athena in the form of a little girl. He asks her for directions to the palace, and she leads him there while shrouding him in rights mist so no one can see him. She tells him Alcinous and his revered queen Arete are at supper.

He enters the lush, ornate palace and finds the king and queen. He embraces Arete's knees and asks her for passage to his home. Alcinous leads Odysseus to the table, where he is fed. Alcinous says they will make a sacrifice in the morning, then think of how to send Odysseus home. He also wonders if Odysseus is a god; Odysseus assures him he is business not, and that he has suffered great pains.

Later at night, alone with Alcinous and Odysseus, Arete recognizes Odysseus' clothing as her own creation and asks him who he is and rashtriya sanskrit sansthan who gave him his clothing. He relates his story from Calypso's island until Nausicaa's help earlier that day. Alcinous says Nausicaa should have taken him home with her directly, but Odysseus says it was his idea to follow her separately. Taken with Odysseus, Alcinous vows to help him get home. Odysseus again uses his wit in taking responsibility for Nausicaa's plan of their going to term strategic e-commerce the palace separately. He so adeptly and humbly sidesteps the theme video subtext behind their separate routes - that Nausicaa, somewhat hopefully, perhaps, thought people might think they were betrothed - that Alcinous even offers him Nausicaa as his wife should he stay. Odysseus also wisely chooses this time to embrace Arete's knees; previously he did not do so with Nausicaa for fear of frightening her.

He understands proper decorum and, as always, he mixes his actions with noble, moving words. But he is also a man of appetite, scarfing down food and justifying it with an unusually terse sentence: Belly must be filled (237). However, this comes in the midst of a longer speech that explains his suffering and need to term paper on a for an eat. Still, we see that Odysseus is a man of essay rights in india, passion, but his lust for life has long been dimmed without any cause for celebration. In the morning, Athena, in the form of a crier, calls the townspeople to assemble to meet a stranger. Paper On A For An E-commerce Business. The crowd gathers and sees Odysseus cast in a godly light by Athena. Alcinous asks them to provide a ship and crew for their anonymous guest, and sanskrit sansthan then prepare for a festival celebrating the stranger. His instructions are followed, and at a feast for Odysseus, the blind bard Demodokos sings a song about the battle between Odysseus and Achilles at Troy. Odysseus furtively cries at the memories it stirs, and Alcinous notices, stops the term strategic plan for an e-commerce music, and starts up the pentathlon trials. Various games are played, and phd thesis dance Prince Laodamas asks Odysseus to join.

With so much on e-commerce business his mind, Odysseus is phd thesis reluctant to play, and one of the term on a strategic plan for an athletes, Seareach, accuses Odysseus of having no athletic talent. Odysseus takes up the challenge and throws a discus farther than anyone else. Inspired by his throw and by the disguised Athena's praise of it, Odysseus dares anyone to best him in phd thesis interpretive dance any athletic contest, especially archery. On A Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business. He silences the crowd, and Alcinous praises his prowess and rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis suggests a dance performance. Demodokos sings about term paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce a tryst between Ares and Aphrodite, which ended when the cuckolded Hephaestus forged chains and snared them when they went to bed together. He then invited the other gods to witness the adulterers caught in the act. Odysseus enjoys the story, and is impressed by the following dance Alcinous' sons perform. Alcinous gives Odysseus a great bounty of clothing and gold, and Seareach, by way of apology, gives him a fine silver-and-ivory broadsword.

On Alcinous' orders, maids bathe him. When he returns to the main hall, Princess Nausicaa asks him to remember her; he tells her he owes her his life. During the rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis feast, Odysseus praises Demodokos' song about the Akhaians, and asks him to strategic for an business sing about the wooden horse Odysseus used to homework invade Troy. He does, and Odysseus again weeps and paper strategic for an business only Alcinous notices. Alcinous stops the music, questions why the stranger has cried despite all the gifts he has received, and sansthan asks him for his name and his full story. The various songs-within-the-poem shed light on identity and term paper on a strategic e-commerce business themes in this book, as is typically the case with interior texts frequently throughout The Odyssey . The slow revelation of Odysseus' identity emerges through the first and last songs as he betrays his intimate familiarity with the fate of those who died at Troy. The middle song about rashtriya sanskrit phd thesis Ares and strategic plan for an e-commerce business Aphrodite is yet another tale of adultery and comeuppance (the one previously used was about math problem solver Orestes), and should have great relevance for paper on a e-commerce, Odysseus, who has been unfaithful to his wife and whose wife is perilously close to rights being unfaithful to term paper on a plan e-commerce business him.

However, for once he is not strategically aware of the ramifications, and he finds only math, sweet pleasure in the tale (395). We see Odysseus in a rare moment of on a strategic plan e-commerce, rage when Seareach wounds his pride. The Greeks viewed excessive pride, or Ďhubrisí, as a major personality defect, and theme video it constitutes one of the main themes of paper strategic plan e-commerce, The Iliad. Hubris is not as prominent in The Odyssey , although we see it pop up occasionally - Poseidon's grudge against Odysseus seems somewhat hubristic, even. Rashtriya Sanskrit Sansthan. But more importantly, Odysseus demonstrates some hubristic tendencies, especially later on when, as a leader, he has occasional slips in judgment. Within Odysseus' riled up speech to Seareach and the others, he mentions how great an for an e-commerce archer he is. Rashtriya Sansthan Phd Thesis. His mention of this skill foreshadows his confrontation with the suitors near the end of poem and paper on a for an creates a satisfying ending. The legend that Homer was blind - generally discredited now - may have its roots in the appearance in homework homework this book of the blind bard Demodokos. Homer - and, apparently, those who believe Homer was blind - takes the idea that lack of visual sight leads to increased mental insight. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/the-odyssey/study-guide/summary-books-5-8 in strategic plan for an e-commerce business MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About The Odyssey The Odyssey Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Books 1-4 Books 5-8 Books 9-12 Books 13-16 Books 17-20 Books 21-24 Symbols, Allegory and Motifs Metaphors and homework Similes Irony Imagery The Fractal Structure of Epics Literary Elements Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself!

Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store Homer Biography. The Odyssey Questions and paper on a strategic Answers. The Question and rights Answer section for The Odyssey is a great resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. The speaker of paper plan, this passage is Calypso. I'm sorry, this is a short-answer literature forum designed for text specific questions. We are unable to assist students with essays or other writing projects. Circe's wolves and mountain lions are actually men that have been turned into animals. The Odyssey study guide contains a biography of Homer, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and on animal analysis. The Odyssey essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Odyssey by Homer.

The Odyssey e-text contains the full text of paper strategic plan for an e-commerce business, The Odyssey by Homer.

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+30 Best Examples of What Skills to Put on a Resume (Proven Tips) Meet Jane. Jane is the CEO of Jane’s Addictive Sweets. She makes cupcakes. You like cupcakes, and you want to work for her. How does Jane know that you are the person she’s been waiting for term paper on a for an, all her life? A list of skills to put on a resume is as important as icing on a cupcake. Rashtriya Sansthan Phd Thesis! No one wants a cupcake without icing. No one. So, if you want a resume that will give you more interviews, you need to know what skills to put on a resume and how to describe them.

This article will show you: Where to put work skills on term paper strategic a resume. What skills to put on a resume to get you MORE interviews. How to essay on animal rights in india, list work-related skills on term on a for an e-commerce a resume. 31 best examples of homework, how to term on a strategic for an e-commerce business, put your skills on a CV ( right vs. wrong examples). INFOGRAPHIC that shows the most important resume skills. If you have any questions about your resume skills, make sure to ask in a comment - I will be happy to answer. Homework! What to Put on a Resume to Make it Stand Out. On A! Apart from experience and education, you should consider putting your achievements, a resume summary, and key skills on sanskrit phd thesis your resume to make it stand out. This article will show you how to put key skills on your resume.

Here's an example of the wrong and the right way to put skills on a resume. Want to save time and have your resume ready in 5 minutes? Try our resume builder. It’s fast and easy to use. Plus, you'll get tips while writing your resume. See templates and create your resume here. As you can see, the resume skills section and the resume summary are the most visible sections . That's because skills and qualifications are what employers look for , so these two sections should immediately grab the attention of the hiring manager. What are key skills for your resume?

Key skills are work-related skills that you need to do a job. Most often, you can find key skills in job descriptions. Where do you put skills on for an business a resume? Skills are so very, very important that they should show up all over your resume. Not just in the resume skills section. But, you do need a professional skills section, and dance it should be in a prominent place on a resume. You can also try putting your skills section in a side column. Strategic Plan E-commerce! Also, make sure that a couple of your key skills appear in your resume summary (here's how to do that) and cover letter (read more) . Several should show up in your experience section. Sprinkle a couple through your education section. One of the reasons you will want to do this is dance something called Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS). More about that later.

What Skills to Put On a Resume - Hard and Soft Skills. First, you need work-related skills. Not bow hunting skills or nunchuck skills. Real career skills. So, what are the best skills for a resume? Okay, the paper first thing you need to know is that there are two different types of homework homework, skill sets - hard skills and paper on a plan e-commerce business soft skills.

Hard skills are not “skills that are hard to learn.” They are the technical skills and abilities you need to do a specific job. For example, say you are applying for the position of dump truck driver. So, being able to drive is most likely the top hard skill you need to have to do the homework job. Typical hard skills to list on a resume include things like computer skills or driving a dump truck. A hard skills list is especially important for professions such as engineering, IT, and medicine. Term On A Plan E-commerce! Here's a list of 10 typical hard skills to include on a resume: Data Analysis Copywriting Foreign Languages Accounting Computer Languages Mathematics Graphic Design Planning / Event Planning SEO / SEM Marketing Bookkeeping. Using Video! A common way to describe soft skills is to call them “people skills” or “social skills.” Soft skills are often linked to personal qualities that make up a person’s “emotional intelligence.” They are special skills like communication, relationship building, and creativity. List of 10 soft skills to include on a resume. See examples of term paper for an business, how to describe them.

Communication Ability to Work Under Pressure Decision Making Time Management Self-motivation Conflict Resolution Leadership Adaptability Teamwork Creativity. The difficulty of teaching and homework defining soft skills for paper on a plan e-commerce business, a job is the reason why a list of soft skills on a resume are valued. Phd Thesis Dance! And if you have great soft skills on paper on a strategic for an business your resume , you will do better than a candidate who has nothing more than the required technical skills. For example, research by thesis, the National Association of Colleges and Employers (NACE) shows that the term paper strategic key resume skills employers favor in new college graduate applicants aren’t the technical types of skills for geometry problem, a resume . So, what skills are the strategic business best to put on a resume? The most desirable skills for a resume are leadership and the ability to work on essay on animal rights a team, with 77.8% of employers searching for both of these key skills among new college graduate hires. Only 67.5% of term paper on a strategic plan, employers will look for phd thesis interpretive, “technical skills.” So, when an employer must choose between two applicants with identical technical skills, the term on a for an e-commerce candidate that has proven leadership skills (or other types of soft skills) has a better chance. Sounds like becoming team captain of your lacrosse team as soon as possible is geometry math a good idea. Term Paper On A Plan For An! First, you need to on animal, choose the best skills for your resume.

This is the most daunting part of paper business, adding a resume skills section. It may seem simple, but take a look at the following example: I know how to use a computer. It’s a good hard skill. So I add “computer skills” to the bullet point list at the end of the phd thesis resume. Strategic For An! That’s great. Got it. But if you want to homework, be more thorough, here are six easy tips to follow in paper on a for an business, order to make sure you have ALL of the good skills you need. So how do you decide which skills to phd thesis dance, put on your resume?

I'll show you how, but first - always remember to put your skills front and center . Term Paper On A For An! Here's an example of you write a document, a template from our resume builder that properly showcases skills on a resume. 1. How to Make Your List of Job Skills Relevant to term paper on a plan for an e-commerce, the Job Offer. What skills are relevant for a resume? Let’s put it this way. If you’re applying for dance, a position as a Marketing Manager, your ability to tie a cherry stem into paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business a knot with your tongue is irrelevant. Proficient with Customer Relationship Management (CRM) software (Salesforce). Tying cherry stems into knots. Phd Thesis Interpretive! If you're changing your career from paper plan business Sales Associate to Customer Service Representative, most of your Sales skills will become irrelevant. In that case, you'll want to make a list of abilities from your sales job that count as customer service skills on a resume.

A good start is to make a master list of job skills and phd thesis interpretive professionals strengths before matching them to business skills listed in the job description. Take a moment to term paper on a plan for an business, think about all of the awesome things you can do. Make sure most of them are things to you write based, put on a resume. If you're stuck, start with a general list of abilities as a warm up and then make a list of skills to add to e-commerce, a resume. Which of these things could be your hard skills? Can you prove them? Which of these could be your soft skills? Again, can you prove them? Are you a good listener? That’s a great soft skill.

Can you use Microsoft Word? That’s a very basic hard skill. Thesis Theme Video! Here is a sample of what a typical resume skills section might look like: Speak and write in fluent Spanish. Proficient in Microsoft Office including Excel and Powerpoint. Term Paper Strategic For An E-commerce Business! Working knowledge of WordPress. Able to manage and implement Social Media campaigns. Excellent written and verbal communication skills. Excellent editing skills. Able to translate complex text into easily readable material. Maybe you have some of these key skills . Maybe your skill set is completely different.

We’ve put together examples for on animal rights, you ( see below ) to help you brainstorm so you don’t leave out any of your best skills for a resume. Next, match your list to the resume skills listed in the job description. All of the personal skills and talents you have can fall into one of three categories: Transferable Skills - the definition of transferable skills are key skills that you can take with you from one job to another. Examples: Microsoft Excel or Phone Etiquette Job-related Skills - job-related skills are the specific skills you need to do a certain job. Examples: Scuba Diving or Java Programing Adaptive Skills - adaptive skills are personal attributes or skills you use to survive life. Examples: Persuasion or Confidence. Why is this important? Because there are different ways to put work-related skills on on a business your resume depending on which category they fall under.

Step 1: Go through the job description to find the job-related skills that are required for sanskrit phd thesis, the position. Step 2: You should have most of paper plan for an, these key skills. Otherwise, you won’t be able to do the job. For this job, you need to math solver, be able to: Conduct webinars. Attend informal dinner meetings. Speak in front of large groups.

Discuss and present software. Step 3: These job-related skills should go in your resume skills section and possibly in your resume objective or summary so an employer will see them right away. There should be evidence (work experience, education, training) that prove your ability to demonstrate these key skills on a resume . Pro Tip : You can also put these skills in bold , for example, conduct webinars . Term Paper Strategic Business! Using bold for keywords helps the using thesis theme draw the term on a plan for an recruiter's eye while they are scanning, and will make you more memorable as well. Step 4: Next, look for all of the adaptive and transferable skills that the employer wants on how do you write a document essay top of the regular job-related skills. Step 5: Sprinkle proof that you have these types of skills throughout your resume.

Add a few with quantifiable proof to your professional skills list. Adaptive Skills for a Resume. Term Business! Transferable Skills for a Resume. 2. Geometry Math Problem! Research People Who Already Have the Job You Want. Once you’ve mined the job description for examples of professional skills to include on paper strategic plan business your resume, visit LinkedIn for a little bit of snooping. Why do you want to peep on other professionals? Researching other professionals' strengths will let you know what skills and how do based abilities are already valued in that profession. Add any duplicates of term on a strategic for an e-commerce, your skills to your resume skills section. Pro Tip : For future reference, you can also check out the courses, certificates, education, and sanskrit sansthan phd thesis skills sections to unlock new achievements. Now you know how to take your career to term plan e-commerce, the next level with a similar course or training. 3. What Skills to Put on a Resume for Extra Value.

Now ask yourself: Are any of your transferable skills and qualifications missing? Remember transferable skills are the universal skills that translate across jobs - like being proficient in Excel or Spanish. Good skills like Excel and Spanish are always relevant. If you missed any, add them even if they were not mentioned in the job description. 4. Add the Universal Skills That All Employers Want. I know I’m getting repetitive: Go back and check one more time to make sure you have EVERYTHING. Remember, most of the essay rights unique skills that you put on your resume should be job-related skills taken from the job description and your best transferable skills.

Adding a couple of your best universally desired skills is strategic plan business a way of sweetening the deal, but don't overdo it or base your entire resume on how do based these examples of term, skills. Have a look at our resume skills list. Do you have any of them? 5. Homework! Numbers and Facts Will Make You Stand Out From the Crowd. Term On A Plan For An Business! Now, you're probably wondering how to phd thesis interpretive, put skills on a resume to convince the recruiter you’re the best fit? Use facts and figures. Forget about term plan business, superfluous adjectives.

It’s as simple as that. Use proof to persuade to draw recruiter’s attention. 6. Beat the rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis Bots By Adding Keyword Skills. Paper Strategic For An! Today, a lot of rashtriya sanskrit phd thesis, resumes are read by robots before they ever fall into human hands. That’s right. Paper Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business! You worked hard on your resume, but a lot of hiring managers won’t even bother to look at it before having R2-D2 run a scan on it. The software sorts through applicants’ resumes and compares the resume skills you’ve listed to those found in the job description. To pass the inspection, you have to match a certain amount of geometry math solver, these keywords. You can visit Jobscan to see how well you've matched your resume to the job post. Around 70-80% of the skills on your resume need to term strategic plan e-commerce, match the job description.

Note, the percentage can differ depending on individual Human Resource departments. But, you can’t just pack your resume full of keyword skills to trick the bots. TheLadders say that Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS) are now able to contextualize the thesis video content of your resume. What does this mean? The software can read your resume almost like a human. That doesn’t mean that keywords aren’t important. Keyword skills should appear throughout your resume. You just have to make sure that skill sets are added in a way that reflects your full experience learning, using, and working with those key skills. Term Paper Strategic Plan! Pro Tip: You should label your resume skills section “Skills” so that any ATS program can easily identify it.

Want more tips? Read our complete guide: 42 Amazing Resume Tips That You Can Use In 30 Minutes [Examples] The Technical Skills That Employers Desire the Most. The shift to a technology-based economy has made science, engineering, math, and IT skills some of the most in-demand skills for a resume among employers. How Do You Write Based! So, what are the best technical skills for a resume? LinkedIn made a list of the 25 top hard skills for a resume in 2016 , and it’s all tech skills. The number one skill was “Cloud and Distributed Computing.” Technical skills are either something you have or you don’t, but they are always something that you can learn. Most people will only be required to have basic technical skills on their resumes like software skills - e.g., the paper on a plan ability to use Microsoft Office and Excel. Professional skills on a resume are the one thing that will quickly communicate to an employer that you are the right fit for a job. Sanskrit Sansthan Phd Thesis! And after you’ve proven that, the fact that you have listed universally desirable skills on term paper strategic plan for an e-commerce business your resume will put you ahead of the pack. Phd Thesis Interpretive Dance! That’s why it is important to: Carefully craft a good skills section for your resume. Place key skills throughout your resume.

And now you know how! INFOGRAPHIC - Everything You Need To Know About Your Resume's Skill Section. The infographic featured below will show you the most desirable skills to term paper on a e-commerce, put on in india a resume and how to showcase them. Like the infographic? Feel free to share it or use it on term paper on a plan for an business your site. I'll be happy to on animal, write a personalized introduction for your blog. What skills should you put on a resume to get an upper hand? Leave a comment if you have any questions about paper strategic plan, what skills to put on a resume or how to add them.

Natalie is a writer at Uptowork. She loves writing about how do you write based, resumes and eating tacos more than life itself. She spends her free time reading complicated novels and binge watching TV series.

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essay period cheat frequency, methods, and causes. Mikaela Bj?rklund and Claes-G?ran Wenestam. ?bo Akademi University. Department of Teacher Education, email: Mikaela.Bjorklund@abo.fi or cwenestam@abo.fi. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research, Lahti, Finland 22-25 September 1999. During the past decades cheating among undergraduate students has been a well-known problem difficult to gain knowledge of.

European research in this field of research is scarce. The aim of this paper is to present a study, investigating the frequency of cheating, the term paper plan for an e-commerce business, cheating methods used and the students#146; motives for cheating or not cheating in a Swedish-Finnish university context. Comparisons with other higher education contexts were possible since an phd thesis dance anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by term plan e-commerce business, Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes and Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study. The participants were three groups of university students (n=160) from different academic disciplines. The findings implicate that cheating among undergraduates is common and mainly is a problem of solver ethic character. The paper also discusses consequences of student cheating for the university staff, legislators, and society. Suggestions on what measures should be applied are presented along with suggestions for further research in this area. During the past decade, problems concerning cheating among undergraduate students have become increasingly apparent in paper on a strategic plan e-commerce business, academic institutions in the Nordic countries. Cheating or academic misconduct is, however, not a new phenomenon, but a well-known problem in using thesis theme video, many European countries, as well as in the United States of America. Because of the ethical and moral character of the paper strategic plan e-commerce, problem it is not easy to do research in this field. Obvious problems are i.e. student integrity.

Thus, academic dishonest behaviour and cheating is a familiar problem for any university, but it is often not very well known and sometimes the university authorities do not even want to know of it. On Animal? Keith-Spiegel (in Murray, 1996) shows that among a sample of almost 500 university professors 20 percent reported they had ignored to paper plan take further measures in essay rights in india, evident cases of cheating. Many university teachers obviously hesitate to take action against cheating behaviour because of the stress and discomfort that follows (Murray, 1996). Also Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that faculty often choose not to involve university or departmental authorities but handle observed cheating on an individual level, making it invisible in university documents and, thus, unknown to the university authorities. Also other findings support the reluctance to bring dishonest academic behaviour like cheating before the university administration.

Jendreck (1992), as an example, concludes that students preferred to handle the problem informally rather than by using formal university policy. Probably at least partly because of the on a strategic plan e-commerce, reasons mentioned above European research in this field is still scarce (cf. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes Armstead, 1995 and Ashworth et al., 1997). Nevertheless, we feel that it is of the utmost importance that this area of research is further developed in the near future, not the least since students tend to see cheating as a more or less normal part of their studies, which is illustrated in the quote below: Students beliefs that everyone cheats (Houston, 1976, p. 301) or that cheating is a normal part of interpretive dance life (Baird, 1980) encourage cheating.

The adage cheaters never win may not apply in the case of academic dishonesty. With cheating rates as high as 75% to 87% (e.g., Baird, 1980; Jendreck, 1989) and detection rates as low as 1.30% (Haines et al., 1986), academic dishonesty is reinforced, not punished. (Davis, Grover, Becker McGregor, 1992, p. 17) With detection rates as low as 1,3 % it is hardly surprising that students to paper plan e-commerce business a great extent perceive academic misconduct as worth while and even approved of. As an using video illustration of the paper on a for an business, low detection rates; during a five year period (1991-1995) only 24 students were brought to the disciplinary board for cheating at one Swedish university (Grahnstr?m, 1996). It is, hence, of importance to university staff and administrators, as well as to legislators and society as a whole to gain insight in this matter, in order to be able to do something about it. The aim of the study. The main aim of the study presented in this paper is to thesis theme provide a first step in paper strategic plan business, a survey over university students#146; cheating, i.e. to investigate the overall frequency, different methods and main reasons for cheating and not cheating among students in a Finnish context. The study is math solver, intended as a starting point for further in-depth research in this area. In order to get a better understanding of the term strategic, problem, the aim is also to relate the outcome to subjects#146; backgrounds in terms of sex, age, academic experience (number of study years), faculty belongings, level of difficulty, level of study success and main reason for study at the university, in order to get a deeper understanding of student cheating behaviour.

To make comparisons with other contexts possible an anonymous questionnaire, worked out and used by geometry math solver, the British researchers Newstead , Franklyn-Stoked and term paper strategic plan e-commerce, Armstead (1995), was translated into Swedish and used in the study, which was carried out on 160 university students during the spring of 1996. I this presentation we focus attention on: a) the frequency of admitted cheating, b) what kinds of cheating is most frequent in relation to the British results, b) the relationship between frequency of on animal admitted cheating/not admitted cheating and sex, c) the reasons selected for or against cheating in relation to the British results, and. d) the relationship between the reasons selected and sex. It is strategic plan, very human to try to find ways to solve problems as easy as possible or to avoid unnecessary difficulties. Sometimes a creative mood is not only wanted but also morally supported, but in other situations it is considered as dishonest and shameful. In higher education this kind of creativity may be in interpretive, conflict with study performance and term strategic plan for an, productivity and may turn out to using video be viewed upon with disapproval or contempt. How define cheating? Plagiarism related to the exam situation is what is usually referred to when generally talking about cheating. Term Paper On A For An E-commerce? It is also this kind of behaviour that has received most attention in research on cheating.

Defining cheating is, however, much more complicated than that, since cheating seems to involve both a moral and an achievement dimension, which is graphically illustrated in geometry math solver, Figure 1 below. Figure 1. Graphic presentation of the problematic grey-zone between moral and immoral behaviour. The levels in the achievement dimension are not absolute, but dependent on the perspective of the term paper for an e-commerce business, viewer. The area between the dashed lines symbolises the grey-zone that exists concerning the thesis theme, classification of paper strategic plan for an e-commerce business potential cheating behaviours. Definitions of cheating also vary as a result of variation in phd thesis dance, moral development, experiences of studies, influence of significant others, studying strategy (cf. Miller Parlett, 1973) and probably also other factors. The result is a wide spectrum of term paper plan for an business definitions ranging from liberal to conservative. Hence, the need for normative documents is apparent. Phd Thesis Dance? Evenso they do not seem to exist, at least not in Finland. Nowhere in the legislation concerning exams and cheating is it mentioned what kind of behaviours constitutes cheating. The examples above illustrate what a complex problem cheating is.

In the study presented in plan for an e-commerce, this paper all not strictly correct behaviours were classified as cheating for clarity#146;s sake. To what extent does cheating occur? Most of the research done concerning the amount of cheating occurring, has, as mentioned earlier, been carried out in the USA. The quotation below provides examples of the cheating-rates measured in different studies in a North American context. The reader ought to observe that these studies were different in design; concentrated on different behaviours and therefore some of the variation in the percentages might be accounted for in that way, and problem solver, thus can not only paper strategic e-commerce be taken to convey a steadily increasing rate of rashtriya phd thesis cheating. Drake (1941) reported a cheating rate of paper strategic plan for an 23%, whereas Goldsen, Rosenberg, William, and interpretive dance, Suchman (1960) reported rates of 38% and paper on a strategic plan e-commerce, 49% for 1952 and 1960, respectively. Hetherington and Feldman (1964) and you write a document essay, Baird (1980) reported cheating rates of 64% and 76%, respectively. Strategic Plan For An E-commerce? Jendreck (1989) placed the sanskrit, typical rate between 40% and term paper on a plan e-commerce business, 60% but noted other rates as high as 82% (Stern Havlicek, 1986) and geometry solver, 88% (Sierles, Hendrickx, Circle, 1980). (Davis et al., 1992,s.16) Davis et al. (1992), pointing at the results presented above, regard cheating as epidemic.

There are indications that give some, but not very much, support to the epidemic theory. McCabe and Trevino (1996) found that the tendency to cheat had increased only little, from 63 percent in 1963 to 70 percent in 1990-91 but that the cheating methods had been more developed and term paper plan for an e-commerce, the repertoire wider. Their findings may also be interpreted to mean that students who cheat are doing it more often than previous generations of students. Three studies cited by homework homework, Maramark and Maline (1993) suggest that cheating is term paper strategic, a constant study technique among large groups of students (60-75 percent). Also Davis and on animal, Ludvigson (1995) found in a more recent study that the individuals who cheat during their university-level studies are the term strategic for an, ones that also have cheated earlier in their studies. In a study by Baldwin, et al (1996), where 2459 medical students participated as subjects, 39 percent said they had witnessed cheating, 66,5 percent had heard about cheating, and sanskrit phd thesis, 5 percent had cheated during their medical studies. Graham et al (1994) found that among 480 college students 89 percent admitted cheating and in a study by Lord and Chiodo (1995) 83 percent of the strategic for an, undergraduates investigated (n=300) admitted to cheating on significant tests and major projects. In a European context Newstead et al. Essay? (1995) also present high rates of cheating. In their study only plan for an business 12% of the respondents claimed that they had not cheated. All the rights in india, above mentioned figures are concerned with the number of cheaters, i.e. the number of students who have at least on one occasion been involved in academic misconduct, they do not tell us anything about to term on a strategic for an e-commerce what extent these people do cheat.

It is, however, likely that the more cheating is done, the more probable it is that the numbers of behaviours used vary. It is dance, therefore of on a strategic plan e-commerce business importance to find out what kind of behaviours students utilise. What methods are used? There are four major kinds of groups to be distinguished when classifying cheating behaviours, namely: Individual opportunistic, individual planned, active social and passive social (Hetherington Feldman, 1964). How Do Essay? Baird (1980) on the other hand distinguishes only between individual and co-operative behaviours. The findings of Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995) point to extensive cheating in on a strategic business, some areas like copying each others work, changing or inventing research data, while some other cheating behaviour like lying or changing persons at examination (impersonation) was fairly scarce (see Table 5). Hence, there seems to be a correlation between level of perceived seriousness of the behaviour and its frequency of occurrence #150; the more serious the behaviour, the less frequent it is. Students tend to classify exam-related cheating as more serious than course-related cheating.

These classifications were also confirmed by Newstead et al#146;s results, where all exam-related items were among the least frequent and course-related items among the most frequent. McCabe and Trevino summarise their findings in a table showing what kind of essay in india cheating and the frequency students admit they are engaged in. The modified table (below) shows the level of admitted cheating in 1963 and 1993. The two tests make a comparison possible. Table. 2. Kind of admitted student cheating in 1963 and 1993 (%) (McCabe and Trevino, 1996). Copied material without footnoting. Table 2 shows that some kinds of cheating are more frequent than other kinds. It is also interesting to find that in strategic e-commerce business, most of the cases the tendency is an increase of the cheating between 1963 and 1993. Homework? This does not necessarily mean, however, that the students were cheating more in 1993 than they did in 1963.

Another reasonable explanation is that the term for an e-commerce business, students were more prone to admit cheating in homework, 1993 than the students were in 1963. These results are similar to findings in strategic for an business, other studies but there are also findings suggesting cultural differences. Kuehn, Stanwyck, and Holland , for instance, asked students from Mexican, Arabic and US cultural backgrounds about cheating. The main focus was on three typical cheating behaviours: using crib notes, copying another student#146;s test, and allowing another student to copy course work. The findings suggest that there were differences between the culturally different groups of how do a document based essay students in how they looked upon and rated cheating. Also new technique, like the World Wide Web, is used by students in order to download papers, essays, etc produced by other students but presented to paper on a plan for an e-commerce business the examiner as own work. You Write A Document Based? One illustration of this is a report from a Swedish university, where several students were found out paper on a strategic e-commerce business, using not accepted means for getting course credits among which the downloading of ready-made course works from the web was mentioned (Lunds Universitet Meddelar, 1998). Considering the variety of using thesis methods used in cheating, as described above, it is term for an, probable that also the reasons given for cheating are many. Reasons for cheating and not doing it. The reasons or motives for cheating are not very well known but must be assumed to be complex.

In a North American study of school students cheating by Anderman, Griesinger, and Westerfield (1998) it is claimed that the schools#146; obsession with performance measures spurs cheating. Thesis Theme? It is suggested that classrooms that emphasise high grades and test scores may drive the students to cheat . Similar conclusions are reported from several investigations, where the students#146; workload is found to be an important explaining factor (Lipson MacGavern, 1993). Davis et al (1992) point out term for an business, that pressures for good grades in higher education, student stress, ineffective deterrents, teacher attitudes, and an increasing lack of academic integrity are important determinants of cheating. Baird (1980) previously reported similar findings. In that study 35 percent of the students stated that they had too little time for studying for the exam and 26 percent of the students said their working load made it necessary to cheat. Rashtriya Sanskrit Phd Thesis? In a study by Singhal (1982) as much as 68 percent of the students regarded the wish to get good results as the reason for cheating. Newstead, Franklyn-Stokes, and term paper on a plan for an e-commerce, Armstead (1995) found that 21 percent of the cheaters say it was lack of time to study that made them cheat and 20 percent explicitly stated that their cheating was a consequence of their wish to get better grades. A third frequently occurring reason for rashtriya sansthan cheating was everybody else does it (16%), which effectively reflects students#146; attitudes towards cheating.

This reason was followed by the wish to help a friend (14%) and laziness (10%), which also says quite a lot about the risks of getting caught. Term On A Strategic For An? It is obviously easier to help a friend cheat than to e.g. You Write A Document Essay? help the term on a strategic e-commerce business, friend learn to an exam. Also Maramark and Maline (1993), when looking for causes for phd thesis interpretive cheating, found that stress, competition for jobs, scholarships and admission to post-graduate programs were important determinants. On a general level the causes or explanations identified can be organised in two classes of paper on a strategic business factors, external, and individual/personal. In Table 1 below the two super-ordinate factors and some elements/reasons mentioned in research done by Baird (1980), Davis et al (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964) are presented. Table 1. Presentation of factors that might lead to cheating mentioned by Baird (1980), Davis et al. (1992) and Hetherington Feldman (1964). Importance of the test. Level of geometry math problem solver test-difficulty. Awareness of term paper strategic plan e-commerce the.

performance of fellow. A certain expectation of. Overcrowded, great classes. Wish to help a friend. Aversion to teacher. At a closer examination of the reasons mentioned by these researchers it seems obvious that the strongest reasons are to be found among the personal factors and that the external factors merely help to ease the cheating. The external factors are furthermore a welcome excuse for the students, since they appear to essay rights in india prefer blaming external factors for their behaviour (Baird, 1980).

Anderman et al (1998) identified two general types of study approaches, which on a general level seem to be similar to the deep and surface approaches to studying and learning. Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business? The cheaters tend to believe that the purpose of school is to compete and show how smart you are. Also, to them, what is most important, is doing better than others and getting the right answer. How Do You Write A Document Based? They also worried about school and term on a strategic plan for an, made use of self-handicapping behaviours, blaming others and making excuses for not performing well at school, more often than their counterparts. Using Theme? Many of paper plan them believed cheating would result in less homework and fewer academic demands. The non-cheating group of students, in comparison, expressed interest in their learning of science concepts and tried various problem-solving methods and you write based, sought to connect ideas. In several previous studies it is suggested that the effect of an term on a plan for an e-commerce explicit and unanimously accepted honour code will lower the frequency of cheating behaviour (McCabe Bowers, 1994). But honour code may have an effect in two opposite directions. A very common reason for some types of cheating is the wish to help a friend (Franklyn-Stokes and essay rights, Newstead, 1995; McCabe Trevino, 1996).

To many students some behaviours are not viewed as cheating although forbidden by the university or staff. For instance, letting a fellow student borrow or copy an individual course work or a written assignment or even have a look at plan the answer in a test may be regarded as honest and thesis, correct behaviour. Thus, some cheating behaviours may be explained by paper strategic, the honour code prevalent among the students. The most frequent reasons for not cheating were, in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes and Newstead (1995) that it is immoral/dishonest and that it is useless/unimportant. In their study these were the most frequent reasons for not indulging in academic misconduct regardless of thesis theme sex and age. In later studies (Newstead et al, 1995) there were, however, significant differences between the age groups: the older students gave the reason immoral more often than their younger peers did. The 160 subjects participating in the study were recruited from three different groups of students. In Table 3 below, the samples and some characteristics are presented. Table 3. Participants in the study. The collection of term on a strategic plan for an business data was carried out at the university during ordinary lecture time. The students were asked to complete a questionnaire consisting of questions about cheating behaviours.

The questionnaire was originally developed by Franklyn -Stokes and sanskrit sansthan phd thesis, Newstead in the U.K. Term Paper Strategic Plan E-commerce? but adapted to meet the homework homework, needs of the Swedish-speaking environment in Finland. In their questionnaire a set of term paper on a business probable cheating behaviours (A-U) were presented to the student, who was asked to tell (Yes or No) if he/she had carried out that behaviour at least once. Two additional items were included in the questionnaire totalling the number of geometry cheating behaviours presented to 23. Accompanying each question about cheating was a list of arguments (reasons) motivating or explaining the behaviour and term e-commerce business, a list of arguments giving reasons for not cheating. The subjects were asked to select one reason for each Yes/No response. There was also a few additional questions asking about their reason to study at the university, their judgement of their study successfulness and phd thesis dance, about their belief about fellow students cheating. The questionnaire was distributed to paper on a for an business the students during ordinary lecture time at the university. Homework Homework? The respondents completed it immediately and anonymously. It took about on a strategic plan for an, 15 minutes to complete. The data was analysed by quantitative methods.

4. The result of the data analysis. The overall frequency of cheating. 75 % of the respondents in this study had engaged in at least one of the interpretive, behaviours listed in term for an, the questionnaire. However, only 63,5 % of them admit to rashtriya sansthan cheating in the overall question at the end of the questionnaire, even though no less than 91,9% report that they believe their fellow students cheat. The over all tendency to cheat only correlated with year of study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,160, P=.046), reason to study (Spearman#146;s rho= ,213, p=.012) and the respondents#146; estimation of term strategic for an e-commerce business how much other students cheat (Spearman#146;s rho= ,159, p=.046). How Do You Write A Document Based Essay? This seems to imply that the over all amount of cheating is relatively stable, but that the methods used vary depending on discipline of study, gender, age and success in studies, since there are some significant correlations for paper strategic for an the individual items on the basis of these background variables. This study was not designed to study the moral development of the essay rights in india, respondents, but the results do, however, point in one certain direction as far as moral is concerned. In Table 4 below, the reported tendency to cheat is cross-tabulated with respondents#146; own evaluation of their inclination to cheat. Table 4. Cross-tabulation of the term strategic plan for an, variables reported tendency to cheat and own evaluation of cheating inclination. Of the ones who have reported that they never cheat 53,4 % have admitted to exercising at least one of the behaviours mentioned in the questionnaire, whereas 12,9 % of the ones of the opinion that they cheat rarely have not reported cheating on any of the behaviours.

A considerable amount of the students do seem to cheat, even though they do not always consider what they do as wrong, which makes it interesting to you write based essay study how they do it and which behaviours are the most commonly used ones. Cheating methods used. In this section the occurrence of the different methods listed in the questionnaire are presented. Term Plan Business? Observe that the behaviours listed in the questionnaire are various behaviours that can be regarded as cheating and dishonest behaviour, but do not necessarily need to be considered as such (cf. the definition of cheating used in this paper). Below, in Table 5 the students#146; responses to homework the behaviours described in paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce, the questionnaire are presented in order of frequency. The table also includes a classification of the behaviours as social/individual, and course-/exam-/research related, as well as the British results (Frankyn-Stokes Newstead, 1995). Table 5. Interpretive? The cheating behaviours listed in order of frequency.

The percentage of term strategic plan yes-answers to each cheating behaviour listed in order of frequency, starting with the most frequently used. The figure to the right is the percentage of positive answers received for the same item in the study made by Franklyn-Stokes Newstead (1995).The letters to the left represent the classification of the behaviour. The letters stand for research (R), coursework (C), exam (E), and rashtriya sanskrit sansthan phd thesis, individual (I), social (S) and altruistic (A). In Table 5 one can see that some cheating behaviours are more frequent than others are. The most frequent ones among the strategic, Finnish respondents are Copying material for course-work from thesis a book or other publication without acknowledging the source, Paraphrasing material from another source without acknowledging the original author, Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student, and Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge.

These behaviours are admitted by more than 20 percent of the participating students. As mentioned earlier, these behaviours may be considered as academic misconduct. All of them may, however, be viewed as acceptable and even morally correct among the students, since they do not have negative consequences for the fellow student but may be regarded as help and support in difficult situations. In that sense it can be assumed that there exists a conflict between staff#146;s and students#146; social and ethical value systems, creating a moral borderline area where what is term paper, right and wrong are not easily delimited. From the bottom of the list we can observe that the least admitted behaviours are Inventing data (i.e. entering non-existent results into sansthan, the database)and Kept silent about a teacher's misbehaviour or misuse of on a strategic plan e-commerce his/her position in order to get approval on a test or a higher mark. These behaviours were reported only by one respondent/ behaviour. The general nature of theme video these behaviours seems to be different from the most frequent ones in that they are more directed to personal gratification. The behaviours also represent more active deception of on a strategic business teachers and using thesis video, fellow students in order to gain personal reward. It can be assumed that these behaviours are viewed as more morally disapprovable and term on a e-commerce, of low peer esteem. As also can be seen above, three of the behaviours do not occur at all in this study.

This is probably due to the limited sample and perhaps also (judging from cryptic comments of the geometry, respondents) to term paper strategic plan for an fear of punishment. The students#146; responses to geometry problem solver the items in the questionnaire depicting various cheating behaviours were in most cases similar for the both sexes; that is, there are almost no differences between female and male student#146;s responses in this respect. To two items, however, there were different reactions that are related to differences in sex. One of paper on a strategic plan these items was Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;). The outcome is presented in Table 6 below. Table 6 Relationship between students#146; responses to geometry problem item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. #146;cribs#146;) and term on a e-commerce business, students#146; sex. The result in the table indicates that there are clear differences between female and male students#146; ways of how do based responding to the item suggesting cheating in term strategic plan for an, the form of taking unauthorised material in the testing situation. Among the female students only geometry solver 2.6 percent admitted to the behaviour while 13.6 percent of the term paper on a strategic plan e-commerce, male students said #146;Yes#146; to thesis video having carried out the cheating. The differences are statistically significant (Fisher#146;s Exact Test, D.F.=1, p=.015). The second item where there were observed statistically significant ( c 2 =5.82, D.F.=1, p=.016) response differences related to sex was the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. This item was added to the original questionnaire.

The outcome is presented in Table 7 below. Table 7. Relationship between students#146; responses to the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course where obligatory attendance is asked for and students#146; sex. As can be seen in the table more than 20 percent of the female students admitted that they had signed on a fellow student at a lecture although he/she was absent. Paper On A For An E-commerce Business? This can be compared with 4.5 percent of the homework homework, male students admitting the same behaviour. Compared to the outcome in the previous table, there is a clear female dominance for this behaviour, while males more often than females answered Yes to the previous one. Another difference is that the plan, total proportion of Yes-responses are much larger for the item Signing as present a not present fellow student at a course, where obligatory attendance is phd thesis, asked for when compared with students#146; Yes-responses to the item Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. Strategic Business? #146;cribs#146;) (se Table 6 above), showing the response variation between the items regarding the essay, tendency among the students to accept or not accept a specific cheating behaviour. The social #150;individual relation. In the following, the frequency of certain cheating behaviours are discussed in relation to the nature (see classification in Table 5 above) of the behaviour.

14 of the term paper on a for an e-commerce business, behaviours in this study were clearly classified as individual and 5 as social. The mean for yes-responses was 14,4 % for the social behaviours and theme, 10,5 % for the individual ones. As for situation relatedness, the five most frequently used behaviours were clearly course related. The study only contained one item concerning research related cheating (R), and this was the ninth in order of frequency (10,8 %) and had mostly been used by male respondents at the age of 21-23 successfully (16-24.99 credits/term) studying education . Exam related cheating was not among the most commonly used cheating methods, but 13,8 % of the respondents still admit using the strategic plan, most frequent of math problem these behaviours. The clearly altruistic behaviours A and S were used to a greater extent by female respondents (A: 27,4 % and S: 8,8 %) than by term paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business, men (A: 16,7 % and S: 2,3 %, even though the reasons given for exercising this behaviour are not clearly altruistic. Reasons for homework homework cheating. Another area of interest to us concerns the reasons and the arguments selected as explanations and sometimes also as excuses for the behaviour. In Table 8 below all the on a strategic plan, reasons used to motivate cheating are listed in order of frequency. It should be remembered that the reasons available to be selected were generated by the researchers, but that the respondents also were given the possibility to express other reasons/motives. These less frequent reasons are also listed in Table 8.

Regarding reasons given for not cheating the most frequent one (27.5 %) is the choice stating that cheating is immoral or dishonest. The reasons following in phd thesis dance, frequency of term strategic e-commerce appearance represent on a general level a completely different class of rights attitudes, since it may mean that the subject do not distance him/herself from cheating, only strategic plan for an that it was not considered or regarded as useful (I never thought of it, 21.3 % and Situation did not arise, 19.5 %). In the homework, lower frequency range two reasons mirroring fear of detection and getting caught are found; Shame/embarrassment at being caught (1.3 %) and Fear of detection/punishment (1.4 %). Paper Strategic? In a way these reasons like the using thesis theme, two previous ones are focusing the social condemnation for cheating and dishonest behaviour and are not clearly a statement against cheating. When looking at strategic plan for an students#146; ways of choosing reasons for cheating or for not cheating there seems to exist a strong connection with the cheating behaviour that is in focus. This means that the choice of reason is to a large extent dependent on the particular behaviour that have been admitted to or not admitted to.

This topic will be discussed no further in this paper. In most cases, however, there are no obvious differences between female and male students#146; ways of selecting their reasons for sansthan their responses. Term On A E-commerce Business? Depending on what cheating behaviour is to be decided on, female and male students mostly make similar choices of arguments for their behaviour. In two cases, however, there exist statistical significant differences between the two sexes in homework, ways of explaining the on a for an e-commerce business, behaviour. The reasons chosen as an rashtriya explanation or an argument for or against the behaviour Taking unauthorised material into term on a for an business, an examination (e.g. 'cribs') are different between female and male students. In the table below the outcome is presented.

Table 10. Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs')among female and male students. The outcome points to statistical significant differences (Phi and rashtriya sanskrit phd thesis, Cram?r#146;s V =.404, p=.048) between the female and male ways of paper on a strategic for an selecting the on animal rights in india, reason for their behaviour regarding Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs'). First of all 7.1 percent of the boys have selected Fear of failure as a reason for this cheating behaviour while no girl have selected that reason. Also It would be unfair to term on a strategic plan other students were chosen by 4.8 male students but not one female student. Among the female students reasons like To increase the sanskrit sansthan, mark, Laziness, I would not know how to term paper on a plan for an go about it and rashtriya sanskrit sansthan, Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course were chosen by a few female students but no male student. A relatively large difference between female and male ways of choosing among the reasons for paper strategic for an business explaining the using thesis theme, Yes/No-answer can be found for reason I never thought about it, where 20.5 percent of the female students selected that reason while it attracted only 14.3 percent of the male students. Also It would devalue my achievement was chosen by a larger proportion female students (8.0 %) than male students (2.4 %). The second statistical significant difference (Phi and Cram?r#146;s V=.348, p=.028) concerns the reasons chosen for item Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an strategic for an examination for you. The outcome is presented in Table 11 below. Table 11.

Reasons for or against the cheating behaviour Taking an examination for geometry math problem solver someone else or having someone else take an examination for paper on a strategic plan business you. among female and male students. In one case the male students have chosen a reason (Shame/embarrassment at sansthan being caught) that is not chosen by paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business, any female student. Large difference on the basis of sex are found for the reason Situation did not arise/not applicable to my course, where more than 16 percent more boys have chosen that reasons for their behaviour. Two female students selected one reason that the male students did not choose, namely Fear of detection/punishment. Largest difference (18.7 percent) to the male students are found for reason I never thought of it, which was chosen by math problem, 33.0 percent of the female students but only 14.3 percent of the male students. Various methodological problems that have been discussed elsewhere (see Bj?rklund, 1997), are not mentioned here, since they do not seem to affect the on a for an business, reliability and validity of the results discussed. There is, however, one point of importance as far as methodological bias is concerned and that is the fact that the instrument in this study was translated from English and a British context, which in some cases have called for adjustment and in one case yielded an erroneous translation (item L). The frequency of individual cheating behaviours in comparison to using video the British results. The over all frequency of cheating reported in term paper on a strategic e-commerce, this study does not differ significantly from the ones reported by previous researchers, and can, hence, be taken as a further proof of the fact that the over all cheating rates seem to be fairly constant in rashtriya, the western word. Term Strategic Plan For An E-commerce? What is more interesting is the variation in rashtriya sanskrit phd thesis, frequency on individual behaviours.

The most outstanding feature when comparing the frequencies reported by the Finnish respondents with the ones reported by the British, is that in most cases the British respondents have reported remarkably higher degree of cheating. The greatest variation is to be found in paper strategic for an business, items I (peer assessment), L (inventing data) , R (altering data) and A (allow copying of coursework). The great difference concerning peer assessment is probably due to differences in the academic traditions: Peer assessment is not very common in the Swedish #150;speaking university level studies in Finland. Item L does not represent a real difference, since the item was erroneously translated into Swedish and , thus, measures something else. Research related cheating seem to be much more common in Britain, but the result might in this case be biased for faculty, since the studies were not conducted at the same kinds of institutions. Item A, concerning course work, is the top one of many items concerning coursework that exhibit considerable higher frequencies for the British respondents, which is probably due to the same kind/s of cultural differences as mentioned regarding item I. Only on item K (advance information about exam) was the result of the Finnish respondents higher than the result of the British. Using? The items concerning examrelated behaviours generally exhibit the smallest differences between the term on a plan for an, groups, which seems to indicate that exam conditions are more or less alike between the two countries. Phd Thesis Interpretive Dance? It is also possible to claim that the on a e-commerce, results indicate that Finnish students seem to find examrelated cheating less serious than British, who , in turn, do not seem to regard research related cheating as particularly serious. In the Finnish results the social behaviours seem to be slightly more common, whereas the individual behaviours get a higher mean score in the British results (social 24 %, individual 20,8 %). This can be seen claimed to how do you write indicate that the British academic environment is more competitive than the Finnish, but it ought to be remembered that the mean score used here is a very crude measure.

Reasons for cheating in comparison to the British results. The most frequent reasons for cheating mentioned by the Finnish students were time pressure, laziness and the wish to help a friend. The wish to help a friend and time pressure are also two of the three most frequent reasons mentioned by the British students, but they have mentioned the wish to term strategic plan for an e-commerce business increase the mark as the most frequent reason for cheating. Concerning this reason the difference between the two samples is remarkable (Finnish students 9,3 % and British students 33,3 %). Finns on interpretive, the other hand contribute their cheating to laziness and extenuating circumstances considerably more often than their British peers, who, in turn, seem to fear failure more and term paper on a strategic business, also tend to justify their behaviour with the reason everybody does it. Out of these differences it is easy to create caricature image of the cheating British student as an ambitious person , who wishes to perform well and of the Finnish student who mainly cheats because it seems to be the easiest way to go about the studies. Considering the reasons for not cheating the British students seem to rashtriya sanskrit have two main reasons, which are used considerably more often than the paper on a for an business, other ones available; That it would have been pointless/unnecessary and that it would have been immoral/dishonest. Using Thesis Theme Video? The immorality aspect is mentioned as the most frequently used among the Finnish students, but the second most frequently used is that the student never thought of it, closely followed by the reason that the situation didn#146;t arise or wasn#146;t applicable. Again, then , the British students seem to be more focused on paper for an e-commerce, the outcome/the result of the cheating behaviour than the Finnish ones.

Even though morality is one of the most frequently used reasons for not cheating in both of the homework, groups, the potential cheater-reasons, i.e. the ones giving I never thought of it, the situation didn#146;t arise and/or it was unnecessary/pointless, amount to about 50 % in both of the groups. In connection to the fact that the reasons shame /embarrassment at being caught (1,3 % of Finnish answers, 0 % of term paper plan for an business British ones) and fear of detection/punishment (1,9 % of Finnish answers and 5,8 % of British ones) were used quite infrequently, this implicates that it is of the utmost importance to reduce the opportunities of successful cheating, e.g. by creating individual exams and essay on animal rights, other assessment tasks that demand creativity and originality, not just reproduction. The fact that embarrassment is such an infrequent reason also implicates that nether British or Finnish students feel responsible for the code of paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce honour of their academic institutions. Hence, by establishing a functioning code of sanskrit sansthan phd thesis honour one could most likely reduce the instances of cheating remarkably, since the paper strategic plan for an business, socio-moral climate is known to affect the behaviour of students more effectively than their own level of moral development (MacCabe Trevino, 1996). The reduction of opportunities for homework successful cheating is, of course, the most immediate way of reducing cheating, but in the long run that measure will not suffice. Paper Plan E-commerce Business? According to math problem solver the findings in this study and other ones (cf. Davis et al, 1992) , there is a gap between the term plan for an e-commerce business, notions of morality and correctness as withheld by society and university staff and the notions of essay in india these phenomena withheld by the students. It is therefore necessary to spell out which the common rules are and also control that they are followed.

To go even further it is also important to stress the importance of term on a strategic e-commerce moral education for moral development in order to secure a functioning society, presuming that that is what is what is wanted. Variations in cheating behaviour on the basis of the back ground variables. Contrary to previous research very few of the background variables seem to affect the tendency to cheat to a significant extent. This was, however, also the sansthan phd thesis, case for Haines et al (1986, in Davis et al, 1992). They came to the conclusion that it was because of the unproportionality concerning sex and year of study in the sample, which also seems to be the case in on a e-commerce business, this study. Except the gender differences on thesis theme video, some items, mentioned in term paper on a for an e-commerce, the results, there were, however, also weak, but statistically significant positive correlations between the overall tendency to interpretive cheat and year of study, the perception of how much other students cheat and reason for studying. Strategic For An Business? This result implies that academic misconduct, at least to some extent, may be epidemic and that students#146; reasons for not cheating are gradually worn down when they see fellow students cheat, without being caught. The reason for studying is also of sanskrit phd thesis considerable importance, when discussing cheating rates. An obvious way of reducing cheating in our faculties would be to ensure that only intrinsically motivated students are accepted. Paper On A Strategic E-commerce? The question is then: How do we control for that, and do we really want to; It is all linked to dance the kind of professionals we want to educate. Summary of implications.

Academic staff can no longer presuppose that students know and behave according to unwritten moral rules or an inner code of honour. One, obvious way of paper plan business reducing cheating in universities is then to spell out what rules and codes the rashtriya phd thesis, students are subjected to. Term On A Strategic For An E-commerce? Such a document ought, however, to be carefully thought out and produced in co-operation with the students, in order to establish it as a code of honor2, otherwise it will only fill the purpose of homework homework a list of potentially successful cheating behaviours. According to previous research, students#146; moral behaviour and ethical reasoning seems to develop under continuous education. I am convinced that this influence can be made stronger through focused attention to the area and an open ethical dialogue, not in term paper on a strategic plan, any specific course, but as every teacher#146;s concern. This would create a good socio-moral environment for moral development, which is what universities ought to homework foster in their students, since that is something they will need in their everyday life as well as in their professional activities, and term for an business, of which society will benefit or suffer in the long run. Even though the personal factors causing or preventing cheating are probably the essay rights in india, primary ones, it is also a good idea to try to reduce or eliminate the external factors that seem to cause cheating. One of the major external reasons for cheating was time pressure.

That ought to be quite easily remedied through courses/ supervision in studying technique and discipline, as well as a better co-ordination of courses and exams between university staff. It is also up to term paper plan business the staff to really check that the rules they give are followed. Such a behaviour signals that the rules are judged as important and might awaken conscience in the students, or at how do a document least make the cheating alternative less attractive and easy to carry out. Strategic Plan For An Business? In this case it is, in thesis theme, fact, most important to catch the small fish. Davis and Ludvigson in turn present a twofold way of reducing cheating in the long run, namely by a) using positive reinforcement and b) by encouraging and fostering the on a strategic plan e-commerce business, students to acquire an outlook on life that will prevent them from cheating. The results of this study are particularly serious from a societal point of view, since it involved future teachers, theologian and economists. What kind of teachers does the society of today want? Is it possible for a teacher who does not regard cheating as wrong to teach pupils high ethical and phd thesis interpretive, moral standards? Or should the comprehensive school only strive to teach knowledge and skills? The compulsory schoolteachers are of strategic importance, since they are the ones who ought to start the process of moral development, if academic freedom is to be a reality in the future. Lax morality among economists and teologians is, however, no less serious than among teachers.

If those particular groups in on a strategic for an e-commerce business, society are not to be trusted, then who? In the long run that will produce an even greater disbelief in authorities, eventually resulting in community breakdown. In order to be able to deal with the problem in an efficient manner it is using thesis, necessary to reach the on a strategic, causative factors, which probably are best reached with a flexible and qualitative approach. To understand delicate and inaccessible phenomena like the one at hand it is important to benefit from as many sources of dance knowledge as possible; an interdisciplinary approach would probably be most adequate. It is also important to realise the problem with truthfulness. Plan For An? In this study it was generally found that the homework homework, students tended to answer the questionnaire with less anxiety, when it was stressed that the researcher was a fellow student and not a member of the term paper on a strategic plan business, university staff. Anderman, E, Griesinger, T, Westinger, G. (1998). Motivation and cheating during early adolescence. Journal of Educational Psychology, 90 , 1, 84-93.

Ashworth, P. Bannister, P. (1997). Guilty in whose eyes? University students#146; perceptions of cheating and plagiarism in academic work and assessment. Studies in Higher Education, 22 , 2, 187-204. Baird, J.S. Jr. (1980). Current trends in on animal, college cheating. Psychology in term paper on a plan e-commerce, the Schools , 17 , s. 515-522. Baldwin., DeWitt C., et al. (1996). Cheating in Medical School: A Survey of Second-Year Students at 31 Schools.

Academic Medicine; 71 , 3, p267-73. Bj?rklund, M. Phd Thesis Interpretive Dance? (1997). Akademiskt fusk #150; F?rekomst, metoder och orsaker. En enk?tunders?kning bland studerande vid Svenska handelsh?gskolan i Vasa, samt pedagogiska och teologiska fakulteterna vid ?bo Akademi. Unpublished master#146;s thesis. ?bo Akademi University, Vasa. Davis, S.F., Grover, C.A., Becker, A.H. McGregor, L.N. Term Paper Plan Business? (1992). Academic dishonesty: prevalence, determinants, techniques, and punishments. Teaching of Psychology , 19 , 1, s. 16-20. Davis, S.F.

Ludvigson, H.W. (1995). Additional data on academic dishonesty and a proposal for remediation. Teaching of homework Psychology, 22 , 2, s. Paper Strategic Plan Business? 119-121. Franklyn-Stokes, A. Newstead, S.E. (1995). Undergraduate cheating: who does what and why?. Studies in Higher Education, 20 , 2, s. 159-172. Graham, Melody A., et al. (1994). Cheating at small colleges: An examination of student development. Journal of theme video College Student Developments, 35 , 4, 255-260. Grahnstr?m, T. (1996). On A For An E-commerce Business? Sv?rt f? uppr?ttelse f?r fuskanklagad.

Vertex, 5 . Hetherington, E.M. Feldman, S.E. (1964). College cheating as a function of subject and situational variables. Journal of Educational Psychology , 55 , 4, s. 212-218. Jendreck, Margareta, Platt. (1992).

Students#146; reactions to geometry math problem academic dishonesty. Journal of paper on a strategic plan business College Student Development, 33 , 3, 260-273. Kuehn, P., Stanwyck, D. J., Holland, C. L. (1990). Attitudes toward cheating behaviours in the ESL classroom. Phd Thesis Dance? TESOL (Teacher of English to Speakers of Other Languages) Quarterly, 24 (2), 313-317. Lipson, Alberta and McGavern, Norma. (1993). Undergraduate academic dishonesty at MIT. Results from a study of attitudes and behaviour of undergraduates, faculty, and graduate teaching assistants. Lord, T., Chiodo, ?D. (1995). Paper Strategic Plan For An E-commerce Business? A Look at Student Cheating in College Science Classes. Sanskrit? Journal of Science Education and Technology; 4 , 4, 317-24.

Lunds Universitet Meddelar, ?rg 31, nr 7, 1998. Lunds universitet. Maramark, Sheila Maline, Mindi, barth. (1993) Academic dishonesty among college students. Issues in term paper plan for an business, education. Office of Educational research and Imporvemnet (ED), Washington, DC. McCabe, Donald, L. (1993).

Faculty resposnes to academic dishonesty: The influence of student honour codes . Research in Higher Education, 34 , 5, 647-658. McCabe, Donald, L., Bowers, William, J. (1994). Academic dishonesty among males in phd thesis interpretive dance, college: A thirty year perspective . Journal of paper plan for an College Student Development, 35 , 1, 5-10. McCabe, D.L. Trevino Klebe, L. (1996).

What we know about cheating in college. Change, 28 , 1, s. Using? 28-33. Miller, C.M. Parlett, M. (1974). Term Paper On A Business? Up to the Mark, a study of the examination game. Society for Research into Higher Education. Murray, B. (1996). Are professors turning a blind eye to cheating?

Schools facing a plague of homework cheating. Beware the #145;A#146; student: Overachievers can be cheaters. Term Strategic E-commerce? The APA MONITOR , 27 , 1, s. Geometry Problem? 1, 42. Newstead, S.E., Franklyn-Stokes, A. Armstead, P. (1995, in strategic plan for an e-commerce, press) Individual differences in student cheating. Phd Thesis Dance? Journal of Educational Psychology . Singhal, A.C. (1982). Factors in students#146; dishonesty . Psychological Reports, 51 , s. 775-780.

A) Allowing own course-work to be copied by another student. B) Taking unauthorised material into an examination (e.g. 'cribs') B)Fabricating references or a bibliography. D) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get special consideration by examiner. E) Copying another student's course-work with their knowledge. F) Lying about medical or other circumstances to get an extended deadline or exemption from a piece of work. G) Submitting course-work from an outside source. H) Taking an examination for someone else or having someone else take an paper on a strategic for an e-commerce business examination for you. I)In a situation where students mark each other's work, coming to an agreement with another student or students to mark each other's work more generously than it merits J) Copying another student's course-work without their knowledge. K) Illicitly gaining advance information about the contents of an examination paper.

L) Inventing data (i.e. entering nonexistent results into the database) M) Ensuring the availability of books or journal articles in the library by deliberately mis-shelving them so that other students cannot find them, or by cutting out the relevant article or chapter. N) Paraphrasing material from dance another source without acknowledging the original author. O) Copying material for course-work from a book or other publication without acknowledging the source. P) Premeditated collusion between 2 or more students to term e-commerce communicate answers to using thesis each other during an examination. Q) Copying from a neighbor during an exami-nation without them realizing. R) Altering data (e.g. adjusting data to obtain a significant result) S) Doing another student's course-work for them. T) Submitting a piece of course-work as an term paper on a strategic for an individual piece of work when it has actually been written jointly with another student.

U) Attempting to obtain special consideration by offering or receiving favors, for example, bribery, seduction, corruption. V) Signing as present a not present fellow student at in india a course where obligatory attendance is asked for. W) Kept silent about on a e-commerce, a teacher's misbehavior or misuse of his/her position in order to get approval on sansthan, a test or a higher mark. This document was added to the Education-line database on 21 March 2000.

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Download a Resume Template That Employers Will Love. Are your Resume and online job search profiles not yielding you the results you need to on a plan e-commerce business, find gainful employment and geometry, finally afford to pay your bills? No doubt about it; itís tougher to find a job now than itís been in paper plan for an e-commerce business, decades. Theme? That doesnít mean, however, that you canít give yourself every fighting chance of snagging the next available job. While there is plenty to be said for effective interviewee skills, the absolute most important step for getting hired is writing a winning Curriculum Vitae. Without a highly attractive C.V, youíre just one of dozens or more applicants that begin to blend together after a while. You want your most relevant skills and experience to jump off the page and grab the term paper on a plan for an, attention of the geometry math, person responsible for plan for an business reviewing the group of CVs in which yours is stacked or filed online. Direct access to resume templates advices. 1. Choose your favorite Curriculum Vitae.

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Place the cover letter aside for a few hours, or overnight if possible, and look at it with fresh eyes. You might find errors that you didnít see previously. As a final step, ask someone, who you trust will do a decent job, to proofread your cover letter. Now, you have a well-written cover letter that will hopefully lead a potential employer to read your resume and homework, ultimately invite you to paper for an, an interview. The rest is up to sansthan, you! How to prepare for a winning job interview. In a competitive market for paper on a strategic plan for an e-commerce business available jobs, potential candidates should put in the necessary time and effort to make a solid impact. Homework? You must simply accept that itís a buyerís market, the buyer, in term paper business, this case is the organization.

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All the Curriculum Vitae templates are at your disposal without any guaranty. The use of these Curriculum samples is at your sole risk.