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Psychology uwaterloo thesis

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BBC: Arguments against capital punishment Essay. Here the text for the final exam, as agreed. Please note that this is an edited version, which means that I have made some changes. The words marked in uwaterloo thesis, red are probably new terms for you which you should check during your preparation for the final exam; it is important that you understand them) Value of human life. Everyone thinks human life is valuable. Research Paper! Some of those against psychology thesis, capital punishment believe that human life is northern lights so valuable that even the worst murderers should not be deprived of the value of their lives. They believe that the value of the offender#8217;s life cannot be destroyed by the offender#8217;s bad conduct even if they have killed someone. Some abolitionists don#8217;t go that far. They say that life should be preserved unless there is a very good reason not to, and thesis that those who are in favor of capital punishment are the ones who have to justify their position. Everyone has an inalienable human right to life, even those who commit murder; sentencing a person to death and executing them violates that right. This is very similar to paper, the #8216;value of uwaterloo thesis, life#8217; argument, but approached from the perspective of human rights.

The counter-argument is that a person can, by their actions, forfeit human rights, and that murderers forfeit their right to life. Another example will make this clear a person forfeits their right to life if they start a murderous attack and was a essay the only way the victim can save their own life is by killing the attacker. Execution of the innocent. The most common and most cogent argument against capital punishment is that sooner or later, innocent people will get killed, because of mistakes or flaws in the justice system. Witnesses, (where they are part of the process), prosecutors and jurors can all make mistakes. When this is coupled with flaws in uwaterloo, the system it is inevitable that innocent people will be convicted of crimes. Where capital punishment is used such mistakes cannot be put right. There is ample evidence that such mistakes are possible: in the USA, 130 people sentenced to death have been found innocent since 1973 and released from death row. Source: Amnesty The average time on death row before these exonerations was 11 years. Source: Death Penalty Information Center Retribution is asu essay wrong.

Many people believe that retribution is morally flawed and problematic in concept and practice. Uwaterloo Thesis! We cannot teach that killing is wrong by killing. Dissertations & Full! U.S. Catholic Conference. To take a life when a life has been lost is revenge, it is not justice. Attributed to psychology, Archbishop Desmond Tutu. The main argument that retribution is immoral is that it is just another form of vengeance. Scenes of people attacking prison vans containing those accused of research format, murder on their way to and from court, or chanting aggressively outside prisons when an offender is being executed, suggest that vengeance remains a major issue in the public popularity of capital punishment. But just retribution, designed to psychology uwaterloo, re-establish justice, can easily be distinguished from vengeance. Uniqueness of the asu essay, death penalty. Psychology Uwaterloo! It#8217;s argued that retribution is was a feminist essay used in a unique way in the case of the psychology, death penalty.

Crimes other than murder do not receive a punishment that mimics the crime for example rapists are not punished by sexual assault, and & theses text people guilty of assault are not ceremonially beaten up. Camus and Dostoevsky argued that the psychology, retribution in dissertations & full, the case of the death penalty was not fair, because the anticipatory suffering of the criminal before execution would probably outweigh the anticipatory suffering of the psychology uwaterloo, victim of their crime. Others argue that the retribution argument is & theses full flawed because the death penalty delivers a #8216;double punishment#8217;; that of the psychology uwaterloo thesis, execution and the preceding wait, and this is requirements worse than the crime. Many offenders are kept #8216;waiting#8217; on death row for a very long time; in psychology uwaterloo, the USA the average wait is 10 years. Source: Death Penalty Information Center In Japan, the requirements, accused are only informed of their execution moments before it is scheduled. The result of this is that each day of their life is lived as if it was their last. Psychology Thesis! Capital punishment is not retribution enough. Some people who believe in the notion of retribution are against capital punishment because they feel the death penalty provides insufficient retribution.

They argue that life imprisonment without possibility of parole causes much more suffering to the offender than a painless death after a short period of imprisonment. Failure to deter. The death penalty doesn#8217;t seem to deter people from committing serious violent crimes. The thing that deters is the likelihood of being caught and punished. The general agreement among scientists is that the deterrent effect of the death penalty is simply not proven. In 1988 a survey was conducted for the United Nations to determine the relation between the death penalty and homicide rates. This was then updated in 1996. It concluded: #8230;research has failed to provide scientific proof that executions have a greater deterrent effect than life imprisonment. Such proof is unlikely to spa bressay, be forthcoming. The evidence as a whole still gives no positive support to the deterrent hypothesis. The key to real and true deterrence is to thesis, increase the likelihood of detection, arrest and conviction.

NB: It#8217;s actually impossible to test the deterrent effect of a punishment in an exact way, because this would require knowing how many murders would have been committed in theses full text, a particular state if the law had been different during the same time period. Deterrence is a morally flawed concept. Even if capital punishment did act as a deterrent, is it acceptable for someone to pay for the predicted future crimes of others? Brutalizing society, brutalizing individuals. Statistics show that the death penalty leads to a brutalization of psychology, society and an increase in murder rate. Street Of Thesis! In the USA, more murders take place in states where capital punishment is allowed. In 2010, the murder rate in states where the death penalty has been abolished was 4 per cent per 100,000 people.

In states where the death penalty is psychology used, the figure was 5 per cent. These calculations are based on figures from the FBI. Feminist Essay! The gap between death penalty states and non-death penalty states rose considerably from 4 per cent difference in 1990 to 25 per cent in 2010. Psychology Uwaterloo! Source: FBI Uniform. Crime Report, from camden Death Penalty Information Center. Capital punishment lowers the uwaterloo thesis, reputation of a society. Civilized societies do not tolerate torture, even if it can be shown that torture may deter, or produce other good effects. In the same way many people feel that the death penalty is an camden street binding of thesis, inappropriate for a modern civilized society to respond to even the most dreadful crimes.

In the USA capital punishment costs a great deal. Psychology Uwaterloo! For example, the cost of convicting and executing Timothy McVeigh for the Oklahoma City Bombing was over pandora was a feminist, $13 million. In New York and New Jersey, the high costs of capital punishment were one factor in those states#8217; decisions to abandon the death penalty. Uwaterloo! New York spent about $170 million over 9 years and had no executions. New Jersey spent $253 million over a 25-year period and also had no executions. Source: Death Penalty Information Center In countries with a less costly and lengthy appeals procedure, capital punishment seems like a much cheaper option than long-term imprisonment. Those in favor of capital punishment counter with these two arguments: * It is paper format not correct that capital punishment costs more than life without parole * Justice cannot be thought of in financial terms. But they are wrong. People are not responsible for uwaterloo thesis their acts. Some countries, including the northern spa bressay, USA, have executed people who were insane.

It#8217;s generally accepted that people should not be punished for their actions unless they have a guilty mind which requires them to know what they are doing and that it#8217;s wrong. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis! Therefore, people who are insane should not be convicted, let alone executed. This doesn#8217;t prevent insane people who have done terrible things being confined in secure mental institutions, but this is done for public safety, not to punish the insane person. To put it more formally: it is wrong to impose capital punishment on those who have a very low IQ and, therefore, nearly no moral conscience due to their mental disability. Requirements! A more difficult moral problem arises in the case of offenders who were sane at the time of their crime and trial but who develop signs of insanity before execution. There has been much concern in the USA that flaws in the judicial system make capital punishment unfair. One US Supreme Court Justice (who had originally supported the death penalty) eventually came to psychology thesis, the conclusion that capital punishment could damage the cause of lights spa bressay, justice: Jurors in uwaterloo, many US death penalty cases must be #8216;death eligible#8217;. This means the asu essay requirements, prospective juror must be willing to convict the accused knowing that a sentence of uwaterloo thesis, death is a possibility.

This results in a jury biased in favor of the death penalty, since no one who opposes the death penalty is binding likely to psychology thesis, be accepted as a juror. Archeology Research Format! There#8217;s much concern in the USA that the legal system doesn#8217;t always provide poor accused people with good lawyers. Out of all offenders who are sentenced to death, three quarters of those who are given a legal aid lawyer by the judicial system can expect execution, a figure that drops to a quarter if the defendant could afford to pay for a lawyer. Cruel, inhumane, degrading. Regardless of the moral status of capital punishment, some argue that all ways of executing people cause so much suffering to the condemned person that they amount to torture and are, therefore, wrong. Many methods of execution are quite obviously likely to cause enormous suffering, such as execution by psychology thesis lethal gas, electrocution or strangulation. Other methods have been abandoned because they were thought to be barbaric, or because they forced the executioner to be too #8216;hands-on#8217;. These include firing squads and beheading. Many countries that use capital punishment have now adopted lethal injection, because it#8217;s thought to be less cruel for the offender and less brutalizing for the executioner. Dissertations & Theses Full Text! Those against capital punishment believe this method has serious moral flaws and psychology uwaterloo thesis should be abandoned.

One flaw is that it requires medical personnel being directly involved in contest, killing (rather than just checking that the execution has terminated life). This is against fundamental ideas of medical ethics. University/College: University of uwaterloo, Arkansas System. Northern Lights! Type of paper: Thesis/Dissertation Chapter. Date: 13 October 2016. Let us write you a custom essay sample on psychology thesis, BBC: Arguments against capital punishment. for brooklyn essay only $16.38 $13.9/page. Haven't found the Essay You Want? Get your custom essay sample.

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olympic essay topics As a bonus, site members have access to a banner-ad-free version of the site, with print-friendly pages. More Writing Activities. Essays to Write. for Early Writers. The following are printouts with writing prompts for psychology uwaterloo, short essays. Essay. For early writers, these one-page printout should be enough writing space for a very short essay.

For more advanced writers, extra pieces of uwaterloo thesis, lined paper will be necessary to pandora feminist essay, complete an essay. Instructions for the essay writers : For each essay, begin with a topic (focus) sentence that states the main ideas that you will be writing about. Uwaterloo Thesis. Then write at least four to format, five sentences that clearly explain the psychology uwaterloo, point of your essay. End the essay with a strong closing sentence that summarizes what you wrote. Check that your grammar, spelling, and punctuation are correct. Make sure to use complete sentences and write neatly! Book Report: Use this form to archeology research paper format, write a book report, noting the book's name, author, main characters, setting, and plot summary.

A Friend: Write about what being a friend means to you. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Describe what friends do and how they behave with each other and asu essay with other people. What happens when friends disagree? Movie Review: Review a movie. Include a description of the psychology uwaterloo thesis, characters, the story, the scenery, and what you liked the most and archeology research format the least about the movie. Election Issues: What do you think are the most important issues in this election (and why)?

Improve the World: What you would do to improve the world? Think of psychology uwaterloo, actions you could take to help make the camden street of thesis, world a better place. June 23 is United Nations Public Service Day. How to psychology, Learn From Others : How can you learn from other people? Give an example of archeology research paper, something you learned from someone else and explain why and psychology uwaterloo how you learned it. Something I Learned from camden street binding a Bad Experience: Think about something bad that happened to uwaterloo thesis, you, but taught you something. Write about this experience and what you learned from it.

Do you think that this knowledge will help you later in dissertations & text life? A Veteran's Story: Write a page about a relative or friend who was in the Army, Marines, Navy, Air Force, Coast Guard, or National Guard. Who was this person (what is their relationship to psychology uwaterloo, you), when did this person serve, was it during a war (if so, which one), what did that person do during their service, and what are their recollections of their service? I Wonder Why: Think of something you have wondered about and pandora write about psychology uwaterloo it. Presidential Qualities: What do you think are the dissertations theses full, most important qualities a president should have (and why)? Living in Space: Do you think people will ever live in space?

If not, why not? If so, where will they live and how will they do it? Write About a Number: Pick a number, then write about it. Tell a Joke: Write a funny joke that you know. Why did you pick this joke?

Why is it so funny? Free Vacation Trip : If someone offered to give you a free vacation trip anywhere in world, where would you go? Why do you want to go to this place? What would you do when you got there? A New Olympic Sport: Invent a new Olympic sport. There are many unusual Olympic sports, like skeleton (running and psychology uwaterloo thesis then sledding), biathlon (skiing plus shooting), and requirements curling (using brooms to propel an psychology uwaterloo object over ice). Brooklyn Based Contest. Make up a new sport that would be fun to watch and play. A New Website: If you could put up a new website on any topic at psychology uwaterloo, all, what would it be? Write about why you chose this topic, what the website would contain, and who else you think might be interested in camden street of thesis going to your site. New Nickname: If you could choose a nickname for yourself, what would it be? Why did you pick this nickname?

How do you think your classmates would react to thesis, this nickname? An Invention I'd Like: Think about an brooklyn essay invention that you'd like to psychology uwaterloo, have or make. Asu Essay Requirements. Write about uwaterloo what this new device would do and camden binding of thesis why you'd like to uwaterloo, use it. Invent an Animal: Invent a new animal -- describe what it looks like, what it sounds like, how it moves, and what it eats. Brooklyn Based. Is it scary or cuddly or something else altogether? Would it be a pet or live in the wild (or in a zoo)?

An Imaginary Pet: Draw and describe an imaginary pet that you would like (or not like) to uwaterloo thesis, have. Invent a New Holiday: Invent a new holiday. What would this holiday celebrate? How would you celebrate it? Would there be any special food or symbols for your holiday? New Student Questions: If there was a new student in class and you could only ask that person three questions to get to know them, what questions would you ask? A New Name for pandora essay, Your Town/City: If you could rename your town or city, what would you call it? Why did you pick this name? How would it change things in your town? My Superpower: If you could have one superpower, what would it be?

Write a page explaining what the psychology, superpower is, why you would like to camden street, have it, and what you would do with this new power. How would your life change if you had this superpower? If I Could Be a Different Age. : If you could be any age at psychology uwaterloo, all, how old would you be (older or younger)? Write about pandora was a feminist why you would like to be this age and what you would do. If You Could Be Invisible: If you could be invisible whenever you wanted to, what would you do? Why would you want to do this particular thing? If You Could Fly: If you could fly whenever you wanted to, what would you do? Why would you want to do this particular thing? A Magical Spell: A Magic Spell. Uwaterloo. If you could devise a magical spell, what would it be and feminist what would it do?

Write about thesis why you chose this new spell and how you would use it. If All Your Wishes Were Granted: Write about what your life would be like if all your wishes came true. How would it change your life? What you would do? If You Could Make Something Disappear: If you could make one thing disappear, what would it be? Write about dissertations & what would happen once it disappeared. How would it change things? What you would do? If I Could Change a School Rule: If you could change one rule at thesis, your school, which rule would it be and what would you change it to? Why did you choose that rule? Why is & text, your rule better than the old rule?

Stranded on an Island: If you were going to uwaterloo, be stranded on a deserted island and could take three items with you, what three items would you take and why? The three items have to fit in an ordinary backpack. Describe each item fully and tell why you want each one. Message in a Bottle: If you were stranded on a deserted island and asu essay requirements could send out psychology uwaterloo thesis one message in a bottle, what would you write in that message, and why would you write those particular things? A Space Adventure: If you could travel anywhere in space, where would you go and why?

What do you think it would be like there? Go Back in dissertations theses Time: If you could go back in time and psychology re-experience an event in your life, what would it be. Would you go back to change an event that happened or to was a feminist, re-experience a happy time? Or something else? If I Were a Grown-Up: Write about what you'd do if you were a grown-up for one day.

What exactly would you like to do and uwaterloo thesis why would you do it? If I Were a Teacher: Write a page on based what you would do if you were a teacher for a day. What subjects would you teach and how would you teach them? If I Were the President: Write a page on psychology uwaterloo thesis what you'd do if you were the President. How would you change the world? If I Had a Hundred Dollars: Write a page on what you'd do if you had one hundred dollars. The Story of Your Name: Why did your parents give you your name -- what is the story of your name? Are you named after someone or some place? If you don't know why you have your name, make up a story.

If I Had a New Name: If you could give yourself a new name, what would it be? Write about why you chose this new name and how it might change your life. If I Turned into an Animal: If you had to turn into street binding of thesis a different animal for a single day, what animal would you choose to become? Why did you choose that animal? What would do when you became that animal, and where would you go? How do you think you would feel when you were that animal? How would people treat you?

How would other animals treat you? Talk to psychology thesis, an Animal: If you could talk to an animal, what animal would you talk to and what would you talk about? Why did you choose that animal? What questions would you ask that animal? Scariest Animal: Which animal frightens you the northern spa bressay, most? Describe the animal. What is it about this animal that makes it so terrifying?

Is this animal actually dangerous or does it just disturb you? My Special Day: If you had a day all for uwaterloo, yourself and could do whatever you wanted to, what would you do? Start with waking up and describe the pandora was a, entire day. Include things like what you'd eat, who you'd see, where you'd go, and what you'd do. An Adventure I'd like to thesis, have: If you could have any type of adventure at all, what would it be? Write a page on asu essay an adventure that you'd like to experience. Think of the wildest adventure you can imagine. World Record: If you could hold a world record in something, what would it be?

How would you go about attaining this world record? How would it feel being a world record holder? My Favorite Game: What is your favorite game? Describe the game and how it is played. Explain the rules so that someone could learn how to uwaterloo thesis, play the game. My Favorite Holiday: What is your favorite holiday? Describe what you like to do on this holiday, who you like to be with at that time, and why you enjoy it so much. My Favorite Time of Year: What is your favorite time of year? Why do you like it so much?

Describe what you like to do during this time, and dissertations & text why do you enjoy it so much. My Favorite Sport: What is your favorite sport? Why do you like it, and what do you like best about it? My Favorite Movie: What is your favorite movie? Describe the uwaterloo, characters, the story, and what you like best about the movie.

The Best Thing That Happened This Year: What is the best thing that happened to asu essay, you this year? What was it and thesis what effect did it have on archeology research paper your life? How did it make you feel and how did it change you? The Most Beautiful Place I've Ever Seen: What is the most beautiful place that you have ever seen? Describe this place and psychology uwaterloo write about where it is, what it looks like, and brooklyn based how you felt when you saw it. The Best Thing I've Learned in uwaterloo thesis School: Write about the most valuable thing you ever learned in northern lights school. Uwaterloo. What made it so useful for you? What I Like Best in brooklyn based School: What is your favorite part of the school day? Write a page on what you like the best in school.

My Best Birthday Ever: Write a page on the best birthday you ever had. Describe what made it so special. The Best Gift You Gave: Write about the psychology thesis, best gift you ever gave. & Text. Who did you give it to and why did you give it to thesis, them? What made it a great gift? The Best Gift You Received: Write about the best gift you ever received.

What was it and asu essay requirements why did you like it so much? What made it so special? The Best Food You've Ever Eaten: Write about the psychology uwaterloo thesis, best food you ever had. Asu Essay. What was it and psychology uwaterloo why did you like it so much? Have you had it again? The Worst Food You've Ever Eaten: Write about the asu essay, most horrible food you ever had. What was it and why did you dislike it so much?

Have you had it again? Craziest Meal: What is the craziest meal you can think of? What foods would be in it? Who would make the psychology uwaterloo thesis, food and where would it be served? Who would eat it? Who would like it? My Best Vacation Ever: Write a page on the best vacation or trip that you ever had. Describe where you went, who you went with, what you did, and why you enjoyed it. Vacation: My Worst Vacation Ever: Write a page on binding of thesis the worst vacation or trip that you ever had.

Describe where you went, who you went with, what you did, and why you enjoyed it. What is the Farthest You've Ever Traveled: What is the longest distance you've ever traveled? Where did you go, who did you go with, and uwaterloo thesis what did you do when you got there? What was the highlight of the dissertations full, trip? Fastest You've Ever Traveled: What is the Fastest You've Ever Traveled? What is the fastest speed at psychology uwaterloo thesis, which you've moved? What type of vehicle were you in? Where were you and where did you go? Who were you with, and why were you traveling. The Funniest Thing I've Ever Seen or Heard: What is the funniest thing that you've ever seen or heard?

Maybe it was a joke that a friend told you, a comedy routine, or a scene in a movie. Describe this amusing event and tell why you thought it was funny. The Scariest Thing That Ever Happened To Me: What is the brooklyn essay, scariest thing that ever happened to you? Describe this event and write about why it scared you. What I Worry About: What do you worry about? Describe something that worries you. Write why it worries you, how it affects your life, and how you might be able to solve this problem. The Biggest Thing I've Ever Seen: What is the largest thing that you have ever seen? Describe this huge object and write about when you saw it, where it was, and how you felt when you saw it. The Most Annoying Things: Write about the psychology thesis, most irritating, bothersome things in camden street your life.

A Good Personality Trait: Think of psychology, a person you really like or admire. Think of a personality trait that makes them so special. Write about this good trait and was a feminist why you like it. A Bad Personality Trait: Think of a person you really dislike. Psychology Thesis. Think of a personality trait that makes them so unpleasant. Write about lights this bad trait and why you dislike it. The Hardest Part of Being a Kid: What do you think is the uwaterloo thesis, hardest part of being a kid? How could you make this difficult part of your life easier? The Best Advice Your Mother Gave You: Write about the best advice your mother ever gave you. What was it and pandora essay why was it important to psychology, you?

How has it affected your life? The Best Advice Your Father Gave You: Write about the paper format, best advice your father ever gave you. What was it and psychology uwaterloo why was it important to you? How has it affected your life? The Oldest Thing You've Ever Seen: What is the oldest thing you have ever seen?

Write about what it was and how old it was. Where did you see it? What did it make you think. The Most Fascinating Thing You've Ever Seen in the Sky: What is the pandora was a feminist, most interesting thing you have ever seen in the sky? Write about what it was and psychology uwaterloo what it looked like.

Where did you see it? What did you think about lights spa bressay it? Most Important Person: Write a page on who you think is the most important person alive in psychology the world today. Describe this person and write about why they are so important. How could you be more like this person? A Personal Accomplishment: Write about something that you worked hard to accomplish.

How did you go about succeeding? Why did you want to accomplish this particular thing? How do you feel about your accomplishment? What other things do you want to camden street of thesis, accomplish? Autobiography: Write the story of your life. Start with your birth and uwaterloo thesis continue the northern, adventure up to the present. How Are You Different?: Write about uwaterloo thesis what makes you different from based contest other people you know. How do you think this will affect your life? Self-Portrait: Draw a self-portrait, and describe yourself in uwaterloo writing.

Three Words Describing Yourself: If you had to describe yourself using only dissertations full three words, what would words would you use and uwaterloo why? My Family: Write about the members of your family. Describe each person and what they mean to based essay, you. My Town: If an uwaterloo thesis out-of-town visitor was coming to pandora was a feminist essay, visit, where would you take your visitor? Describe the best places around your town and psychology why they are so interesting. Write about pandora was a feminist parks, museums, lakes, stores, restaurants, and other places you enjoy. What I Want To Do When I Grow Up: Write a page on what you want to do when you grow up. What career do you want and uwaterloo what do you want to accomplish? An Act of Kindness: Write a page on something nice that you did for someone, or on something nice that someone did for you for no reason. A Good Deed: When was the last time you did something nice for full, someone without them asking you?

Write about psychology uwaterloo what it was that you did and why you did it. How did the other person react, and dissertations & theses how did you feel about psychology uwaterloo thesis your good deed? What about next time? A Dream I've Had: Describe a dream that you've had. How did the dream make you feel? The Best Thing I've Learned in School: Write about the brooklyn based essay contest, most valuable thing you ever learned in school. What made it so useful for you?

The Most Exciting Thing in Your Life: What is the most exciting thing you have ever done? Write about thesis what it was, when it occurred, and pandora where. Has it changed your life. I'm an Expert: Everyone is psychology uwaterloo thesis, great at something - write about what you do best. Pandora Was A. It could be a hobby, a sport, reading, playing chess, or anything else you excel at. What's Bugging You?: Think about psychology uwaterloo thesis something that annoys or bothers you.

Write about what it is and why it bothers you. What can you do to make it less irritating? My Earliest Memory: What is the first memory you have of northern, your life? Write about uwaterloo thesis what you remember, how old you were at the time, and why you think you remember this event in particular. What do you think of asu essay requirements, this event now? Giving Thanks: Write a page on what are you most thankful for uwaterloo thesis, in life. My Personal Hero: Who is your personal hero? Write a page on your hero's accomplishments and what makes that person a hero. If you don't have a personal hero, describe the characteristics that someone would have to possess to be your personal hero. A Person You Admire : Who do you admire the most?

Why do you respect this person so much; what have they done to deserve your respect. My April Fool Joke: Who would you like to full text, play an April Fool's Day joke on? Why would you like to do this, and what would you like to psychology uwaterloo thesis, do? When I'm Eighty: Write an northern lights essay as though you were 80 years old, looking back at psychology thesis, your life. What have you accomplished, what are you proudest of, what is the world like, and do you have any regrets? How Are You Like Your Mother?: Write about how you are like your mother. Research Paper. Do you look at psychology thesis, all like her? Do you have any traits in pandora was a feminist common?

What parts of your personality are like hers? How Are You Like Your Father?: Write about how you are like your father. Psychology Uwaterloo. Do you look at all like him? Do you have any traits in common? What parts of your personality are like his? When I Look in the Mirror I . : What do you see when you look in the mirror? Describe what you see, how you feel about your own reflection, and pandora was a feminist what it prompts you to do. Thanksgiving Tradition: Write about one of your family's Thanksgiving traditions.

Describe it in detail, tell how you feel about it and psychology thesis what it means to you. Christmas Tradition: Write about text one of psychology, your family's Christmas traditions. Describe it in detail, tell how you feel about camden binding of thesis it and what it means to you. Bad Day Solutions : When you are having a bad day, what do you do to make yourself feel better? Does it always work? Write a story about simple pictures - dozens of pictures to write about. Draw and psychology thesis Write 3 Things: Writing Prompts. Other Topics (Not Printouts) : Guide to Writing a Dinosaur Report - How to go about the daunting task of writing a paper on a dinosaur. Not a printout. For younger students : A teacher recently wrote and asu essay told of a great new way to get kids to uwaterloo thesis, write. She had two stuffed animal mascots in her classroom.

Each animal had a notebook and every weekend a different child took the stuffed animal and the notebook home and was a wrote about what they did together over the weekend. On Monday mornings the psychology uwaterloo, class read, discussed and critiqued the dissertations & full, writing. It was a great way to psychology, get kids to write and they LOVED it.

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Annual Ontario Psychology Undergraduate Thesis Conference

Murex barclayi : livres de coquilles. Les livres de coquilles se declinent en differents genres, chacun ayant son public, ses formes et ses usages : livres d’histoire naturelle, livres destines aux collectionneurs et cabinets de curiosite, traites de conchyliologie et de malacologie, publications scientifiques et guides pour collectionneurs. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Tous ont des formats et des illustrations correspondant aux publics et lecteurs. There are different kinds of lights spa bressay, books representing shells, each of psychology, them for asu essay a different purpose and psychology uwaterloo thesis, another public : treatises of asu essay requirements, natural history, books for psychology thesis collectors and street of thesis, cabinets of psychology uwaterloo, curiosities, treatises of lights spa bressay, conchyliology and psychology uwaterloo, malacology, scientific publications and binding, guides for psychology thesis collectors. Based Essay. All of psychology uwaterloo, them have different formats and lights, kinds of uwaterloo, illustration, for lights spa bressay each reader. Manuscrit didactique sur les coquilles joint a une copie manuscrite des planches de Burtin, Oryctographie de Bruxelles , xviii e siecle (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, Ms. Psychology Uwaterloo. II 472 B). Bibliotheque royale de Belgique.

1 Les livres anciens cites dans le texte sont repris enreferences [numerotation dans le texte] dans l (. & Full Text. ) 1 L’interet pour les coquillages ne s’est jamais dementi. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Traduit dans les livres, il a genere des genres paralleles et complementaires. Based Contest. Nous envisagerons ici sommairement les genres et formes des livres de coquilles, de maniere diachronique et sans refaire cinq siecles de bibliographie sur le sujet, etudie par ailleurs (Nissen 1961, Coppens 1986, Dance 1986, Heppell 1995) 1. 2 Les premieres coquilles font leur apparition dans Aristote, Dioscoride et Pline, dans les manuscrits, et les editions des xv e et xvi e siecles les integrent dans leur propos. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Les traites d’histoire naturelle leur reservent une place parmi les animaux marins, puis les coquilles sont regroupees en chapitres coherents tandis que se multiplient les especes et que s’organisent les trois regnes de la nature.

L’abondance de specimens apportes en Europe grace a la colonisation, au commerce maritime puis aux expeditions scientifiques, donne naissance a deux genres paralleles : les livres de curiosites et les traites de conchyliologie (Eisenstein 1982, Jammes 1984) (Figure 1). Les cabinets de curiosites renfermant des coquilles (Coomans 1992, Schnapper 1988 : 71-77), eclatant symbole de prestige social, constituent une appropriation de la nature, qui devient signe de culture. Requirements. Les cabinets engendrent des lors une forme de litterature qui leur est propre, de savantes publications presentant un choix de curiosites de l’art et de la nature assurant la perennite du collectionneur ou du prince (Lestringant 2008). Adam Olearius, Gottorffische Kunst-Cammer , Schlesswig, 1666, cabinet des ducs Frederic III et Christian-Albert de Schleswig-Gottorp, tabula XXXI, cones places horizontalement (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 12.161 A). Uwaterloo Thesis. (Fig. Northern Spa Bressay. 1) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique.

La conchyliologie derive de l’histoire naturelle, mais elle a des liens etroits avec les cabinets de curiosites et d’histoire naturelle, tant les naturalistes y puisent l’essentiel de leur connaissance des mollusques. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. La Ricreatione dell’Occhio e della Mente (1681) de Philippo Buonanni [9] constitue un livre pionnier en conchyliologie. Camden Street Binding. En France, La conchyliologie de Dezallier d’Argenville editee en 1742 [19] devient rapidement une reference obligee, comme le Neues systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet (1769-1795) de Martini et Chemnitz [34]. Philippo Buonanni, Recreatio mentis et oculi in uwaterloo thesis, observatione animalium testaceorum . Archeology Paper. Rome, 1684, nos 229-230, Cochlea muricata et Cochlea sarmatica (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, VH 7.110 A). Uwaterloo. (Fig. Archeology. 2) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 3 Au xviii e siecle, les collections de curiosites se transforment en cabinets d’histoire naturelle et certains sont a l’origine de musees publics (Visser 2005). Thesis. Les inventaires se font de maniere raisonnee et les coquilles se regroupent en familles en se referant a la systematique, elle-meme changeante.

Les coquilles changent de statut (Figure 2). Brooklyn Essay. Les merveilles de la nature se transforment en specimens d’histoire naturelle et le nautile monte sur pied de la Renaissance se deplace, etant promu au rang d’espece de Nautilus . Uwaterloo. Puis les voyages scientifiques succedent aux expeditions coloniales et fournissent leur lot de coquilles. Johann Jakob Scheuzer pose bien le probleme des « restes du deluge » et les illustre dans sa Physica sacra (1731) [48] (Scheuchzer [48] (1731), planches 46-60). Archeology Research Paper Format. Ici aussi les liens entre cabinets d’histoire naturelle et amateurs sont tres etroits. Psychology Uwaterloo. L’Oryctographie de Bruxelles (1784) de Francois-Xavier Burtin [12] traite des fossiles du Brabant ; le livre est en grande partie fonde sur sa propre collection. Georg Wolfgang Knorr, Johann Ernst Immanuel Walch, Die Naturgeschichte der Versteinerungen zur Erlauterung der Knorrischen Sammlung von Merkwurdigkeiten der Natur , II-1, Nuremberg, 1768, tabula Ia, ammonites (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 5.057 C). Pandora Was A Feminist Essay. (Fig. Psychology. 3) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 4 Les traites sur les fossiles constituent un autre genre encore, les coquilles s’offrant au voyage dans le temps. Paper. Les fossiles d’ammonites recoltes au sommet des montagnes sont autant de coquilles petrifiees soulevant le probleme du deluge universel et de l’histoire du monde, notamment sur un plan theologique (Figure 3). Psychology. La science connait ensuite son evolution propre en devenant geologie, paleontologie et paleobiologie.

5 La conchyliologie verse progressivement dans la malacologie. Paper Format. A la Renaissance et a l’age baroque, on psychology thesis ne s’interesse qu’aux coquilles rares et lointaines, rarement aux parties molles, autrement dit a l’animal complet (Figure 4). Brooklyn Essay Contest. Depuis les travaux de Cuvier [17], la malacologie traite des mollusques dans leur totalite. Uwaterloo. Le terme de malacologie est utilise par Rafinesque en 1814 [43] et repris par Ducrotay de Blainville en 1825 [20], mais le mot consacre en fait une pratique anterieure (Rafinesque-Schmaltz [43] 1814 : 48, Ducrotay de Blainville [20] 1825 : 2, Dance 1986 : 197-200). Street Binding Of Thesis. Cubieres etudie leur mode de reproduction en 1800 [16], Fichtel traite des coquilles microscopiques en 1803 [21] (Figure 5). Uwaterloo. On s’interesse desormais a l’ensemble des mollusques, d’eau douce et terrestres inclus. 6 Le developpement de la malacologie entraine un recentrage du contenu. Brooklyn Based Essay Contest. Les naturalistes dressent des inventaires regionaux, traitent de zones terrestres et de regions cotieres nationales ou exotiques. Thesis. Le phenomene colonial est toujours a prendre en compte. Dissertations Text. Les chercheurs font l’inventaire de leurs colonies. Psychology Thesis. Les mollusques de l’Inde sont repertories dans la Conchologia indica de Hanley et Theobald en 1870-1876 [25], deux naturalistes britanniques.

L’immensite de l’empire britannique, sa vocation maritime et sa propension a collectionner les iles expliquent en partie l’abondance de la production editoriale anglo-saxonne, ainsi que le caractere fecond d’une dynastie d’illustrateurs et naturalistes specialises, les Sowerby (Coppens 1986 : 101-103). Dissertations Theses Full Text. Outre les colonies, il y a les zones d’influence : le catalogue des coquilles du Panama est publie, non par un Panameen, mais par un Americain, C.B. Thesis. Adams en 1852 [1]. 2 Thesaurus conchyliorum, a treasury of asu essay, books about uwaterloo thesis, mollusks and & text, their shells 1999 Catalogue 278 de l (. Uwaterloo. ) 7 Les coquilles circulent entre collectionneurs par le biais de ventes publiques et de catalogues de curiosites naturelles. Archeology Research Format. Et comme s’il s’agissait d’une mise en abyme, les livres de coquilles sont eux-memes collectionnes, cedes ou vendus.

Philippe Dautzenberg legue son impressionnante collection de coquilles et sa bibliotheque a l’Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique. Uwaterloo. Antonio Nora a Porto forme une bibliotheque exclusivement consacree aux coquillages, dispersee a Amsterdam en 1999 2. 8 Un autre genre ne au xix e siecle : les guides pour collectionneurs, amateurs et livres de vulgarisation, les collections de coquillages se democratisant et n’etant plus reservees a une elite. Northern Lights. The Voyager’s companion de Mawe [36] et The Young Conchologist de Hanley [24] sont destines a la jeunesse et aux collectionneurs (Dance 1986 : 93-97). Thesis. Les coquilles font aussi leur apparition dans des livres a usage scolaire, tel l’atlas d’histoire naturelle de Burmeister en 1835 [11].

Les livres sur les usages culinaires des mollusques, quels qu’ils soient, constitueront un autre genre encore (Figure 6). Au xvii e siecle, Martin Lister [32] et Valentini [54] procedent a des dissections de mollusques. Was A Feminist. Au xviii e , on psychology uwaterloo les etudie dans les academies, dont les moules et leurs maladies, a vous oter « pour toujours l’envie d’en manger » (Marx 1977 : 58). D. Asu Essay Requirements. de Ferussac, G.-P. Psychology. Deshayes, Histoire naturelle generale et particuliere des mollusques terrestres et fluviatiles . Street Binding. Atlas, II, Paris, 1820-1851, planche 147, Helix ovata ou limacon (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 29.583 C). Psychology Thesis. (Fig.

4) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Leopold von Fichtel, Johan Paul Carl von Moll, Testacea microcospica… ex generibus Argonauta et Nautilus…/ Microscopische und andere Schalthiere aus den Geschlechtern Argonaute und Schiffer , Vienne, 1803, planche 5, Nautilus crispus dimidiatus, Nautilus strigilatus, Nautilus craticulatus (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 29.611 B). Pandora Was A Feminist. (Fig. Thesis. 5) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Eustace Clare Grenville Murray, The Oyster : where, how and brooklyn, when to uwaterloo thesis, find, breed, cook and brooklyn based essay, it eat , Londres, 1861, titre et frontispice (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 29.618 A). Dans un livre de Murray de 1861 illustre de bois dans l’esprit de Lewis Caroll on psychology thesis traite deja des preparations de l’huitre [39], en forme de caricatures, si tant est que l’on puisse caricaturer une huitre. Binding. (Fig. Psychology Thesis. 6)

Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 9 Les textes se developpent et se structurent progressivement en fonction du nombre croissant de coquilles formant les cabinets, tandis que des index multilingues se developpent, comprenant les noms latins et vernaculaires. Camden Binding Of Thesis. Le catalogue du Museum de Vienne publie en 1780 par Ignaz von Born [8] en comprend plusieurs : latin, allemand, anglais francais et un index belgicus , soit en neerlandais. Psychology Thesis. Le regard du lecteur voyage ainsi du texte aux index et inversement, empruntant des chemins differents en fonction de la langue et de la nationalite du lecteur. Dissertations &. Il se deplace aussi vers les illustrations. 10 S’agissant de livres scientifiques, le propos se doit d’etre demontre afin d’identifier la coquille (Laufer 1982, Bassy 1984, Chatelain-Pinon 2000 : 253-267). Psychology Uwaterloo. Les techniques d’illustration sont celles utilisees pour tous les livres : bois, cuivre, qui rend mieux les formes et dessins, puis la lithographie, un procede qui jalonne tout le xix e siecle en raison de sa rapidite et de son aptitude a reproduire les details. Lights Spa Bressay. Cette technique sert encore a la Malacologia del Mar Rosso de Issel en 1869 [28], a l’ American marine conchology de Tryon en 1873 [53], au catalogue de la collection Hadfield en 1895 [37] et meme au compte rendu de la deuxieme expedition antarctique francaise publie par Edouard Lamy en 1911 [31].

La photographie remplacera progressivement toutes ces techniques. Le plus atypique des portraits de collectionneurs est celui de Georg Everhard Rumphius (1627-1702) : il a la main posee sur ses coquilles, qu’il decouvre avec les doigts, etant aveugle [46]. Psychology Uwaterloo. Celui d’Albertus Seba (1665-1736) a Amsterdam, qui a vendu sa collection a Pierre Ier de Russie avant d’en commencer une autre, est celebre [49] (Driessen-van het Reeve 2006). Archeology Format. En Russie, en 1804, Paul Demidoff (1738-1821) presente de maniere identique au lecteur les coquilles qu’il cedera a l’universite imperiale de Moscou [18]. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Ce modele de representation aura une descendance au xix e siecle. Northern Spa Bressay. Hugh Cuming (1791-1865), grand collectionneur britannique, se fait photographier assis, le bras pose sur une table decoree de coquillages (Dance 1986 : 131 et planche XXV). Paul Demidoff, Catalogue systematique des livres de la bibliotheque de Paul de Demidoff , I, Moscou, 1806, portrait et coquilles (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 29.509 C). Uwaterloo Thesis. (Fig. Archeology Research Paper. 7) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 11 Les livres anciens recourent volontiers au frontispice (Fumaroli 1994, Chatelain 2000, Sarmant 2000, Deconinck 2012).

Ceux concus pour les livres de curiosites synthetisent l’ensemble des collections, dont on uwaterloo thesis montre une vue des cabinets et tiroirs, animes par des visiteurs, des putti et des allegories des sciences et des arts. Northern Lights Spa Bressay. Le portrait du collectionneur sert d’introduction recurrente, de personnification et appropriation de la collection (Figure 7). Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Les livres de conchyliologie adoptent un autre registre. Archeology Research Paper Format. Les frontispices y constituent des images metaphoriques des bienfaits de la mer et du passage de l’eau a la terre (Figures 8 et 9). 12 Les frontispices font appel a des personnages mythologiques recurrents : Neptune et Venus. Psychology. Pour celle-ci, c’est la Venus anadyomene qui est privilegiee, issue des ondes et posant sur une conque, par analogie avec la coquille, merveille de la nature, belle et rare, dont la deesse ne serait que la metaphore. Requirements. Le decor est une plage ou une grotte semee de coquilles apportees par les dieux, des tritons ou des nymphes marines, autrement dit une zone intermediaire entre les fonds marins d’ou proviennent les coquillages et les tiroirs des cabinets d’histoire naturelle auxquels ils sont destines.

Ainsi la plage ou la grotte s’impose-elle souvent comme representation emblematique d’un rituel de passage de la mer a la terre et du mollusque a la coquille. 13 Certains frontispices intermediaires adoptent une ornementation plus baroque (Figure 10). En 1681, le titre grave de Buonanni montre Neptune sur son char tire par des chevaux marins, entoure de tritons soufflant dans des conques, tandis qu’un personnage ramasse des coquilles sur la plage. Thesis. Meme decor maritime chez Gualtieri en 1742 [22]. Asu Essay. Sur un rocher, Venus se voit offrir des coquillages, tandis que des putti, a terre, en examinent et en mesurent d’autres. Niccolo Gualtieri, Index testarum conchyliorum , Florentiae, 1742, frontispice (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 8.021 C). Psychology Uwaterloo. (Fig.

8) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Le titre grave concu par Francois Boucher pour Dezallier d’Argenville offre une coquille geante portant le titre, un triton et sa compagne, des coquillages sur une plage, et d’autres especes du monde animal, terrestres, marines et volantes, afin de replacer quelque peu le sujet dans l’ordre naturel. En 1764, dans ses Delices des yeux et de l’esprit [29], Knorr reprend le theme de la plage semee de coquilles et d’oursins, tandis qu’une fragile construction de coraux et plantes marines forme un portique ouvert sur la mer, incluant le titre, a l’image des portiques et frontispices introduisant les traites d’histoire et d’archeologie. Based. C’est aussi le parti choisi en 1779 par le graveur de la vignette ornant le titre du traite de Canals y Marti [13] sur la fabrication de la pourpre : Neptune presente des murex tinctoriaux abandonnes sur une plage et ramasses par un berger. Antoine-Joseph Dezallier d’Argenville, L’Histoire naturelle eclaircie dans deux de ses parties principales, la lithologie et la conchyliologie , Paris, 1742, frontispice de Francois Boucher (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, VH 5.804 B). Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. (Fig. Contest. 9) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Les planches de Buonanni sont precedees d’un titre grave au trophee surmontant une vasque, le tout constitue de coquilles, un monument place au bord de la mer. Thesis. Trois cartouches formes de coquilles introduisent en outre les trois classes decrites. Brooklyn Contest. L’illustration de Buonanni integre aussi de remarquables masques faits de coquilles a la maniere d’Arcimboldo, qui ne sont la que pour l’ornementation.

Philippo Buonanni, Recreatio mentis et oculi in psychology, observatione animalium testaceorum . Based Essay. Romae, 1684, trophee de coquilles. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, VH 7.110 A). Requirements. (Fig. Psychology. 10) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Vignettes, bandeaux et culs-de-lampe. 14 Destinees aux savants mais aussi aux collectionneurs, les livres de coquilles constituent souvent des publications de luxe. Street Binding Of Thesis. Ils comprennent des ornements speciaux : bandeaux, culs-de-lampe, vignettes et lettres initiales a decor allusif specialement concus pour l’edition. Psychology Thesis. Dans Gualtieri, la vignette ornant les titres et sous-titres est une scene de pecheurs debarquant des coquillages et on northern spa bressay concoit des lettres initiales a decor de madrepores et de coquilles. Thesis. Le texte de Rumphius s’ouvre par un bandeau a decor de grotte marine ; le decor s’articule autour de statues de Venus et Neptune, tandis qu’une allegorie deverse des coquilles d’une corne d’abondance ; au centre, un medaillon representant un argonaute trone litteralement sur un piedestal. 15 Ignaz von Born publie a Vienne le catalogue des coquilles rassemblees par l’Empereur Francois I er Etienne.

En deux versions, l’une de format in-octavo en 1778 [7], comprenant une seule planche en couleurs, l’autre en 1780 [8] de format in-folio illustree de 18 grandes planches mises en couleurs alignant soigneusement les coquilles, comme dans les tiroirs d’un museum. Camden Of Thesis. Le texte est en outre agremente de bandeaux et culs-de-lampe allusifs, soit 44 vignettes decoratives ou didactiques. Psychology. La vignette introductive represente des putti rangeant des coquilles dans un cabinet, surmonte des portraits de l’Imperatrice Marie-Therese d’Autriche et de son epoux Francois I er , et Neptune tendant une coquille a une allegorie designant le portrait de l’Empereur, le fondateur de la collection. Contest. Rituel de passage encore, mais on psychology thesis omet la plage pour passer directement au cabinet et au museum. Pandora Was A Feminist Essay. Les autres gravures presentent des coquilles mises en scene, toujours dans un encadrement, telles des tableaux. Uwaterloo Thesis. Le registre verse aussi dans l’hommage rendu aux naturalistes Pline, Aldrovandi, Linne, Chemnitz, Adanson, Davila, Gualtieri, Martini, dont les cenotaphes, places au bord de la mer, sont honores par des tritons et sirenes deposant des coquilles au pied des monuments.

En cette fin du xviii e siecle, ce livre est caracteristique du statut toujours ambigu des coquilles, a la fois raretes cheres aux collectionneurs et specimens d’histoire naturelle, selon que l’on regarde les vignettes ou les planches. Camden Binding. Le xix e siecle abandonnera les ornements speciaux. 16 Les planches constituent l’essentiel de l’illustration, mais les images changent progressivement de place et la mise en page evolue en parallele. Uwaterloo Thesis. Les gravures sur bois et sur cuivre sont inserees dans le texte et le regard passe insensiblement du texte a l’image et de l’image au texte. Archeology Research Format. Mais les especes se multipliant, les cuivres generent de grandes planches a pleine page, souvent hors texte, permettant aux coquilles de deployer leur diversite. Psychology. Le regard se deplace des lors du texte aux planches et se developpent de necessaires systemes de reference, des renvois visuels, des legendes, une numerotation des planches et des coquilles correspondant au texte.

Dans certains ouvrages, l’illustration occupe une place au moins egale au texte qui figure en regard. Binding. Elle lui est meme superieure car le lecteur decouvre d’abord la planche a droite, en tournant la page, avant de lire le texte a gauche. Psychology Uwaterloo. C’est encore le cas, souvent, dans les guides contemporains destines aux collectionneurs. 17 La maniere de representer les specimens a evolue. & Theses Text. Les coquilles sont accompagnees d’une ombre donnant du relief et de la profondeur au sujet. Uwaterloo. Mais ce n’est pas le seul motif. Lights Spa Bressay. Elles paraissent ainsi posees sur le sable, procede dont s’inspireront les frontispices. Uwaterloo Thesis. Dans les livres de curiosites, les coquillages dessinent volontiers des motifs baroques (Figure 11). Street Binding Of Thesis. Les pieces elles-memes changent de sens sur les planches.

Les univalves sont places l’apex en bas ou en haut, selon les auteurs et les illustrateurs (Figure 12). Thesis. On passera progressivement a la position verticale et l’apex sera place en haut, les coquilles ayant en outre tendance a s’aligner en passant du statut de curiosite a celui d’espece du monde vivant dont on street binding fait l’inventaire sous la forme de series, comme dans les tiroirs des musees d’histoire naturelle (Figure 13). Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Quant aux bivalves, ils sont representes horizontalement avec leurs deux valves (Figure 14), mais l’usage s’installera de n’en presenter qu’une seule, verticalement, par economie de moyens, afin d’en placer le plus par page. Text. Pour certaines especes, dont une valve est plus bombee que l’autre, on psychology presente les deux valves reunies et fermees, de profil (Figure 15). Le catalogue de la collection Seba [49] inclut de fragiles constructions decoratives en forme d’oiseaux ou de masque, en fait a l’image des coquilles rangees dans les tiroirs. Requirements. Le titre grave du Wondertooneel der nature publie par Levinus Vincent en 1706 [56] est une vue generale du cabinet, tandis que des planches depliantes presentent des meubles et tiroirs de coquilles arranges de maniere baroque. Uwaterloo Thesis. Les cabinets hollandais ayant survecu se presentent encore de la sorte (Coomans 1992 : 196-197, fig. Street. 163-165 ; Bergvelt, Meijers, Rijnders 2005 : 179-202).

Albertus Seba. Psychology. Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio , III, Amsterdam, 1758, tabula XXXVI, deux tiroirs de coquilles a presentation baroque, dessinant des motifs d’oiseaux, de corbeilles, d’arcs, d’etoiles et d’entrelacs (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 8.226 E RP). Archeology Research Format. (Fig. Uwaterloo Thesis. 11) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 18 Les coquilles ont aussi un sens naturel, a de rares anomalies pres. Theses. Pendant la croissance de l’animal, les tours des univalves se deroulent de gauche a droite dans le sens des aiguilles d’une montre a partir de l’apex et ils se terminent sur l’ouverture, a droite. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Certains illustrateurs vont toutefois omettre d’inverser le dessin grave et des lors imprimer l’illustration dans le mauvais sens. Asu Essay Requirements. Le resultat imprime est une coquille inversee a spire de la droite vers la gauche et ouverture a gauche (Dance 1986 : 17).

En 1551-1555, l’ Historia naturalis d’Adam Lonicerus [33] offre quelques coquillages inverses de ce type et l’erreur se repetera dans l’ Historia naturale de Ferrante Imperato en 1599 [27], le Museum F. Uwaterloo Thesis. Calceolarii en 1622 [14] (Figure 16) et d’autres traites. Theses Full. Meme Rembrandt commet l’erreur en 1650 en gravant un specimen de Conus marmoreus , alors que sa signature est parfaitement lisible, donc inversee sur le cuivre avant impression (Coomans 1992 : 202-203). Psychology Uwaterloo. Techniquement, cela ne pose pas de probleme et la seule explication est la meconnaissance d’une loi naturelle dans le chef de l’illustrateur. Brooklyn Based. Le phenomene est tout a fait singulier car le probleme ne se pose pas pour d’autres especes, qui ont une tete et des membres, une fleur et des racines. Ces coquillages adoptent la position horizontale dans Rumphius [46]. Thesis. Gualtieri est assez atypique a cet egard. Street Binding. Les coquilles defient toutes les lois de la physique en etant posees sur la pointe, apex en bas, comme des toupies.

Sur les planches de Francois Valentijn en 1754 [55], les coquilles sont placees en oblique et apex vers le bas. Niccolo Gualtieri, Index testarum conchyliorum , Florence, 1742, planche 48, coquilles posees verticalement sur leur pointe (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 8.021 C). Psychology Thesis. (Fig. Northern Lights. 12) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. P. Psychology Thesis. L. Theses. Duclos, Histoire naturelle generale et particuliere de tous les genres de coquilles univalves marianes a l’etat vivant et fossile, publiee par monographies. Psychology Thesis. Genre olive. Was A. Paris, 1835, planche 24, olives alignees verticalement, apex vers le haut (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 28.017 C). Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Albertus Seba, Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio , III, Amsterdam, 1758, tabula LXXXVII, bivalves places horizontalement, deux valves (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 8.226 E). Uwaterloo Thesis. (Fig. Northern Lights Spa Bressay. 14)

Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. C.E. Psychology Uwaterloo. Lischke, Japanische Meeres-Conchylien , Cassel, 1869, planche XII, spondyles et pectens, une seule valve placee verticalement et deux valves de profil (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 29.682 B). Archeology Paper. (Fig. Psychology. 15) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Benedicto Ceruto et Andrea Chiocco, Musaeum Francesc. Was A Essay. Calceolari , Verone, 1622, p. Psychology Uwaterloo. 41, Tonna galea , sens de la coquille inverse (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, VB 4.032 C). Requirements. (Fig. Psychology Uwaterloo. 16) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. Un voyage interieur : le reve et la spirale d’or. 19 Il y a aussi les illustrations « revees ». Contest. Comme le poisson-moine ou le poisson-eveque, le mollusque geant et fabuleux Cochlea sarmatica illustre dans La cosmographie universelle d’Andre Thevet en 1575 [52] reapparait dans d’autres traites, dont celui de Buonanni en 1681 et a nouveau dans son Museum Kircherianum de 1709 [10] (fig.

2) (Buonanni [9] 1684 : 142-143 et vignette 230, Johnson 2002). Psychology Uwaterloo. L’image d’un cephalopode argonaute deployant sa membrane et flottant sur les ondes n’a lui aussi cesse d’intriguer depuis Aristote (Pastoureau 1982) (Figure 17). Based Contest. Dans un autre registre, il y a les faux destines aux collectionneurs et quelquefois reproduits de bonne foi par des naturalistes, telle la porcelaine « souris tachetee » publiee par Favanne fils, en fait une simple Cypraea lurida falsifiee pour en accentuer la rarete (Dance 1986 : 54-55 et fig. Psychology. 11). 3 Voir : et (. Camden Binding Of Thesis. ) 20 Depuis l’origine, les naturalistes et collectionneurs sont fascines par les nautiles et argonautes, des pieces rares.

La regularite de leurs spires evoque irresistiblement la spirale d’or. Psychology Uwaterloo. D’ou les representations gravees de nautiles scies en deux, puis d’autres coquilles, et de spirales schematiquement gravees sur bois, apparaissant dans les traites. Brooklyn Essay Contest. Jacques Bernouilli y consacre des travaux [5], puis d’autres. Psychology Thesis. Gualtieri insere regulierement des coquilles sciees en deux sur ses planches, tant leur ouverture invite a penetrer dans la demeure d’un animal disparu et a effectuer un voyage interieur. Lights Spa Bressay. Depuis, la publication de radiographies permet de decouvrir l’architecture interieure des coquilles. Uwaterloo. Et plus recemment, modelisations et calculs mathematiques contribuent a etudier les coquilles, les mathematiciens ayant investi ce domaine, fascines par les volutes et courbes adoptees par la nature, en rapport avec la spirale d’or et sa parente avec la croissance des nautiles 3. Pierre Belon, De aquatilibus libri duo , Paris, 1553, p. Archeology Format. 380, bois, argonaute voguant sur la mer (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, VH 7.044 A). Psychology Uwaterloo. (Fig. Asu Essay Requirements. 17) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 21 Sous l’Ancien Regime, les editeurs, voire quelques auteurs, utilisent des strategies editoriales particulieres en ciblant le milieu des collectionneurs, le principal public de leurs ouvrages, afin de couvrir une partie des frais. Psychology Uwaterloo. Certains dedient chaque planche a un amateur, qui se transforme des lors en mecene.

Dans son Histoire naturelle du Senegal , Michel Adanson [2] reserve une large place aux planches de coquilles, apres avoir suscite le mecenat de collectionneurs. Based Contest. Dezallier d’Argenville dedie les planches de sa Conchyliologie a des collectionneurs, d’autant que le texte consacre des chapitres importants a la constitution d’un cabinet, a la maniere de preparer et conserver des coquilles. Psychology. Les planches de Georg Wolfgang Knorr et Johann Ernst Immanuel Walch en 1777-1778 [30], sur les catastrophes du globe, representent des fossiles peints d’apres nature extraits des principales collections allemandes et le nom du collectionneur ou du cabinet est grave en bonne place pour la perennite. Archeology Paper Format. En Hollande, les collectionneurs affectionnent que l’on reproduise leurs coquilles et des annonces paraissent a cet effet (Landwehr 1976 : 87-88). Psychology Thesis. Les livres incluent aussi des listes de collectionneurs, telle la reedition de Dezallier d’Argenville par les Favanne.

On vise aussi ce milieu par la souscription. Archeology. La liste des souscripteurs presente dans le traite des fossiles de Burtin n’est par exemple, qu’une longue liste de collectionneurs passant a la posterite. Cypraea lurida ou pulchra : le probleme de la couleur. 4 Pour l’heraldique, autre exemple de cette difficile transition, voir Pastoureau (1997). Thesis. 5 Sander Rang [47] (1829), annonce au verso du titre. 22 La transition du manuscrit a l’imprime traduit le passage de l’unique au multiple. Brooklyn Based. Toutefois, les traites relatifs aux coquilles connaissent les problemes rencontres par d’autres livres illustres supportant difficilement cette transition, tout particulierement les travaux d’histoire naturelle : la couleur 4. Psychology Thesis. Comment reproduire les couleurs de certaines especes de porcelaines, d’olives ou de bulles, que ne distinguent que leurs subtiles nuances de coloris. Feminist. Comment reproduire l’orange dore de Cypraea aurantium ou faire la distinction entre Cypraea lurida et Cypraea pulchra , caracterisees par des tons plus clairs ou plus sombres. Uwaterloo Thesis. Les techniques d’impression des illustrations ne le permettent pas. Text. Les amateurs font donc colorier leurs plus beaux livres de coquilles. Psychology Uwaterloo. Au xviii e siecle, les editeurs et libraires proposent aussi a la vente deux versions : une en noir et blanc et une autre, plus luxueuse et necessairement plus chere, coloriee a la main. Brooklyn Based Essay. A Bruxelles, la Conchyliologie de Dezallier d’Argenville est proposee en noir et blanc au prix de 48 livres, ou en couleurs « d’apres nature » pour 140 livres.

En 1779, le libraire bruxellois Benoit Lefrancq vend les Centuries de P.J. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Buchoz en couleurs ou en noir (Sorgeloos 1996 : 151). Dissertations Theses Full. En 1829, l’editeur parisien Roret annonce deux versions de son Atlas des mollusques , avec figures en noir au prix de 7 francs et en couleurs pour 14 francs 5. Psychology Thesis. Mais le procede est cher et quelques entreprises editoriales sont abandonnees : Polydore Roux publie sa premiere et unique livraison de sa superbe Illustration conchyliologique en 1828 [45], illustree de 9 lithographies mises en couleurs avec rehauts de gomme, sur les 400 prevues. 6 Bruxelles, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bibliotheque Philippe Dautzenberg, 5 (. Requirements. ) Entre 1640 et 1660, a Milan, Manfredo Settala fait peindre les objets remarquables de sa collection, quelque 300 dessins d’histoire naturelle de toute beaute regroupes en sept volumes. Psychology Thesis. Les coquilles offertes par le grand-duc de Toscane Cosme III de Medicis a Jacopo Cospi a Bologne sont reproduites dans un manuscrit peint 6 (Conihout 1996 : 294 n° 64 et 65). Research. En 1753, a Bruxelles, le prince Charles de Lorraine fait peindre ses specimens dans un manuscrit intitule Plantes marines et coquilles du cabinet de S.A.R., peintes en miniature (Sorgeloos 1996 : 152). Uwaterloo. En 1776, Louis-Athanase de Crillon redige une Description de son cabinet, illustree de dessins en couleurs presentant un choix de ses coquilles et madrepores les plus rares ou les plus beaux. Camden Of Thesis. Ce manuscrit etait reserve a un usage particulier : il servait de catalogue de vente que l’abbe faisait circuler parmi les amateurs. Description tres concise du Cabinet de M. Uwaterloo Thesis. l’abbe Crillon , manuscrit, feuille 28, « concha exotica » et « harpe a cotes serrees ». Camden Street Of Thesis. (Institut royal des Sciences naturelles, Bruxelles, Bibliotheque Philippe Dautzenberg, 51624). Uwaterloo. (Fig.

18) Institut royal des Sciences naturelles, Bruxelles, Bibliotheque Philippe Dautzenberg. 7 23 Une autre solution est de peindre les coquilles d’apres nature (Figure 18), comme en temoignent les velins du Cabinet du Roi ou d’autres ouvrages 7 (Lamy 1930 : 17). Binding. On decouvre parfois dans les manuscrits les hesitations du siecle sur le sens des coquilles (Figure 19 : voir photo d’ouverture). Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Celles-ci servent quelquefois a rehausser d’autres manuscrits, comme le Florilege de Nassau-Idstein de Johann Walters au xvii e siecle, dont les gouaches sur velin presentent quelquefois des strombes et harpes afin de davantage souligner la beaute des fleurs d’oranger et de lin peintes par l’artiste (Pinault Sorensen 2008 : 105, fig. Brooklyn Based Essay Contest. 37).

24 Au xix e siecle, la chromolithographie permet de rendre l’infinie variete des couleurs offertes par les coquilles, distinguant enfin correctement les especes entre elles. Thesis. Avec l’avenement de la photographie, technique nouvelle, le probleme des couleurs n’est pas resolu immediatement. Theses Text. En 1863, Hanley publie Photographic conchology [23] illustree de 7 planches de photographies, mais mises en couleurs a la main. Psychology Thesis. La chromolithographie reproduira en fait les coquilles jusqu’a l’apparition de la quadrichromie. Based Essay. La part de la couleur est meme tellement determinante que dans les Illustrations conchyliologiques de Chenu [15], le nom du coloriste Gerard figure sur les planches aux cotes des noms des dessinateurs et graveurs (Figure 20).

Jean-Charles Chenu, Illustrations conchyliologiques , I, Paris, 1843, Strombus Gigas , lithographie, couleurs du coloriste Gerard (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 68.911 E). Uwaterloo Thesis. (Fig. Northern. 20) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 25 Les livres de coquilles adoptent l’in-folio et l’in-quarto, en raison du caractere universel de la nature, du nombre d’especes et d’illustrations, puis les formats se reduisent parallelement a la democratisation du lectorat. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Dans certains cas, on northern lights spa bressay utilise un format oblong, tel Pierre Belon dans son livre sur les poissons en 1553 : les coquilles y dependent encore des poissons et le but etait de placer ceux-ci horizontalement et non verticalement comme dans les grands formats d’ichtyologie habituels (fig. Psychology. 17). Camden. Proche de celui du tableau et des recueils d’estampes, le format oblong permet surtout de peindre la nature. Thesis. En 1666, Adam Olearius utilise un tel format pour son livre sur les raretes acquises par les ducs Frederic III et Christian-Albert de Schleswig-Gottorp [41] (fig.

1). Asu Essay. Au xviii e siecle, les quatre rares volumes de coquilles edites par Thomas Martyn [35] se presentent eux aussi en format oblong car il s’agit de peindre les merveilles de la mer (Figure 21). Psychology Uwaterloo. Les planches y prennent place sur un recto et le verso en regard est totalement vierge. Brooklyn Contest. Les legendes sont reprises dans une liste a la fin et le livre traduit ainsi la preeminence totale de l’image sur le texte, quasi absent, a l’exception d’une introduction. Psychology Uwaterloo. On en trouve des echos modernes, tel le beau recueil de planches en couleurs publie par Yoichiro Hirase en 1914-1915, Kaisenshu [26] : le format plus haut que large ne sort pas des normes, mais les planches doubles se deploient ensuite pour former des tableaux. Thomas Martyn, The Universal Conchologist. Dissertations Theses Full Text. Le Conchologiste Universel , Londres, 1785, figure 59, Cypraea Aurantium (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 29.589 C). Thesis. (Fig. Brooklyn Based. 21) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 26 Le public n’etant plus le meme que les amateurs fortunes, les petits formats sont volontiers utilises au xix e siecle pour les guides destines aux collectionneurs et amateurs, illustres de simples bois dans le texte, comme The Young Conchologist de Hanley [24].

Les ventes de coquilles suscitent des catalogues de petit format, illustres, et ceci est precoce parmi les catalogues de ventes. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Ceux de Gersaint au xviii e siecle se limitent a un frontispice concu par Boucher, qui adopte le meme registre iconographique que dans les livres de curiosites : des coraux, madrepores et coquilles soigneusement ranges dans un cabinet (Glorieux 2002 : 279-281, 360-362 et passim ) (Figure 22). Le catalogue du cabinet forme par le docteur Joachim Friedrich Bolten a Hambourg en 1819 [40] est illustre de 4 lithographies de specimens remarquables. Asu Essay Requirements. G.B. Psychology. Sowerby dresse celui de la collection du comte de Tankerville en 1825 [50] et le fait suivre de six planches en couleurs, dont un rare Conus gloria maris. G.B. Archeology Research Format. Sowerby, A catalogue of the psychology thesis shells contained in asu essay, the collection of the psychology uwaterloo thesis late Earl of northern spa bressay, Tankerville, Londres, 1825, planche 8, Conus gloria maris (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, II 29.601 A). Psychology Uwaterloo. (Fig. Asu Essay Requirements. 22) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique.

8 Testacei cioe nicchi chioccioe e conchiglie. Psychology Thesis. Disegnate e miniate da Jacopo Tosi , 1683, Bologne : Bi (. Camden Street Binding Of Thesis. ) 27 Les publications deviennent aussi periodiques par le biais des memoires d’academies puis de revues scientifiques specifiquement consacrees aux coquillages et mollusques, sans compter les colloques et symposiums, plus recents. Psychology. Les publications, enfin, deviennent electroniques. Archeology Research. Les bibliotheques numerisent leurs livres, dont ceux sur les coquilles, et des bases de donnees leur sont consacrees. Psychology. Le site de la Biodiversity Heritage Library comprend une section Shells 8. 28 Et les illustrations de continuer leur evolution parallelement aux techniques. Archeology Research Format. Jadis, lors d’expeditions scientifiques, des cartes du pays et de ses rivages s’imposaient, depuis celles du Senegal publiees par Adanson.

Aujourd’hui, ce sont les fonds sous-marins et lieux de prelevement qui font l’objet de la cartographie, tandis que des cartes des provinces zoogeographiques marines ou terrestres indiquent l’aire de repartition des especes. Psychology Uwaterloo. Pour les guides destines aux collectionneurs, les cartes mettent quelquefois l’accent sur les iles et archipels ou se trouvent quelques coquillages rares ou abondance de specimens. Pandora Essay. Radiographies, photographies en couleurs, photographies au microscope electronique, tableaux, graphiques et schemas sont d’autres illustrations contemporaines necessaires au propos scientifique ou vulgarisateur, qu’integre desormais la mise en page. 29 Peindre les coquilles demeure encore au xx e siecle une remanence des anciens livres de coquilles, qui s’exprime dans les techniques ou les formats. Psychology Uwaterloo. En temoigne un guide pour collectionneurs, Beautiful Shells of & theses full, New Zealand , publie en 1908 par E.G.B. Uwaterloo. Moss [38], illustre de planches de coquilles disposees comme a l’age baroque par le photographe C. Asu Essay. Spencer.

En 1915, l’ Album consacre au musee Hirase a Kyoto [3] est illustre de photographies des salles d’exposition et de coquilles placees avec gout, le tout dans un format oblong. Psychology Uwaterloo. En 1936, un recueil de Paul A. Brooklyn Based. Robert, intitule Les Merveilles de la mer , inclut un texte de Paul Valery [44]. Uwaterloo. L’illustrateur y utilise la technique de l’aquarelle et non la photographie, et son nom y precede celui de l’auteur du texte, fut-il Valery, comme du temps de Redoute, dont le nom eclipsait bien souvent celui du botaniste. Camden. Un guide pour collectionneurs, Les coquillages marins du monde en couleurs , parait en 1975 [42]. Uwaterloo Thesis. L’auteur est un collectionneur, A.P.H.

Oliver, et l’illustrateur le peintre James Nicholls, qui lui aussi utilise l’aquarelle. Northern Lights Spa Bressay. Un format carre, proche du tableau, est utilise en 1969 pour Les coquillages : les chefs-d’?uvre de la vie sous-marine , un livre de Stix et Abbot illustre de photos d’art [51]. Thesis. Les coquilles y sont placees sur des plaques de verre et sous eclairage particulier. Asu Essay Requirements. En 2010, enfin, un livre de photos est consacre aux specimens de la collection Philippe Dautzenberg [6]. Psychology. Les photos d’Emmanuel Berry sont en belle page, a droite, et le cadrage est serre, centre sur l’ouverture de la coquille, promouvant celle-ci au rang d’?uvre d’art et de sujet litteraire. Brooklyn Contest. Voyage interieur encore, ambiguite du regard et resurgences de pratiques et techniques anciennes. 30 Encore ne s’agit-il que des livres de coquilles relevant de la tradition occidentale. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. En Extreme-Orient, ils sont d’une autre nature. Street. Consacres aux bienfaits de la mer, ils associent des haikus et des illustrations rehaussees de poudre de metal pulverisee afin de faire briller les couleurs et de simuler l’eclat des coquilles ou des ecailles de poisson (Kozyreff 1992, n° 11 et 28). Psychology Uwaterloo. Ces recueils ont ete tres prises des Japonais, le pays dependant largement de la mer. Essay Contest. Leurs images de style naturaliste traduisent autant l’esthetique des coquillages que le fait de les consommer car elles en montrent aussi les parties molles, l’animal lui-meme (Figure 23).

Parfois, les coquilles sont disposees sur la plage, comme dans les frontispices occidentaux, placees dans des paniers et associees a des crustaces et poissons. Psychology Uwaterloo. Ce « petit corps calcaire creux et spiral » (Valery 1936) a donc suscite un interet universel et parfois des representations convergentes, la plage constituant partout un lieu de passage en forme de rituel. Katsuma Ryusui, Umi no sachi [Les bienfaits de la mer ]. Spa Bressay. Edo, 1762, Pinna et truite de mer, gravures en couleurs rehaussees de poudre de metal pulverisee (Bibliotheque royale de Belgique, FS XLI 716). Psychology Thesis. (Fig. Archeology. 23) Bibliotheque royale de Belgique. 31 L’evolution des livres de coquilles est sensiblement la meme que d’autres au sein de l’histoire naturelle. Psychology Thesis. Il ne manque pas de florileges, de jardins ou de bestiaires, richement illustres, paralleles a des traites scientifiques, meme aujourd’hui. Northern Lights. Mais les livres de coquilles sont probablement ceux dans lesquels le sujet meme est promu au rang de merveille de la maniere la plus eclatante, entretenant une forme d’ambiguite entre curiosite et specimen, jusqu’a aujourd’hui, tant leur lien avec le monde des cabinets et collections a mis longtemps a se relacher, sans se denouer completement. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Meme le regard des scientifiques joue sur l’ambiguite, comme Peter Dance qui consacre un livre aux coquillages les plus rares (Dance 1969).

Et puis, jadis, il y a ce phenomene unique dans l’illustration qu’est l’incapacite de certains dessinateurs et graveurs a comprendre le sens des coquilles, ce qui donne singularite a ces livres anciens. 32 Au cours du temps, on asu essay se deplace insensiblement des curiosites aux specimens d’histoire naturelle, du rare au commun, du lointain au proche, des collections privees aux museums, de l’eau de mer a l’eau douce et a la terre, de la coquille au mollusque, de la conchyliologie a la malacologie, du desordre de la curiosite a l’ordre naturel enfin. Psychology. Les coquilles se pretent volontiers au theme du passage dans les livres. Pandora Feminist Essay. Elles voyagent de genre en genre, de livre en livre, parfois au sein des livres en changeant de statut, de place et meme de sens. Psychology. Et le regard de se deplacer lui aussi.

Tout en restant emerveille. Catalogue des ?uvres citees. [1] Adams, Charles Baker, Catalogue of requirements, shells collected at thesis, Panama , New York, 1852. [2] Adanson, Michel, Histoire naturelle du Senegal. Requirements. Coquillages , Paris, 1757. [3] The Album of the uwaterloo Hirase Conchological Museum , Kyoto, 1915. [4] Belon, Pierre, De aquatilibus libri duo , Paris, 1553.

[5] Bernouilli, Jacques, « Specimen alterum calculi differentialis in camden street binding of thesis, dimetienda Spirali Logarithmicae… », Acta eruditorum anno M. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. DC LXXXXI publicata , Lipse, 1691, p. Northern Lights. 282-290. [6] Berry, Emmanuel, Coques, coquilles, coquillages . Psychology. 50 photographies. Dissertations Full Text. Texte de Marie Guillot , [Bazas], 2010. [7] Born, Ignaz von, Index rerum naturalium Musei caesarei Vindobonensis. Thesis. Pars prima. &. Testacea , Vienne, 1778.

[8] —, Testacea Musei caesarei Vindobonensis, quae iussu Maeriae Theresiae Augustae disposuit et descripsit Ignatius a Born , Vienne, 1780. [9] Buonanni, Philippo, Ricreatione dell’Occhio e della Mente , Rome, 1681 ; Recreatio mentis et oculi in psychology thesis, observatione animalium testaceorum . Full. Rome, 1684. [10] —, Musaeum Kircherianum , Rome, 1709. [11] Burmeister, Hermann, Zoologischer Hand-Atlas zum Schulgebrauch und Selbstunterricht , Berlin, 1835. [12] Burtin, Francois-Xavier, Oryctographie de Bruxelles ou Description des fossiles tant naturels qu’accidentels decouverts jusqu’a ce jour dans les environs de cette ville , Bruxelles, 1784. [13] Canals y Marti, Juan Pablo, Memorias sobre la purpura de los antiguos … Madrid, 1779. [14] Ceruto, Benedicto ; Chiocco, Andrea, Musaeum Francesc. Psychology. Calceolari , Verone, 1622. [15] Chenu, Jean-Charles, Illustrations conchyliologiques ou description et figures de toutes les coquilles connues, vivantes et fossiles , Paris, 1842-1853. [16] Cubieres, S.L.P., Histoire abregee des coquillages de mer : de leurs murs, et de leurs amours , Versailles, an archeology format VIII. [17] Cuvier, Georges, Memoires pour servir a l’histoire et a l’anatomie des mollusques . Thesis. Paris, 1817.

[18] Demidoff, Paul, Catalogue systematique des livres de la bibliotheque de Paul de Demidoff , Moscou, 1806. [19] Dezallier d’Argenville, Antoine-Joseph, L’Histoire naturelle eclaircie dans deux de ses parties principales, la lithologie et la conchyliologie, dont l’une traite des pierres et l’autre des coquillages , Paris, 1742 ; L’Histoire naturelle eclaircie dans une de ses parties principales, la conchyliologie , Paris, 1757 ; Favanne, Jacques de, Favanne, Jacques-Guillaume de edit., La Conchyliologie ou Histoire naturelle des coquilles de mer, d’eau douce, terrestres et fossiles, avec un traite de la zoomorphose ou representation des animaux qui les habitent , Paris, 1780. [20] Ducrotay de Blainville, Henri-Marie, Manuel de malacologie et de conchyliologie , Paris, 1825. [21] Fichtel, Leopold von ; Moll, Johan Paul Carl von, Testacea microcospica… ex generibus Argonauta et Nautilus… Microscopische und andere Schalthiere aus den Geschlechtern Argonaute und Schiffer , Vienne, 1803. [22] Gualtieri, Niccolo, Index testarum conchyliorum , Florence, 1742. [23] Hanley, Sylvanus, Photographic Conchology , Londres, 1863. [24] —, The Young Conchologist’s Book of text, Species , Londres, 1840.

[25] Hanley, Sylvanus ; Theobald, W., Conchologia indica, being illustrations of the uwaterloo land and lights, freshwater shells of uwaterloo, British India , Londres , 1870-1876. [26] Hirase, Yoichiro, Kaisenshu , Kyoto, 1914-1915. [27] Imperato, Ferrante, Dell’historia naturale libri XXVIII , Naples, 1599. [28] Issel, Arturo, Malacologia del Mar Rosso , Pise, 1869. [29] Knorr, Georg Wolfgang, Delices des yeux et de l’esprit , Nuremberg, 1764-1773. [30] Knorr, Georg Wolfgang ; Walch, Johann Ernst Immanuel, Recueil des monumens des catastrophes que le globe a essuiees , Nuremberg, 1777-1778. [31] Lamy, Edouard, Deuxieme expedition antarctique francaise (1908-1910) commandee par le Dr Jean Charcot. Was A Essay. Sciences naturelles : documents scientifiques. Psychology. Gastropodes, prosopobranches, scaphopode et pelecypodes . Binding Of Thesis. Paris, 1911.

[32] Lister, Martin, Exercitatio anatomica In qua de Cochleis terrestribus et limacibus agitur , Londres, 1694. [33] Lonicerus, Adam, Historiae naturalis , Francfort, 1551-1555. [34] Martini, Friedrich Wilhelm ; Chemnitz, Johann, Neues systematisches Conchylien-Cabinet , Nuremberg, 1759-1795. [35] Martyn, Thomas, The Universal Conchologist. Uwaterloo Thesis. Le Conchologiste Universel , Londres, 1784-1787. [36] Mawe, J., The Voyager’s companion, or shell collector’s pilot , Londres, 1821. [37] Melvill, James Cosmo ; Standen, Robert, Catalogue of the pandora was a feminist Hadfield collection of psychology uwaterloo thesis, shells from the camden street binding Lifu and psychology, Uvea, Loyalty Islands , Manchester, 1895-1897. [38] Moss, E.G.B., Beautiful Shells of dissertations &, New Zealand : An illustrated Work for uwaterloo Amateur Collectors of requirements, New Zealand Marine Shells : Photographs by thesis C. Full Text. Spencer , Auckland, 1908. [39] Murray, Eustace Clare Grenville, The Oyster ; where, how and thesis, when to camden street binding, find, breed, cook and uwaterloo thesis, it eat , Londres, 1861. [40] Museum Boltenianum . Archeology. Verzeichniss der von dem verstorbenen Herrn Joachim Friedrich Bolten… Sammlung Conchylien, Mineralien und Kunstsachen … Hambourg, 1819.

[41] Olearius, Adam, Gottorffische Kunst-Cammer , Schleswig, 1666. [42] Oliver, A.P.H. Psychology Thesis. ; Nicholls, J. Northern Lights Spa Bressay. ; The Hamlyn Guide to uwaterloo thesis, Seashells of the pandora was a feminist World , Hamlyn, 1975 ; Idem, Les coquillages marins du monde en couleurs , Paris-Bruxelles,1975. [43] Rafinesque-Schmaltz, C.S., Principes fondamentaux de somiologie ou les Loix de la nomenclature et de la classification de l’empire organique , Palerme, 1814. [44] Robert, Paul-A. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. ; Valery, Paul, Les Merveilles de la mer. Camden Street Binding. Les coquillages . Psychology. 15 planches en couleurs d’apres les aquarelles de Paul A. Theses Full. Robert. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Texte de Paul Valery . Full Text. Paris, 1936. [45] Roux, Polydore, Iconographie conchyliologique ou recueil de planches lithographiees et coloriees : premiere livraison , Paris-Marseille-Toulon, 1828. [46] Rumphius, Georg Everhard, D’Amboinssche rariteitkamer , Amsterdam, 1741. [47] Sander Rang, A., Manuel de l’histoire naturelle des mollusques et de leurs coquilles ayant pour base de classification celle de M. Thesis. le baron Cuvier , Paris, 1829. [48] Scheuchzer, Johann Jakob, Physica sacra , Augsbourg-Ulm, 1731 ; Physique sacree ou Histoire naturelle de la Bible , Amsterdam, 1732.

[49] Seba, Albertus, Locupletissimi rerum naturalium thesauri accurata descriptio, et iconibus artificiosissimis expressio, per brooklyn based universam physices historiam , Amsterdam, 1734-1765. [50] Sowerby, G.B. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. I, A catalogue of the pandora feminist essay shells contained in uwaterloo, the collection of the requirements late Earl of uwaterloo thesis, Tankerville, arranged according to requirements, the Lamarckian Conchological System , London, 1825. [51] Stix, Hugh et Marguerite ; Abbot, R. Uwaterloo. Tucker, Les Coquillages : les chefs-d’?uvre de la vie sous-marine , Paris, 1969, photographies de H. Was A Feminist. Landshoff. [52] Thevet, Andre, La Cosmographie universelle , Paris, 1575. [53] Tryon, George W., American marine conchology , Philadelphie, 1873. [54] Valentini, Michael Bernhard, Amphitheatrum zootomicum , Francfort, 1620. [55] Valentijn, Francois, Verhandeling der zeehorenkens en zeegewassen in psychology uwaterloo thesis, en omtrent Amboina , Dordrecht-Amsterdam, 1726 et Amsterdam, 1754.

[56] Vincent, Levinus, Wondertooneel der nature , Amsterdam, 1706. Bassy, A.-M. Pandora Was A Essay. 1984 Le texte et l’image. Psychology. In H.-J. Street Binding. Martin, R. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Chartier J.-P. Was A. Vivet (dir.) Histoire de l’edition francaise. Psychology Thesis. II. Lights Spa Bressay. Le livre triomphant, 1660-1830 . Psychology Thesis. Paris : Fayard/Le Cercle de la librairie : 140-161.

Bergvelt, E., Meijers, Debora J. Pandora Was A Feminist Essay. Rijnders, M. Psychology Thesis. (dir.) 2005 Kabinetten, galerijen en musea : het verzamelen en presenteren van naturalia en kunst van 1500 tot heden . Brooklyn Based Essay. Heerlen-Zwolle : Open universiteit Nederland/Waanders Uitgeverij. Chatelain, J.-M. Uwaterloo Thesis. 2000 Pour la gloire de Dieu et du roi : le livre de prestige au xvii e siecle. Pandora Feminist. In H.-J. Psychology Uwaterloo. Martin (dir.) La naissance du livre moderne ( xiv e - xvii e siecles) : mise en page et mise en texte du livre francais , Paris : Le Cercle de la librairie : 350-363. Chatelain, J.-M., Pinon, L. Camden Street Of Thesis. 2000 Genres et fonctions de l’illustration au xvi e siecle. Thesis. In H.-J. Asu Essay. Martin (dir.) La naissance du livre moderne ( xiv e - xvii e siecles) : mise en page et mise en texte du livre francais , Paris : Le Cercle de la librairie : 236-269. Conihout, I., de. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. 1996 Les collections encyclopediques et leurs catalogues.

In Roland Schaer (dir.) Tous les savoirs du monde : encyclopedies et bibliotheques de Sumer au xxi e siecle , Paris : Flammarion : 278-319. Coomans, H. Northern. E. Uwaterloo. 1992 Schelpenverzamelingen. Brooklyn. In E. Uwaterloo Thesis. Bergvelt, R. Pandora Feminist Essay. Kistemaker (dir.) De wereld binnen handbereik : Nederlandse kunst- en rariteitenverzamelingen 1585-1735 , Zwolle : Waanders : 192-203. Coppens, C., Tavernier, R. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. 1989 Uit de schelp gekropen : schelpenboeken in requirements, de Leuvense Universiteitsbibliotheek , Leuven : KUL. Psychology Thesis. Universiteitsbibliotheek . Dance, S. Asu Essay Requirements. P. Uwaterloo. 1969 Rare shells , Los Angeles : Berkeley.

— 1986 History of theses full, Shell Collecting : An Illustrated History , revised edition, Leiden : E. Psychology. J. Spa Bressay. Brill . Deconinck, R. Thesis. 2010 Au seuil du livre-monument : l’imaginaire architectural du frontispice aux xvi e et xvii e siecles. Essay. In Godelieve Denhaene (ed.), De Renaissance prentkunst in psychology uwaterloo, de Zuidelijke Nederlanden. Requirements. La gravure de la Renaissance dans les Pays-Bas meridionaux , Bruxelles : Archives et Bibliotheques de Belgique, numero special 89 : 139-152. Driessen-van het Reeve, J. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. J. Asu Essay Requirements. 2006 De Kunstkamera van Peter de Grote : de Hollandse inbreng, gereconstrueerd uit brieven van Albert Seba en Johann Damiel Schumacher uit de jaren 1711-1712 , Hilversum : Verloren . Eisenstein, E.L. Uwaterloo Thesis. 1982 Le livre et la culture savante.

In H.-J. Brooklyn. Martin, R. Uwaterloo. Chartier J.-P. Paper. Vivet (dir.) Histoire de l’edition francaise. Psychology. I. Archeology Format. Le livre conquerant : du Moyen Age au milieu du xvii e siecle . Psychology Thesis. Paris : Fayard/Le Cercle de la librairie : 563-583. Fumaroli, M. Dissertations Theses Full. 1994 Sur le seuil des livres : les frontispices graves des traites d’eloquence (1594-1641).

In eidem, L’Ecole du silence : le sentiment des images au xvii e siecle , Paris : Flammarion ( Idees et recherches ) : 325-342. Glorieux, G. Thesis. 2002 A l’Enseigne de Gersaint : Edme-Francois Gersaint, marchand d’art sur le pont Notre-Dame (1694-1750) , Seyssel : Champ Vallon. Heppell, D. Requirements. 1995 The long dawn of psychology uwaterloo thesis, malacology : a brief history of format, malacology from psychology thesis prehistory to requirements, the year 1800, Archives of psychology thesis, Natural History : 301-319. Impey, O., MacGregor, A. Lights Spa Bressay. (edit.) 1985 The Origins of psychology uwaterloo, Museums. Brooklyn Contest. The Cabinet of thesis, Curiosities in paper format, Sixteenth and psychology uwaterloo, Seventeenth-Centur y Europe , Oxford : Clarendon Press.

Jammes, B. Research Paper. 1984 Le livre de science. Psychology. In H.-J. Pandora Was A. Martin, R. Uwaterloo Thesis. Chartier J.-P. Lights. Vivet (dir.) Histoire de l’edition francaise. Psychology. II. Dissertations & Theses Full. Le livre triomphant, 1660-1830 . Thesis. Paris : Fayard/Le Cercle de la librairie : 206-217. Johnson, R. Essay. I. Uwaterloo Thesis. 2002 The marvelous, monstrous, mythical, marine mollusk Cochlea sarmatica Thevet, 1575, Department of asu essay, Mollusks. Psychology Uwaterloo. Harvard University, Occasional Papers on dissertations theses full text Mollusks , vol. Thesis. 6 (81) : 149-174.

Kozyreff, C. Requirements. 1992 Deux siecles de livre japonais : le fonds Hans de Winiwarter , exposition a la Bibliotheque royale Albert I er , Bruxelles. Lamy, E. Psychology Uwaterloo. 1930 Les Cabinets d’histoire naturelle en France au xviii e siecle et le Cabinet du Roi (1635-1793) . Brooklyn Essay Contest. Rennes : E. Thesis. Lamy. Landwehr, J. Pandora. 1976 Studies in psychology uwaterloo, Dutch Books with Coloured Plates published 1662-1875 : natural history, topography and research format, travel, costumes and psychology uwaterloo thesis, uniforms , La Haye : Junk. Laufer, R. Brooklyn Based Essay. 1989 L’espace visuel du livre ancien. Psychology Uwaterloo. In H.-J.

Martin, R. Archeology Research. Chartier J.-P. Psychology Uwaterloo. Vivet (dir.) Histoire de l’edition francaise. Street. I. Psychology. Le livre conquerant : du Moyen Age au milieu du xvii e siecle . Asu Essay. Paris : Fayard/Le Cercle de la librairie : 479-499. Lestringant, F., du Crest, S. Psychology Uwaterloo. 2008 Le theatre de la curiosite . Requirements. Paris : Presses de l’Universite Paris-Sorbonne (Cahiers V. Uwaterloo Thesis. L. Paper Format. Saulnier, 25). Lugli, A. Psychology Thesis. 1998 Naturalia et Mirabilia.

Les cabinets de curiosites en Europe . Feminist Essay. Paris : Adam Biro. Martin, P., Moncond’huy, D. Thesis. 2004 Curiosite et cabinets de curiosites , Neuilly : Atlande. Marx, J. Essay Contest. 1977 L’activite scientifique de l’Academie imperiale et royale des sciences et belles-lettres de Bruxelles. Psychology Uwaterloo. In Bruxelles au xviii e siecle , actes de la journee d’etude 6 novembre 1976. Lights. Bruxelles : Etudes sur le xviii e siecle IV : 49-61. Nissen, C. Psychology Uwaterloo. 1969 Die zoologische Buchillustration : ihre Bibliographie und Geschichte , Stuttgart : Hiersemann. Pastoureau, M. Asu Essay Requirements. 1997 La couleur en noir et blanc ( xv e - xviii e siecle) In F. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Barbier et al. Brooklyn Essay. , Le livre et l’historien : etudes offertes en l’honneur du Professeur Henri-Jean Martin , Geneve : Droz : 197-213. — 1982 L’illustration du livre : comprendre ou rever. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. In H.-J. Brooklyn. Martin, R. Psychology. Chartier J.-P. Northern. Vivet (dir.) Histoire de l’edition francaise.

I. Uwaterloo. Le livre conquerant : du Moyen Age au milieu du xvii e siecle , Paris : Fayard/Le Cercle de la librairie, p. Pandora Was A. 501-529. Pinault Sorensen, M. Uwaterloo. 2008 Le livre de botanique xvii e et xviii e siecles , Paris : Conferences Leopold Delisle. Pomian, K. Paper Format. 1987 Collectionneurs, amateurs et curieux. Uwaterloo. Paris, Venise : xvi e - xviii e siecle , Paris : Gallimard (Bibliotheque des histoires). Sarmant, T. Dissertations &. 2000 Roma triumphans : les frontispices des livres de medailles aux xvii e et xviii e siecles. Thesis. In Textes imprimes et images xvi e - xix e siecles , etudes reunies par Annie Charon, Isabelle Diu Elisabeth Parinet Bibliotheque de l’Ecole des Chartes 158 : 69-95.

Schnapper, A. Brooklyn. 1988 Le Geant, la licorne et la tulipe : collections et collectionneurs dans la France du xvii e siecle . Psychology. I. Feminist Essay. Histoire et histoire naturelle , Paris : Flammarion (Art, Histoire, Societe). Sorgeloos, C. Psychology. 1996 Les cabinets d’histoire naturelle et de physique dans les Pays-Bas autrichiens et a Liege. Archeology Research. In M.-Th. Psychology. Isaac et C. Dissertations. Sorgeloos (dir.) La diffusion du savoir scientifique ( xvi e - xx e siecle). Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis. Actes du colloque de l’Universite de Mons-Hainaut, 22 septembre 1995.

Bruxelles : Archives et Bibliotheques de Belgique, numero special 51 : 125-230. Valery, P. Requirements. 1936 L’homme et la coquille. Psychology. In Les Merveilles de la mer , Paris : Gallimard, 14. Visser, R. Requirements. 2005 De ontwikkeling van het natuurhistorische museum sedert 1750. Uwaterloo Thesis. In Ellinoor Bergvelt, Debora J. Essay. Meijers, Kabinetten, galerijen en musea : het verzamelen en presenteren van naturalia en kunst van 1500 tot heden . Uwaterloo. Heerlen : Open Universiteit ; Zwolle : 179-202. Biodiversity Heritage Library, qui reproduit la plupart des livres cites ici : (consulte le 9 mars 2013) Pierre Martin et Dominique Moncond’huy, Les cabinets de curiosites et le livre , journee d’etude le 4 decembre 2008, a l’Espace Mendes-France, Poitiers : (consulte le 9 mars 2013) 1 Les livres anciens cites dans le texte sont repris enreferences [numerotation dans le texte] dans le catalogue des ?uvres citees. 2 Thesaurus conchyliorum, a treasury of pandora feminist essay, books about psychology uwaterloo thesis, mollusks and street binding of thesis, their shells 1999 Catalogue 278 de l’Antiquariaat Junk B.B. Psychology. a Amsterdam, (introduction de S.P. Dissertations & Theses. Dance).

3 Voir : et consultes le 6 mars 2013. 4 Pour l’heraldique, autre exemple de cette difficile transition, voir Pastoureau (1997). 5 Sander Rang [47] (1829), annonce au verso du titre. 6 Bruxelles, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique, Bibliotheque Philippe Dautzenberg, 51624, Description tres concise du cabinet de M. Psychology Thesis. l’abbe de Crillon, 1776. Archeology Research. Nos remerciements au Prof. Thesis. Thierry Backeljau, Departement des Invertebres, Institut royal des Sciences naturelles de Belgique.

8 Testacei cioe nicchi chioccioe e conchiglie. Dissertations &. Disegnate e miniate da Jacopo Tosi , 1683, Bologne : Bibliotheque universitaire, Ms. Uwaterloo. 4312. Claude Sorgeloos , « Murex barclayi : livres de coquilles », Techniques Culture , 59 | 2012, 126-149. Claude Sorgeloos , « Murex barclayi : livres de coquilles », Techniques Culture [En ligne], 59 | 2012, mis en ligne le 15 decembre 2015, consulte le 04 octobre 2017. Requirements. URL : ; DOI : 10.4000/tc.6594. Bibliothèque royale de Belgique. Tous droits reserves. Low Tech ? Wild Tech ! 62 | 2014. Reparer le monde 64 | 2015. Essais de bricologie.

Ethnologie de l'art et du design contemporains 63 | 2015. Vivre le sable ! 60 | 2013. Le Cadavre en proces 59 | 2012. Itineraires de coquillages 58 | 2012. Objets irremplacables 57 | 2011. Geste et Matiere 56 | 2011. Habiter le temporaire 54-55 | 2010. Cultures materielles 52-53 | 2009.

Technologies 51 | 2009. Des Choses, des gestes, des mots 50 | 2008. Les Natures de l'homme 48-49 | 2007. Temps, corps, techniques et esthetique 45 | 2005. Apprendre la mer 43-44 | 2004. Mythes. Psychology Thesis. L'origine des manieres de faire 42 | 2004. Du virtuel@l'age du 41 | 2003. Briques : le cru et le cuit 40 | 2003. Efficacite technique, efficacite sociale 39 | 2002.

Sports et corps en jeu 38 | 2002. La ceruse 37 | 2001. L'araire en Himalaya 35-36 | 2001. Soieries medievales 33 | 1999. Entre histoire et tradition 31-32 | 1999. Dynamique des pratiques alimentaires 30 | 1998. Labyrinthe 29 | 1998. De la Chines et des Andes 28 | 1997. Acces aux savoirs d'autrui 27 | 1996. Du chat cuit au Chaco 25-26 | 1996. Les objets de la medecine 23-24 | 1995.

Cultures de betes. Archeology Research. 0utils qui pensent ? 22 | 1995. Atouts et outils de l'ethnologie des techniques 20 | 1993. Variables et constantes 19 | 1993. Itineraires, escales 17-18 | 1992. Prehistoire et ethnologie, le geste retrouve 16 | 1991. Des Machines et des hommes 15 | 1991.

Du souffle a la forge 14 | 1990. Symboles et proces techniques 11 | 1988. Persistances et Innovations 10 | 1988. D'autres idees pour observer 9 | 1987. Des idees pour observer 8 | 1987. Techniques moyen-orientales 7 | 1986. De l'Himalaya au haut Atlas. Psychology. De l'Asir aux Andes 6 | 1986. Par ou passe la technologie II 5 | 1985.

Par ou passe la technologie I 4 | 1985. Aspects des agricultures insolites de l'Amerique indienne 3 | 1984. Des choses dont la recherche est laborieuse. Paper Format. 2 | 1983. Actes de la table ronde Technologie culture 1 | 1983. Actes de la table ronde Technologie culture

ISSN electronique 1952-420X. Informations Title: Techniques culture Revue semestrielle d’anthropologie des techniques Briefly: Revue consacree a l'ethnologie des techniques.

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Unfortunately, this means you won’t know exactly how many questions you need to get right to pass the set of questions you will be asked. Some suggest that aiming for psychology uwaterloo thesis 70% correct on practice tests is northern spa bressay, a close approximation. Retaking : You may make three attempts to pass the exam during your application period, which lasts for one year after the date you were approved to take the test. After an application expires, candidates are required to wait 90 days before submitting a new application to GBCI. What should I do after I pass the exam?

Celebrate! Also, update your resume, LinkedIn profile , and business cards to psychology uwaterloo thesis reflect your new credential. Your educational requirements do not end after passing the exam as you must meet certain ongoing maintenance requirements. Credential Maintenance Requirement: Green Associates must attend 15 hours of continuing education every 2 years. You also must pay a $50 biennial maintenance fee and agree to abide by the GBCI disciplinary policy. 2010, Jessalyn Dingwell. All rights reserved. Do not republish.

Author: Jessalyn Dingwell (13 Articles) Jessalyn Dingwell is an attorney and research, Green Building aficionado living in Washington, DC. A daring high school science fair project involving solar energy, an incredible amount of psychology thesis, copper tubing, and asu essay, a precarious rooftop fueled her lifelong curiosity and passion for renewable energy sources and uwaterloo thesis, building energy-efficiency. Street Binding Of Thesis! Jessalyn serves on several committees at the Women's Council on Energy and the Environment and frequently contributes to the Council's Water Committee programming. Prior to law school, she spent several years at uwaterloo thesis the Corporate Executive Board providing marketing best practices to Fortune 500 companies in text, the US, then managing the European team based in London. Feel free to contact her at: Would a SBA class (Sustainable Business adviser) count as a #8220;move forward ticket#8221; as a education directive for LEED Green? Thanks for your question about the uwaterloo thesis educational requirements for lights spa bressay LEED GA. Please let me know if I misunderstand your question, which I take to be: Will completion of a Sustainable Business Advisor class satisfy the eligibility requirement to allow you to take the LEED GA exam? This answer is: This class will satisfy the edibility requirement only psychology uwaterloo thesis, if it specifically addressed green building principles and LEED. If the class did address green building concepts specifically, outline this fact in a Letter of Attestation. Theses Full Text! The details on what to include in the letter can be found on the GBCI site here: Alternatively, you can simply provide a certification of completion for the course or an official transcript.

However, in your case, since it is not clear that green building principles were addressed from the title of the course, I might go to the trouble of writing the letter outlining how the course addressed green building principles. I hope this was helpful. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis! Good luck! Thanks so much for the great article on becoming a LEED Green Associate. Asu Essay! I had so many. questions that you answered. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis! Thanks Again. You are welcome! Thanks for the feedback, Carl. Thank you for the great article on spa bressay Leed Green Associate. I am actually taking the class at Henry Ford Community College, Dearborn Michigan.

I also have a basic renewable energy certificate, but where do I go from there? I have contacted a few businesses but they have no openings. I really want a to work in an office environment so I can learn more.Any suggestions would be appreciated. Congrats on taking the first step to becoming a LEED Green Associate! It sounds like you have gotten off to a good start by proactively contacting a few businesses. Keep in touch with the people you spoke with to see if their needs change. Perhaps you could update them when you pass the exam. My best job seeking tip for psychology uwaterloo anyone looking to find transition into camden street binding, a green job is to make meaningful connections with people currently working in green industries. Many people cringe at the thought of thesis, networking, but I have found that volunteering is a great way to meet people. Brooklyn! Find out if there is an upcoming green conference in your area and contact them to see if there is uwaterloo, any way you can help. Even if you are doing a simple task, like handing out research format brochures, it is much easier to meet people and start conversations when you are engaged in a common task.

Also, volunteering is a way to attend conferences or events for free, as many organizations allow volunteers free entry in exchange for a few hours of work. Take a long term approach to your networking and job hunting as well. Psychology Thesis! Find organizations that you believe are doing important work and get involved at archeology format a deeper level then simply attending an event. Volunteer to be on a committee, offer up the professional skills you have (I#8217;m a whiz at Excel, can I help by organizing the address list?), or suggest a new idea and offer to follow through on it. People have a chance to uwaterloo view you as a competent, passionate leader who can get things done. Archeology Paper! Talk to people about what they do, why they like it, and how they got there. Be sincere, but if you think someone has a really interesting job tell them so! They will want to tell you more. Also, let people know your skills and your job aspirations. Psychology Thesis! Start by talking to the people in your class.

Find out what groups they are involved in and how they hope to asu essay use their LEED credential. Find out where your local USGBC chapter is located these chapters usually have a number of projects and events underway with green professionals from a number of different backgrounds: There are some great job resources on the Green Economy Post you might want to check out as well. Here#8217;s a great series on a woman who is also in psychology uwaterloo, search of a green job: Looking for brooklyn essay contest a Job in Sustainability? Look Beyond the Job Boards: Six Things Green Company Hiring Managers Want To See On Your Resume: Thanks for the information. I am actually volunteering at the college for the green conference that will be coming up next month. I also volunteer for a NP that hasn#8217;t launch yet.

But I will check on psychology uwaterloo the local USGBC chapter here in Michigan. Thanks for taking the time to asu essay answer me back! I Work for a steel company that provide bulding materials (iron bars) My department is social responsibility and i deal with the psychology thesis greenbuilding inittiative. My job here, count for i take the leed exams? Thanks for your question. To be eligible to take the LEED GA exam based on employment you must submit a letter of attestation. Research! The letter must explain #8220;how the applicant’s profession or company relates to environmentalism or the green building industry.#8221; More details are available here: It seems to me that if you wrote a letter that discussed how your work related to the green building initiative you mentioned, that might be sufficient. I really don#8217;t know how difficult it is to apply for LEED GA based on employment.

Has any one successfully applied to take the LEED GA exam using employment for eligibility? Hi Jessie, thanks for psychology uwaterloo thesis posting such helpful information about the LEED Green Associate exam. It might be helpful to mention, for people on a very tight budget, that there are a lot of free options available to street of thesis prepare for the LEED Green Associate exam. There are free practice tests and other suggestions listed here. Thanks again, Rob. Thanks for the great information about the LEED GA exam! Question: Have you ever heard of this outfit: San Francisco Institute of psychology uwaterloo, Architecture: They have a distance learning Green MBA program, offered at archeology research format $4,800, with a $3,000 discount to psychology USGBC members. Make sense? Sound reputable?

Thoughts? Thanks! Did you ever get any feedback on SFIA? I#8217;ve been contemplating the MS Green Building program from them. Just wondering if you had gained any more experience or information on them in the last year. Great article written by Jessalyn about street LEED GA and psychology uwaterloo thesis, the LEED GA exam process. Sometimes the requirements, processes and rules from the USGBC and the GBCI can be tricky to navigate. There is also information about the LEED process available here: Great Article! Have you ever heard of GBRI for LEED EXAM PREP Training.

As a USGBC Education Partner, GBRI offers LEED GA Exam Prep training. With GBRI, you can stand out from the crowd with a LEED GA or LEED AP with specialty credential. Street Binding! With it#8217;s Study Materials, earn your LEED Green Associate in as little as 5 weeks and LEED AP credential in as little as 7 weeks. Based on your schedule, attend the 4 week instructor-led live exam prep sessions OR utilize self-paced online on-demand exam prep modules.

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Honours Thesis (Psych 499) | Psychology | University of Waterloo

Comparison of Course Completion and Student Performance through Online and Traditional Courses. Wayne Atchley 1 , Gary Wingenbach 2 , and Cindy Akers 3. 1 Tarleton State University, USA, 2 Texas AM University, USA, 3 Texas Tech University, USA. Enrollment in online courses has outpaced overall university enrollment for psychology, the past several years. The growth of online courses does not appear to be slowing. The purpose of this study was to compare course completion and student academic performance between online and traditional courses. Northern Spa Bressay! Archival data from the uwaterloo thesis host university student records system was collected using the Structured Query Language.

Descriptive statistics were used to analyze student characteristics. Archeology Paper! Chi-square analysis was used to determine if statistically significant differences existed between students enrolled in psychology uwaterloo, online and traditional courses when comparing course completion and academic performance. Analysis found statistically significant differences existed in street of thesis, both course completion and academic performance for students enrolled in online versus traditional courses. Thesis! Additional analysis indicated statistically significant differences existed in course completion by course discipline. Keywords : Online education; student performance; student retention. In the fall of 2007, more than 17.9 million students were enrolled in degree-granting, postsecondary institutions. Of those students, more than 3.9 million were enrolled in one or more online courses. Online enrollments represented 21.9% of total enrollments. From fall 2002 to fall 2007, online enrollments grew at a compound annual growth rate of 19.7% from 1.6 million to binding more than 3.9 million (Allen Seaman, 2008). With the psychology growth of online course enrollments, questions have been asked about course completion and student performance in online courses compared to traditional, face-to-face courses.

Russel (2001) compiled an annotated bibliography of feminist, 355 research reports that examined differences in student outcomes between online and traditional courses. The majority of psychology uwaterloo, research revealed no statistically significant difference in was a feminist essay, student outcomes based on delivery mode. However, recent research on course completion and performance has been inconsistent. Brady (2001), Carr (2000), and psychology Simpson (2003) found that course completion was generally lower in online courses when compared to traditional courses. Roach (2002) found that some institutions reported equal or higher course completion rates in online courses when compared to traditional courses. The problem this research will address is that further evidence is needed regarding student success measures in online instruction as opposed to classroom delivery. Growth in online course enrollments is clear and many researchers agree that the future of higher education is tied to some form of online course delivery (Berger Lyon, 2005; Harasim, 2000; Palloff Pratt, 2003). Are course completion rates significantly different between online and paper format traditional courses? Is a student’s academic performance independent of the course delivery method? These questions are important to administrators tasked with maintaining the competitive and economic future of their respective universities and thesis are the focus of essay, this research. Texas public universities receive flexible, discretionary state funds based primarily on the formula funding calculation under the thesis direction of the Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board (THECB).

Of all the northern lights funds appropriated directly to Texas public universities, more than 62% comes from formula funding. The primary source of formula funding is psychology uwaterloo, generated by the instruction and asu essay requirements operations formula. This formula is based on semester credit hours applied to a cost matrix identifying weights based on level of instruction (lower division, upper division, master, doctoral, or professional) and discipline (liberal arts, science, fine arts, etc.). Uwaterloo! The other formulas, Teaching Experience, Small Institution Supplement, and Infrastructure, also include semester credit hours, but total less than 25% of formula funding for most universities (THECB, 2008). Current formula funding is based on the 12th day of class enrollments and does not take into account students who drop courses during the semester. In the state of Texas, course completion rates have become important with regards to pandora was a essay funding. The THECB recommended a shift in formula funding for the 2010-2011 biennium. The proposal would change the psychology funding formula from using attempted to completed semester credit hours (THECB, 2008). With the full text continued growth of online education and uwaterloo thesis the proposed shift in funding, course completion rates in online courses became increasingly important to administrators at Texas public universities. Another State of Texas rule for public university funding related to the number of times a student can repeat a course, commonly referred to as the “Three-Peat” rule (Texas Administrative Code [TAC], Title 19, Part 1, Rule 13.105, 2005). This rule has an impact on the student and university.

The three-peat rule states that “Institutions shall not submit for formula funding any hours for a course that is the same or substantially similar to a course that the student previously attempted for two or more times at the same institution” ([TAC], Title 19, Part 1, Rule 13.105, 2005). In order for the university to compensate for the loss of funding, the student can be charged full out-of-state tuition cost for any course impacted by the three-peat rule. The three-peat rule increased the importance of student academic performance to avoid potential loss of pandora feminist, state funding for the course and possible increased financial burden on the student. Research on course completion rates between online and traditional course delivery has been mixed (Carr, 2000). Several studies showed differences existed in course completion rates between online courses and thesis traditional, face-to-face courses (McLaren, 2004; Paden, 2006; Roach, 2002). Waschull (2001) found that online course completion rates were not significantly different from traditional course completion rates. Nelson (2006) compared course completion rates between online and traditional courses at Delaware Technical and Community College, Terry Campus. Asu Essay Requirements! Her research found statistically significant differences in the course completion rates between online and psychology uwaterloo traditional courses. Street! Additional analysis showed that more students (23%) withdrew from the uwaterloo online courses compared to the withdrawal rate in traditional courses (18.4%). Carr (2000) noted that some universities reported drop-out rates as high as 80% in online courses, but argued that course completion rates should not be compared across universities since universities report course completion rates differently.

Some universities included students who dropped during the add/drop period while other universities did not report those instances. Camden Binding Of Thesis! Without having a standard rule, a comparison across universities might not produce accurate results. Thesis! Regardless of the ability to compare across universities, research into asu essay, course completion rates is useful to university administrators tasked with determining class size and number of sections as well as those administrators responsible for assessing student learning outcomes for internal and external agencies (McLaren, 2004). Russell (2001) explored 355 research reports comparing student outcomes between different course delivery modes. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis! The majority of the research indicated no statistically significant differences existed in student outcomes based on delivery mode. Clark (1994) stated that it was the teaching methods and not the delivery medium used that influenced learning. In all cases, Clark argued that the selection of course delivery mode should be an economic decision (1994). Much research exists supporting Russell’s (2001) work (Clark, 1994; Gagne Shepherd, 2001; McLaren, 2004).

However, several studies have found statistically significant differences in full text, student outcomes based on delivery type (Faux Black-Hughes, 2000; Paden, 2006; Shoenfeld-Tacher, McConnel, Graham, 2001). Paden found a statistically significant difference in student performance between online and psychology uwaterloo thesis traditional courses. Pandora Was A Feminist Essay! Faux and Black-Hughes conducted research into student performance between different delivery modes of a social work course and found that a statistically significant difference existed between post-test scores by delivery mode. Additional analysis indicated that students in the online section did not perform as well as students in the traditional section. Several researchers found that certain disciplines were not suited for an online setting (Carnevale, 2003; Nelson, 2006; Noble, 2004; Paden, 2006; Smith, Heindel, Torres-Ayala, 2008). Uwaterloo Thesis! Lab science, health care (Carnevale, 2003), and mathematics (Smith et al., 2008) courses have all been identified as course disciplines that are not well-suited for brooklyn based, online course delivery. Terry (2001) suggested that courses such as accounting, economics, computer information systems, marketing, and uwaterloo thesis management were potentially more conducive to online course delivery. Smith et al. (2008) compared attrition rates between mathematics-related courses and non mathematics-related courses and northern spa bressay found higher attrition rates in the mathematics-related courses.

Attrition in traditional mathematics-related courses was the same as the drop-out rates in uwaterloo thesis, non mathematics-related courses. Brooklyn Essay Contest! The researchers suggested that “for online students, mathematics is not working as well as other disciplines online, and further, students’ difficulties with mathematics relative to other disciplines are not as great as in the face-to-face modality” (p. Psychology Thesis! 152). Online course delivery has been a growing area in higher education (Allen Seaman, 2008). As universities continue to transition courses to online delivery, it is dissertations & theses full, important to understand the impact on student performance and psychology thesis retention. Paper! Is student performance in thesis, online courses comparable to performance in traditional courses? Are there differences in course completion in online courses when compared to essay contest traditional courses?

Are some disciplines more appropriate for online delivery? The purpose of the study was to compare course completion rates and student performance between online and traditional courses. The following research objectives were used to guide the study: Determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the performance of students enrolled in online courses compared to students enrolled in traditional courses. Uwaterloo Thesis! Determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of students enrolled in online courses compared to students enrolled in traditional courses.

Determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of students enrolled in street binding, online courses by psychology uwaterloo, course discipline. This study had a causal-comparative research design, using archival data for students enrolled at a small, regional, public, comprehensive university located in the southwest United States. Archival data was used to compare both course completion and student academic performance (measured by final course grade) between groups of students in online and traditional courses. This same approach was used to compare course completion of students enrolled in online courses by course discipline. Causal-comparative designs do not allow for street binding, explicit finding of causation (Fraenkel Wallen, 2006), but do strongly suggest whether mode of psychology uwaterloo, instruction had a direct impact on student retention. Asu Essay Requirements! Additionally, since causal-comparative design takes place after data were collected and without any manipulation or intervention, it allowed for the exploration of naturally occurring relationships between groups. The population ( N = 319,153) for thesis, this research was student course experiences for students enrolled in full text, all 16-week courses taught between fall 2004 and spring 2009. Summer semesters were excluded as they are not comparable in structure or design to a fall or spring course (Nelson, 2006). Online courses as defined by psychology, Allen and Seaman (2008) were those courses “in which at least 80 percent of the course content is delivered online” (p. 4).

For the purpose of camden street of thesis, this research, online courses were defined as those courses designated in the target university’s student records system with an online building designation. Traditional courses were defined by Allen and Seaman (2008) as courses “with no online technology used – content is uwaterloo thesis, delivered in northern spa bressay, writing or orally” (p. 4). Psychology Uwaterloo! For the purpose of this research, traditional courses were defined as those courses designated in the student records system with a building code other than online and with an instruction code of “lecture.” For objective one, a purposive sample was selected that consisted of all student course experiences for students who were enrolled in and completed courses taught in both an online and lights spa bressay traditional lecture format by the same professor during the psychology thesis same semester and year ( n = 5,477). The total number of distinct students enrolled in the courses from the sample was 4,120. For objective two, a purposive sample was selected that consisted of all student course experiences for students enrolled in courses taught in both an online and traditional lecture format by northern, the same professor during the same semester and psychology uwaterloo thesis year ( n = 5,778).

The total number of dissertations text, distinct students enrolled in the courses from the sample was 4,307. For objective three, the sample included all student course experiences for students enrolled in online courses taught consistently during each of the 16-week semesters between fall 2004 and spring 2009 ( n = 8,445). Of the 41 subject areas with courses delivered between fall 2004 and spring 2009, only 14 subject areas were delivered during each of the semesters between fall 2004 and spring 2009. The total number of distinct students enrolled in psychology uwaterloo, courses from the sample was 3,932. Data for the research objectives were extracted from the student records system using the Oracle Structured Query Language (SQL). For objectives one and two, all courses taught during full 16-week semesters were identified and archeology research paper extracted into a temporary table.

Using the temporary table as the research sample, a SQL statement was written to find all courses with both online and traditional sections taught by the same professor during the same semester and year. With the sample courses identified, course delivery mode, registration status, and final grade were extracted for uwaterloo, all students enrolled in the sample courses. No student identifying information was included in spa bressay, the data extraction. For objective one, a comparison of psychology uwaterloo thesis, student academic performance, all students with a registration status code other than dropped or withdrawn were included in the sample. Research Paper! This objective was intended to measure academic performance, only students who completed the course were included. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis! Student academic performance was measured by the final course grade. For objective two, a comparison of course completion, all students enrolled in the sample courses were used. Students with a grade code of A, B, C, D, or F and registration status other than dropped or withdrawn were flagged as retained and all others were flagged as not retained. For objective three, a comparison of online course completion by course discipline, data extracted included registration status, final grade, and course subject for all students enrolled in all online courses identified in the initial base course table. Course discipline was defined as the subject area a course was associated with for a particular college and department. Subject areas were designated by a four character abbreviation and pandora feminist essay assigned to all courses listed in the host institution’s course catalog.

Pearson’s chi-square test was used to psychology uwaterloo thesis determine if statistically significant differences existed in asu essay requirements, retention or performance by mode of instruction. “Chi-square is the inferential technique used to determine statistical significance of psychology, a relationship” (Wallen Fraenkel, 2001, p. 530). Research Paper! An alpha level of .05 was set a priori to determine if an association existed between the psychology uwaterloo independent variable – delivery mode – and the dependent variables retention and performance. For objective three, a chi-square test was calculated on all students enrolled in online courses to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the expected and observed retention by course discipline. Objective one was to determine if a statistically significant difference existed in academic performance of students enrolled in archeology research format, online courses compared to students enrolled in traditional courses. A chi-square analysis was performed in SPSS to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in student performance between students enrolled in psychology uwaterloo, online courses and brooklyn essay students enrolled in traditional courses. Students enrolled in online courses had the highest percentage of psychology thesis, As at 34.6% compared to students enrolled in traditional courses at archeology research paper format 31.3%. Table 1 displays the grade distribution by course delivery modality.

The difference in performance was statistically significant, X 2 (4, N = 5,477) = 27.383, p . 05 (see Table 1). Objective two was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in the retention of students enrolled in online courses compared to students enrolled in traditional courses. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis! A chi-square analysis was performed in SPSS to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in course completion between students enrolled in online courses and asu essay students enrolled in traditional courses. Students enrolled in online courses had the lowest course completion rates at 93.3% compared to students enrolled in uwaterloo, traditional courses at 95.6%. Table 2 displays the course completion distribution by course delivery modality. The difference in retention was statistically significant, X 2 (1, N = 5,778) = 14.132, p .05 (see Table 2). Objective three was to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in pandora, the retention of students enrolled in online courses by course discipline.

A chi-square analysis was performed in uwaterloo thesis, SPSS to determine if there was a statistically significant difference in students’ course completion by course discipline. The 14 different disciplines included in the chi-square analysis were accounting, agricultural education, computer information systems, English, finance, general business, health, human resource management, management, marketing, physical education, psychology, reading, and special education. Finance had the lowest course completion rate at 82.2% compared to reading with the highest retention rate at 98.2%. Archeology Format! The difference in retention by course discipline was statistically significant, X 2 (13, N = 8,445) = 96.974, p .05 (see Table 3). The growth rate of student enrollments in online courses is outpacing the growth rate of the psychology uwaterloo total higher education student population (Allen Seaman, 2008). Research on the course completion rates in brooklyn, online education is mixed. Some research has found course completion in online courses was as good as or better than in psychology, traditional courses (Roach, 2002). & Theses Full! Other researchers have found that traditional courses have higher course completion rates when compared to online equivalents (Brady, 2001; Carr, 2000; Simpson, 2003). Course completion and student performance has financial impacts on students as well as the university. The THECB (2008) proposed a shift in uwaterloo thesis, formula funding from attempted to completed semester credit hours. Pandora Was A Essay! If retention and completion in uwaterloo thesis, online courses is camden of thesis, lower than the traditional classroom setting, the host university could potentially lose a portion of state funding.

Understanding where retention in online courses is a problem will allow the psychology uwaterloo thesis host university to take corrective action in camden street of thesis, order to increase retention and student success in online courses. Uwaterloo Thesis! Additionally, the Texas Administrative Code dictates that a university “shall not submit for formula funding any hours for a course that is the same or substantially similar to a course that the binding of thesis student previously attempted for two or more times at uwaterloo thesis the same institution” ([TAC], Title 19, Part 1, Rule 13.105, 2005). To compensate for spa bressay, the loss of state funding, the university could charge tuition up to the out-of-state tuition rates for the course. Objective one sought to determine if statistically significant differences existed in student performance between online and traditional courses. Psychology Thesis! A chi-square analysis on the dataset indicated that a statistically significant difference did exist in the student performance between online and asu essay traditional courses. Uwaterloo Thesis! This finding supports previous research on student performance in online courses (Faux Black-Hughes, 2000; Paden, 2006; Shoenfeld-Tacher, McConnel, Graham, 2001). Additional observation of the grade frequencies found a higher percentage of As, Ds, and Fs in online courses, while traditional courses had a higher percentage of Bs and Cs. Shoenfeld-Tacher et al. found student academic performance as measured by a post-test in an online science course was significantly different and superior to student performance in the traditional course section. Dissertations Text! Paden found that student academic performance in an introductory math course was significantly different between online and psychology thesis traditional delivery.

Contrary to what Shoenfeld-Tacher et al. found, Paden noted academic performance of students enrolled in the traditional section of the archeology research format introductory math course was superior to students enrolled in the online section. With regard to psychology thesis objective two, statistically significant differences did exist in course completion rates between online and traditional course delivery. This finding supports research conducted by McLaren (2004), Paden (2006), and Roach (2002) who found differences in course completion rates between online and traditional courses. Additional analysis indicated that students enrolled in online courses had a lower course completion rate (93.3%) than students enrolled in traditional courses (95.6%). This supports research by Paden who found that traditional course delivery had a higher retention rate compared to online delivery for students enrolled in an introductory math course. Nelson (2006) found statistically significant differences in student retention rates between online and traditional course delivery.

With regard to objective three, statistically significant differences existed in course completion rates by course discipline. Additional observations supported previous research that suggested some disciplines may not be well-suited to online delivery (Carnevale, 2003; Nelson, 2006; Noble, 2004; Paden, 2006; Smith, Heindel, Torres-Ayala, 2008). Course completion varied by discipline with reading having the archeology research format highest rate at 98.2% and finance with the lowest at 82.2%. Nelson examined course completion rates for nine disciplines and found that no statistically significant differences existed for seven of the disciplines. However, statistically significant differences did exist in uwaterloo, criminal justice and paper psychology and Nelson suggested that these course disciplines might not be conducive to online delivery. Uwaterloo! Smith et al. (2008) compared online and traditional course completion rates in mathematics courses and of thesis found lower retention rates in online mathematics courses. Thesis! The researchers suggested that mathematics might not be appropriate for online delivery. The research was conducted using archival data from the northern lights spa bressay host institution’s student record system. No data was available on student perceptions of the psychology courses or student aptitude with the theses text technology used for course delivery.

Additional student characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, classification, major, and thesis experience with online course delivery were not evaluated as part of research paper format, this research. What type of psychology uwaterloo, student is likely to paper succeed in online courses? Does experience with the technology lead to uwaterloo greater course completion and improved student performance in brooklyn contest, online courses? More research into student characteristics could help identify possible variables to psychology uwaterloo predict student success in online courses. Allen, I. E., Seaman, J. (2008).

Staying the course: Online education in the United States, 2008 . Needham, MA: The Sloan Consortium. Berger, J. Asu Essay Requirements! B., Lyon, S. Uwaterloo! C. (2005). Past to present a historical look at retention. In A. Seidman (Ed.), College student retention formula for student success (pp.1-29). Westport, CT: Prager. Brady, L. (2001). Fault lines in research format, the terrain of distance education. Computers and Composition, 18 (4), 347-358. Carnevale, D. (2003).

The virtual lab experiment: Some colleges use computer simulations to expand science offerings online. The Chronicle of uwaterloo thesis, Higher Education, 49 (21), A30. Carr, S. (2000). As distance education comes of pandora feminist, age, the challenge is keeping the students. Chronicle of Higher Education, 46 (23), A39-A41. Clark, R. (1994).

Media will never influence learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 42 (2), 21-29. Faux, T. L., Black-Hughes, C. (2000, July). A comparison of using the uwaterloo internet versus lectures to teach social work history. Research on Social Work, 10 (4), 454-466. Fraenkel, J. R, Wallen, N. E. (2006). How to design and evaluate research in education (6th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. Harasim, L. (2000). Shift happens: Online education as a new paradigm in essay contest, learning. Uwaterloo Thesis! Internet and Higher Education, 3 , 41-61.

McLaren, C. H. (2004, Spring). A comparison of student persistence and performance in online and based essay contest classroom business statistics experiences. Decision Sciences Journal of Innovative Education, 2 (1), 1-10. Nelson, P. Uwaterloo Thesis! F. (2006). Street Binding Of Thesis! Student retention in online education at the community college . Retrieved from psychology thesis ProQuest. (UMI 3222374) Noble, J. V. (2004). For science and math, skip the online course. Communications of the Association for Computing Machinery, 47 (10), 12-13. Paden, R. R. (2006).

A comparison of student achievement and retention in an introductory math courses delivered in online, face-to-face, and blended modalities. Retrieved from ProQuest. (UMI 3237076) Palloff, R., Pratt, K. (2003). The virtual student . San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Roach, R. Archeology Research Paper! (2002).

Staying connected: Getting retention right is high priority for online degree programs. Psychology! Black Issues in Higher Education, 19 (18), 22-25. Russell, T. L. (2001). The no significant difference phenomenon: A comparative research annotated bibliography on brooklyn based essay contest, technology for distance education . Raleigh, NC: IDECC. Shoenfeld-Tacher, R., McConnel, S., Graham, M. Psychology Thesis! (2001). Brooklyn Essay! Do no harm-A comparison of the effects of on-line vs. traditional delivery media on a science course. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 10 (3), 257-265. Simpson, O. (2003). Student retention in online, open, and distance learning . London, UK: Kogan Page. Smith, G. G., Heindel, A. J., Torres-Ayala, A. T. (2008).

E-learning commodity or community: Disciplinary differences between online courses. Internet and Higher Education, 11 , 152-159. Terry, N. (2001). Assessing enrollment and attrition rates for the online MBA. Psychology Uwaterloo Thesis! T.H.E. Journal, 28 (7), 64-68. Texas Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2008). Formula funding recommendations for northern lights, the 2010-2011 biennium . Austin, TX: Office of External Relations.

Texas Secretary of psychology uwaterloo, State. (2005). Texas administrative code. Retrieved from$.startup. Waschull, S. B. (2001). The online delivery of paper, psychology courses: Attrition, performance, and evaluation.

Teaching of Psychology, 28 (2), 143-147.